ALCOHOL FERMENTATION PREPARED BY:PRACHI PATEL SEM:III SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY RAJKOT
INDEX: INTRODUCTION PROCESS ORGANISMS USED SUBSTRET AND MEDIA COMPOSITION AND IDEAL CONDITION PRODUCT RECOVERY USES CONCLUSION
alcoholic fermentation, also referred to as, Ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen ethanol fermentation is classified as anaerobic.
Conversation Mechanism C6H12O6 C2H5OH + CO2 180 92 88 100 Kg 51.1 Kg 48.9 KgTheoretical Yield : 51.1% Gay-Lussac Coefficient(1815)
C6H12O6 ====> 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2) + Energy (which is stored inATP) Sugar ====> Alcohol + Carbon dioxide gas + Energy(Glucose) (Ethyl alcohol)
CONDITIONS FOR FERMENTATIONCarbon sources: pure sugar or crudesugars/molasses (10-18%).Nitrogen sources: Mostly available inthe form of ammonium sulphate.Growth factors: can be provided in theform of molasses.pH: 4.8-5.0.Temperature: 70-80 F. Temp. can becontrolled by cooling jacket.
CONTN…….. Time: Depends on yeast strain. Usual time is between 30 to 72hrs. Yield: 0.4 gallon of ethyl alcohol per one gallon of molasses. 90% carbohydrates can be converted in to alcohol.
FERMENTATION PROCESS CARRY OUT BY: batch fermentation Continuous fermentation continuous fermentation is used because of several advantages.
FERMENTATION Inoculums size: In range of 3% to 10% with an evrage about 4% Media: 10 -18%. Concentrations greater than 20% are not employed as they could be detrimental to yeast.
PRODUCT RECOVERY Distillation is a separation process for a mixture of liquids or oils. It relies on differences in the boiling points of the component liquids to be separated. Alcohol can be obtained by distillation and column is known as rectified column. Can also be recovered by fractional distillation. Distillate contains 95.6% ethyl alcohol and 4.4% water.
BY-PRODUCTS Three byproducts generated1. Carbon dioxide- used for production of dry ice and pure form used for preparation of soft drinks.2. Yeast biomass- used for animal fodder because it contains high protein, vitamins etc.3. Distillery effluents- used as a fertilizer and animal feed.
Ethanol ToleranceGrowth Tolerance Production Tolerance Ethanol level Ethanol level at which at which Growth ceases Ethanol production ceases 6-9% wt/vol 15% wt/vol or higher
USES: Fuels Some alcohols, mainly ethanol and methanol can be used as an alcohol fuel Preservative Solvents Alcohols have applications in industry and science as reagents or solvents ethanol can be used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes and vegetable essences such as vanilla
Alcoholic beverages Antifreeze Antiseptics Ethanol can be used as an antiseptic to disinfect the skin.
CONCLUSION Thus alcohol production is an important fermentation because of following reasons:1. Gives ethyl alcohol used for consumption as well as industrial purposes.2. Gives byproducts like carbon dioxide, yeast biomass, fertilizer etc.3. Gives effective utilization of agro- waste eg. Molasses, sulphite waste liquor etc.