Garment dyeing techniques

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Garment Dyeing Techniques
K.Prabu Asst.Professor,
Kumaraguru College of Technology

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Garment dyeing techniques

  1. 1. Apparel Finish and Care UNIT – I GARMENT DYEING  GARMENT DYEING  FABRIC SELECTION  SEWING THREAD SELECTION  ACCESSORIES SELECTION  DYE SELECTION  GARMENT DYEING MACHINERYDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  2. 2. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING What is garment dyeing?  Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments. (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries)  As opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics.  Most garments are made of cotton knit goods and/or cotton woven fabrics.  Although several other fabrics can be found in the whole or in part such as wool, nylon, silk, acrylic, polyester and others.  Due to cost savings and fashion trends, garment dyeing has been gaining importance and popularity in the past years and will continue to do so in the future.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  3. 3. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING Need of garment dyeing Traditionally, garments are constructed from fabrics that are pre dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing.  The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.  Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.,)  Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer, but only in the shades that are selling  Reduced discounted sales at inventory  Best way to achieved relaxed, casual look  Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed, pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc.,  A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in todays dynamic market.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  4. 4. Apparel Finish and Care Special considerations to garment dyer - Very good communications between all parties involved - Preparation - may be done on piece goods or on garments clean substrate for dyeing reduced shrinkage (preferably squared) for wovens should be less than 5% for knits should be less than 8% - Metal components should be non-ferrous pewter buttons are acceptable - Non-metal components that are not sensitive to dye chemistry or temperatures at a boil are acceptable - polyester zippers, buttons, etc. which are clear or predyed tie dyed splatter dyed - weathered pigment dye and wash down in a single process nickel plated brass zippers are acceptable - Velcro - clear or predyed - special polyamide buttons which are dyeable - Threads must be of same fiber as the fabric in the garment or "grinning" will occur. - Pre dyed threads may be used - Corespun threads with a strength or stretch yam in the core and the desired fiber on the outside - Covered threads may be used - "Tacking" of sleeves and pant legs to prevent tanglingDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  5. 5. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING Categories of Garment Dyeing • The dyeing of the garments requires more care than the dyeing of the fabric, though there is very little difference in the dyeing procedures. This is due to the fact that processing of garments involves value added goods. • The entire garment dyeing activities may be broken down in to four categories: 1. Fully fashioned garment dyeing carried out by major dyers and finishers 3. Cut and sewn garment covering woven and knitted fabrics. 1. Dyeing of 100% cotton goods for boutique trade suitable for hand washing. and • Washing, desizing, bleaching denim goods, leading to stone wash, snow wash, over dyeing and highlighting effects.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  6. 6. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING Advantages of Garment Dyeing Disadvantages of Garment Dyeing  Flexibility towards fast changing  Labour intensive process and market trends requires thorough checking of every piece  Quick response and rapid turnaround  Higher “seconds” rate  Flexibility towards dye shades  Poor appearance and finishes  Flexibility of lot size  Poor reproducibility of shades  Flexibility of items to be dyed  Special care in the selection of fittings  Comparatively less rejection  More material handling  Low inventory  Less capital investments  Fancy effectsDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  7. 7. Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF FABRIC  Lots or batches of greige fabric must be selected that will dye up identical in shade.  Loom state fabric must be converted into RFD (ready for Dyeing) Stage. - Desized, Scoured for dark colours, - Desized, Scoured and bleached for light colours To get the best-looking garments. - Desized, Scoured, bleached and Mercerized  For heavily swelling fibres such as cotton, the elasticized areas, waist bands and cuffs, must be fairly slack, and seams should not be too tight or bulky.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  8. 8. Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF FABRIC  Shrinking behavior of the fabric must be uniform before garment dyeing.  Articles which are prone to Crease marks or Pilling effects should be turned inside out and dyed with the addition of a non-foaming lubricant while adopting the shortest possible dyeing process.  Fabrics should be free from foreign materials (Contamination)  The interlinings used are to be checked for their performance to satisfy the requirement. - Dyes to be taken as same as the outer fabric. - The gum should not be removed off from the surface - The resin in the interlinings should not make adverse effect on the dyeing color.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  9. 9. Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF ACCESSORIES  Buttons, Studs and Zippers:  Free from Nickel  Polyester buttons for pre determined colors.  Nylon preferred  Wooden to be verified before usage.  Brass, antiq brass, silver, gun metal, golden zippers can be used and to be checked before the bulk process.  Studs and Buttons may be used after dyeing of the garment most of the cases to avoid breakages and damages to the fabric.  Care Labels& Embroideries  Care labels to be used are to be good in fastness properties.  It should not absorb the dyes from the bath.  Polyester care labels are mostly used.  A pouch may be used to avoid dye penetration on the care labels.  Embroidery threads are used as polyester threads for pre confirmed colors.  If the effect is required, then RFD cotton yarn is used for the embroidery as like sewing threads.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  10. 10. Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF SEWING THREAD  Cotton thread is preferred in most of the garment dyeing.  They should be of same lot.  Polyester threads can be used only in pre determined colors.  Nylon threads can be used. Proper care should be taken in maintaining consistency.  Sewing threads to be of high strength to withstand the required seam strength.  Mostly heavy threads than normal polyester threads are used.  Should be free from hairiness.  Threads with low tension to be applied while sewing to balance the shrinkage of threads.  Depending upon the requirement, the thread numbers can be used.  Core spun yarn also be used for better performance of seams.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  11. 11. Apparel Finish and Care SELECTION OF SEWING Sewing Recommendations:  Stitch density  Thread Tension  Stitch and Seam type  Needle sizeDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  12. 12. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Garment dyeing machines There are two types of equipment regularly used for garment dyeing. 1. Paddle machines  A high liquor ratio is required for paddle machines, which is less economical and may limit shade reproducibility. 2. Rotary drums  Rotary drum machines are sometimes preferred for garments, which require gentler handling, such as sweaters.  Many machinery companies have developed sophisticated rotary dyeing machines, which incorporate state-of-the-art technology.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  13. 13. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Types of Machines • Paddle machines: A. Horizontal Paddle Machine B. Lateral / oval paddle C. HT Paddle Machines 7. Rotary drums A. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine 3. Toroid Dyeing Machine • Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine • The Gyrobox • The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine 7. Leemetals epicyclic Paddle dyeing machineDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  14. 14. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1. PADDLE DYEING MACHINE Working Principle:  A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat.  This is a slow process, but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  15. 15. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1A. Horizontal Paddle Machines  (over head paddle machine) Paddle consist of a curved beck like lower Wheel suction to contain the materials and the dye liquor.  The goods are moved by a rotating paddle, which extends across the width of the machine.  Half immersed paddles cause the material to move upwards and Drain downwards through out the liquor.  The temperature can be raised to 98o C in such system.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  16. 16. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1B. Lateral / oval paddle Peddle  This machines consist of oval tank to enhance the fluid flow and the processing the goods.  In the middle of this tank is a closed oval island. Island  The paddle moves in a lateral direction and is not half Circulation submerged in the liquor. Dye Bath  The temperature can be increased up to 98o C.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  17. 17. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1 . Trough body 1C. HT Paddle Machines 2 . Slurry disk 3 . Door 4 . Charging  It works according to the bucket principle of horizontal paddle 5 . Thermometer 6 . Indirect heating machine. valve 7 . Direct heating  however, the temperature can valve 8 . Trough body be raised up to 140o C. water supply valve 9 . Trough body  PES articles are preferably drainage valve dyed on HT paddles. 10. Cooling drainage valve 11. Drainage controllerDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  18. 18. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES General Parameters & Features In paddle machines,  The dyeing can be carried out with 30:1 to 40:1 Liquor to Material Ratio.  Lower ratios reduces optimum movement of the goods, lead to unleveled dyeing, crease formation.  For gentleness, the blades of the paddle are either curved or have rounded edges.  The rotating speed of the paddle can be regulated from 1.5 to 40 rpm.  Circulation of the liquor should be strong enough to prevent goods from sinking to the bottom.  Paddle machines are suitable for dyeing articles of all substrates in all forms of make ups.  The goods are normally dyed using PP/PET bags.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  19. 19. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 2A. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine Door  “Movement of textile material and a stationary liquor”.  The rotary drum dyeing machine Steam Pipe consists of rotating perforated cylindrical drum , which rotates slowly inside a vessel of slightly bigger in size.  The internal drum is divided into compartments to ensure rotation of goods with the drum rotation.  The outer vessel holds the required quantity of dye liquor.  High temperature drum machines are capable of processing the garments up to 140o C.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  20. 20. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Features of modern rotary-dyeing Machine 3. Lower liquor ratio 5. Gentle movement of goods and liquor (minimizes surface abrasion) 7. Rapid heating and cooling 9. Centrifugal extraction 11. Variable drum speed with reversal capability (adaptable to a wide variety of goods) 14. Continuous circulation of goods (improves migration control) 16. Ease of sampling 18. Variable water levels with overflow rinsing capabilities 20. Large diameter feed and discharge lines (minimizes filling and draining time) 23. Microprocessor controls 25. Lint filters 27. Pressure dyeing 13. Auto-balancing drumsDept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  21. 21. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES General Parameters & Features of Rotary Machine One feature that can be used to reduce abrasion on delicate garments or to minimize tangling is a compartmental chamber, sometimes referred to as a "Y" pocket.  The rotary drum machines are very simple to operate and are quite compact in size.  The cost of unit is also not high .  Drum dyeing-centrifuging machines are also called - “multipurpose drum machines” or - “multi-rapid dyeing centrifuging machines”  since these machines can perform scouring, dyeing, centrifuging and conditioning successively with automated controls.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  22. 22. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Working Features of Rotary Machine  The goods are treated in a perforated inner drum housed within an outer drum (dyeing tank).  Inner drums without dividing walls are provided with ribs that carry the goods along for a certain time, partially lifting them up out of the liquor.  These machines can operate at very low liquor ratios and can dye the goods up to 98 -140o C.   This is suitable for knits as well as other garments.  Liquor circulation can be intensified using additional jets.  Drums can be rotated in both the directions.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  23. 23. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 2B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine  These machines are being used for small garments either in loose form or in open mesh bags.  Design wise the tumbler dyeing machines are similar to the commercial laundering machines.  The principle of operation is to load the material into perforated inner SS tanks , which rotates round a horizontal shaft fixed at the back of the drum.  The drum is divided into compartments for moving the goods with rotation of drum.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  24. 24. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES General Parameters & Features of Tumbler Dyeing Machine  A variety of tumbling machines have higher rotation speeds and can spin dry at the end of the cycle.  These are similar to dry-cleaning machines. Rotating drum machines are more efficient and cleaner to operate than paddle machines.  The more vigorous mechanical action often promotes more shrinkage and bulking, which may be desirable for some articles.  In order to handle higher quantities and large production of similar pieces the latest machines are provided with several automatic features and sophistications.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  25. 25. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 3. Toroid Dyeing Machine  In these machines the garments circulate in the liquor in a toroidal path with the aid of an impeller situated below the perforated false bottom of the vessel.  Movement of the goods depends completely on the pumped action of the liquor.  High-temperature versions of this machine operating at 120 to 130°C were developed in the 1970s for dyeing fully-fashioned polyester or triacetate garments.  The liquor ratio of such machines is about 30:1.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  26. 26. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1. Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine  This is an improved version of Toroid machines , the additional features are:  The machine is suitable for both atmospheric and pressure dyeing.  Full automation upto hydroextraction.  The design features, speed and performance is simplified to make the machine more versatile and free from operating problems.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  27. 27. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 5.The Gyrobox  The machine has support in the form of a large wheel, which is divided into 12 independent non radial compartments.  The goods are placed in these compartments .  The wheel runs at a moderate speed of 2-6 rpm.  The main advantage of this machine are, 1.Reduced M:L 2.Different types of garments can be dyed simulteneously . 3.Flexible loading 4.Fully automatic operation.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,
  28. 28. Apparel Finish and Care GARMENT DYEING MACHINES 1. The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine  The rotodye machines are suitable for dyeing pure cotton, wool, polyester, cotton blends in the form of T shirts, sweaters, bath rugs and accessories , socks and stockings. 7. Leemetals epicyclic Paddle dyeing machine.Dept. Dept.of Fashion Tech KCT, Coimbatore.KCT, of Fashion Technology,

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