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All types of finishes of Denim garments

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  1. 1. Stone wash
  2. 2. Stone washStone washing of denim fabric gives"Used" or "Vintage" look on thegarments.This is due to the varying degree ofabrasion in the garment.The traditional stone washing of denimgarments normally carried out withpumice stones to achieve a soft hand anddesirable look.The pumice stones having oval and roundshape with a rough surface, work as anabradant in washing cycle.The variations in shape, composition,hardness and porosity gives differentwashing effect in the denim fabric.
  3. 3. Stone wash Process Seq.During washing, these stonesscrap off dye particles from thesurface of the yarn of the denimfabric which shows a faded,worn out and brilliance effectin the denim fabric.Due to ring dyeing of denimfabric and heavy abrasionduring stone washing, thefading is more apparent butless uniform.Stone washing makes the denimgarments more supple so that itfits comfortably.
  4. 4. Pumice StonesPumice is a natural volcanic stone used for stone washinggarments. It is crystallized with substantive pores.Pumice is mostly used for stone washing due to its durability tochemicals treatment, its strength and light weight.
  5. 5. Stone wash ProcessIn order to get the desired washed effect, the stone should be ofproper hardness, shape, and size.For heavy weight denim fabric large and hard stones are suitableand smaller and softer stones are suitable for light weight denim.Stone wt. /fabric wt. = 0.5 to 3 /1The degree of colour fading during stone washing depends onseveral factors, such as, garment to stone ratio, washing time, sizeof stones, material to liquor ratio and load of garments.The washing time may varies from 60 - 120 min. Stones may bereused until they disintegrate completely.
  6. 6. Limitations of Stone washStones may cause wear and tear of the fabric and may damage towashing machine due to abrasion of the stone.It may also create the problem of environmental disposition ofwaste of the grit produced by the stones.Increase the labor cost to remove stone dusts from finishedgarments.The denim garments is required to washed several times forcomplete removal of the stones.The process may cause back staining and re-deposition.The process is non-selective.Metal buttons and rivets in the denim garments as well as thedrum of the washing machine get abraded which substantiallyreduces the quality of the garment and the life of the equipment.
  7. 7. Synthetic StonesIn order to find an alternate to pumice stone synthetic stones havebeen introduced.These synthetic stones are produced from abrasive material suchas silicate, plastic, rubber or Portland cement.The advantages of synthetic stones in stone washing are:The major problem faced by using the pumice stone has beenovercome.Synthetic stones are more durable than pumice stone and can berepeatedly used from 50-300 cycle.The washing effect may be manageably reproducible.They cause less damage to machines and garments.
  8. 8. Perlite – An alternative to PumicePerlite stonewash is a new stonewashing process.Perlite is a naturally occurring silicon rock, contains 2-6% ofwater content in it.Due to this reasons, when heated at a particular temperature,perlite expanded 4 to 20 times of its initial volume.These properties of perlite make it suitable for stonewashingprocess.Perlite offers less damage to washing machine than pumicestones.It gives better supple and softer finish to denim garments.
  9. 9. Acid wash
  10. 10. Acid WashAcid wash on denim jeans is becoming very popular due to itssignificant contrasts and attractive appearance in color.Acid wash can be carried on Indigo & Sulphur base fabricgarments.Acid wash is a chemical wash on denim which stripped the toplayer of color and make a white surface while the color remainedin the lower layers of the material, giving it a faded look.This wash is being carried out by pre soaking stones in bleach andthen followed by neutralization.Acid wash of denim garment normally carried out by tumblingthe garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution whichcontains sodium hypochlorite (5 to 10%) or potassiumpermanganate (3 to 6%).This cause localized bleaching which produce non uniform sharpblue/white contrast.
  11. 11. Acid Wash GarmentsIn this wash addition of water is not required. The colorcontrast can be increased by optical brightening treatment.
  12. 12. Acid Wash – Process Sequence
  13. 13. Acid Wash – Limitations & RemediesLimitations of acid wash:Acid washed, indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow afterwet processing.The major cause is residual manganese due to incompleteneutralization, washing or rinsing.Remedy:Manganese is effectively removed during laundering withaddition of ethelene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid as chelating agent.Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone wash, butcame with added dangers, expenses, and pollution.
  14. 14. Enzyme wash &Bio Polishing
  15. 15. Enzyme washIn order to minimize the adverse effectof stone-washing, the denim garmentsis washed with enzymes.The enzyme breaks the surfacecellulose fibers of the denim fabric andremoves during washing.During enzyme washing certainamount of indigo dye and cellulosefibers from the surface of the fabric areremoved.
  16. 16. EnzymesEnzymes are proteins, found in all living organisms, plants,as well as animals and microorganism.All organisms produce a wide range of enzymes.Enzyme washing is ecologically friendly due to the naturalorigins of enzymes.Enzymes basically catalyse specific chemical reactions andare known as bio-catalysts.Enzymes act on living cells and can be work at atmosphericpressure and in mild temp and pH.
  17. 17. Enzymes Lock & Key
  18. 18. Enzymes Lock & KeyThe basic mechanism of enzyme reaction consists of binding of thesubstrate to the active site on the enzyme which causes changes inthe distribution of electrons in the chemical bonds of the substrate.This ultimately causes the reactions which lead to the formation ofproducts.The products are removed from the enzyme surface whichregenerates the enzyme for another reaction cycle.The active site of enzyme has a unique geometric shape which iscomplementary to the geometric shape of a substrate molecule.Due to this reasons enzymes specifically react with only one or avery few similar compounds.Enzymes are highly specific and the specific action of an enzymewith a single substrate can be explained by the "lock-key theory".
  19. 19. Enzymes ReactionsEnzyme molecule has formed a complex with the substrate tocatalyse a reaction.The binding sites of the enzyme recognize the correspondingdomain of the substrate.After proper orientation of the molecules, the reactive site of theenzyme molecules have access to the appropriate part of thesubstrate molecule.When the reaction is over, the product formed quickly detachfrom the complex.The model of enzyme substrate elementary reactions is explainedby the Michaelis-Menten mechanism.
  20. 20. Enzymes Reactions Michaelis-Menten mechanism.The basis of the Michaelis-Menten mechanism of enzyme action. Only afragment of the large enzyme molecule E is shown
  21. 21. Enzymes ReactionsThe enzymes used in bio-stoning are "cellulases."Cellulase acts mainly on the surface of the fiber, but it leaves theinner intact.Cellulase removed by partially hydrolyzing the surface of the indigodyed fiber of denim fabric.Cellulases are blends of selective enzymes that break down celluloseinto glucose.Cellulase enzyme can be classified according to pH range in whichthey are more effective, such as acid, neutral and alkaline stablecellulases.The first two types are commonly used.
  22. 22. Enzymes ReactionsAcid Cellulase : pH range of 4.5 - 5.5 , temp. 50 C.Neutral cellulose : pH 6 - 7.0, temp. 55 C.Neutral cellulase is preferred to acid cellulase due to little or noback staining, less loss of strength and weight.Acid cellulase are lower in costs and shorter enzyme cycle time ascompared to neutral cellulase.Cellulases are used under biological conditions of temperature 40 -60 C and pH.Cellulase enzymes are used in stone washing process. So, less stonesare required and causes less damage to the machinery and fabrics.Cellulase treatment on fabric reduce fuzz and pills, increasedsmoothness, softness, luster and brightness, improve fabric handleand drapeability and increase the wash down effects.
  23. 23. Advantages of Enzymes• Cellulase is economical and environmentally friendly as compared to stone washing using pumice stones.• The percentage of fabric damages has been reduced with cellulase treatment.• The enzymatic treatment of denim fabric ensures the same result by consuming less water and time, resulting less waste and damage to machines.• The pollution, quality variability, and imperfections also reduced in enzymatic treatment.• The enzymes can be recycled.
  24. 24. Advantages of Enzymes•The productivity of washing is increased due to the spaceformerly taken up by the pumice stones in the washingmachines can now be filled with more jeans.•The time consumption for removing stone fragments from thedenim garments has been eliminated in cellulase treatment.•The duration or number of rinse washing after enzymestreatment is less than pumice stone-washing.•A small quantity of enzyme can replace several kilograms ofpumice stones during washing, which ultimately leads to lessdamage to garment, machine and less pumice dust.•Washed garment with soft handle and better appearance isachieved in cellulase treatment.
  25. 25. Disadvantages of EnzymesCellulase treatment of denim fabric having somedisadvantages.There may be chances of back-staining in cellulasetreatment.In order to remove the back stating, the garments arerigorously washed.This is added usage of water for the washing.
  26. 26. Bio Wash/PolishingThe appearance of natural cellulosic material, such as cotton canbe improved though an enzymatic treatment.This is known as Bio-Polishing. The bio-polishing treatmentremove the fuzz and pilling from the fabric surface and gives thefabric a softer and smoother handle, and superior colourbrightness and glossier appearance.In Bio-polishing process cellulase enzyme which is a proteinwhich has a specific catalytic action upon the 1,4-b-glucosidicbonds of cellulose.The cellulase enzyme molecule is too large to penetrate theinterior of a cotton fiber.Hence it only act on the surface 1,4-b-glucosidic bonds. Cellulaseis a complex multi-enzymatic system and it acts on cellulose intwo different
  27. 27. Mechanism of Bio PolishingEndocellulases hydrolyze thecellulose by converting it fromcrystalline cellulose toamorphous cellulose.The b-1,4 link inside of thecellulose polymer is cutrandomly.Extremities of the polymer is cutby Exocellulases.Cellobiohydrolases exocellulasesdetach two units of glucoseleaving cellobiose.
  28. 28. Bio Polishing Process ConditionsBio-polishing can be carried out on cotton as well as viscose,jute, flax, ramie etc. It can be applied at any wet processingstage or in other processes.Typical process conditions is as below:Enzyme : 0.5% to 2.0% OWFpH : 5 to 5.5Temperature : 50 to 550CTime : 30 to 60 min
  29. 29. Enzyme Wash Bio Wash/PolishingHere we use cellulase enzymes Here we use cellulase enzymeswhich attack and weaken cellulose which attack and weaken cellulose(cotton). (cotton).Enzymes weaken the surface The removal of protruding fibresfibres, which are then (Hairiness) will take place.mechanically torn off duringprocessing taking with them Enzymes weaken and break theindigo. hairs from the fabric surface.The need mechanical action to No colour fading is, often to improve the rate ofabrasion they are used with No abrasion process is required.stones. Bath process and not applied withFading due to removal of colour stones.with the fibres due to mechanicalabrasion takes place. Surface will be smoothened.
  30. 30. Sand Blasting
  31. 31. Sand BlastingThis process refers to a physicalprocess which creates localizedabrasion or colour change on thedenim similar to the effect seen onwell used jeans.Sand blasting technique is based onblasting an abrasive material ingranular, powdered or other formthrough a nozzle at very high speedand pressure onto specific areas ofthe garment surface to be treated togive the desired distressed/abraded/used look.
  32. 32. Sand BlastingIt is purely mechanical process, notusing any chemicals.If required stone wash can be madeand then sand blasting can beproceeded for different effect.It is a water free process thereforeno drying required.Variety of distressed or abradedlooks possible.Any number of designs could becreated by special techniques.
  33. 33. Sand Blasting Methods Microsanding There are 3 ways for this technique:  Sandblasting  Machine sanding  Hand sanding or hand brushing Used in various ways:  Flat surfaces (tables, ironing boards)  On the dummy (inflatable dummies, sometimes standing, sometimes flat, sometimes seated)  Various templates can be used to create a 3D effect.This process is isolated now a days due to health hazards & buyers do not like theresults of sandblast because its covers the characteristics of fabric. This processbeing done by using different kind of sand blown to garments with air pressure torub out the color.
  34. 34. Ozone andLaser Fading
  35. 35. Ozone FadingIn this technique of denimwashing, the garment is bleachedwith ozone dissolved in water ina washing machine. Howeverthis technique can also becarried out in a closed chamberby using ozone gas. Theadvantages of this methods are:- There is minimum loss ofstrength- It is a simple methodand environmentally friendly.The ozonized water afterlaundering can easily bedeozonized by UVradiation.
  36. 36. Ozone FadingOZONE FADING- By using this technique, the garment can be bleached.- Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water.- Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber.- In the presence of UV light, there is an interaction between the hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and oxygen that causes release of ozone.- Indigo dyestuff tends to fade or turn yellow due to ozone reaction.
  37. 37. Ozone FadingOzone induced yellowing is a major problem on denims.This is due to the suns UV radiation.The increased concentration of NOx and SOx gases due topollution can potentially react with ozone and reduce itsconcentration tremendously in the ozone layer.As a result a portion of the suns UV radiation reaches to theearths surface and generates ozone gas from the atmosphericoxygen.Ozone (O3) being a very strong oxidizing agent decomposesindigo dye in the following manner.
  38. 38. Ozone FadingBased on molecular weight calculationOne gram of ozone could destroy 10.9 gram of indigo dye.The ozone induced oxidation of indigo produces certaincompounds which are isatin, anthranillic acid, and thecomplex of the two products. which is yellow in colour.This is the reason of yellowing due to ozone fading.The factors influenced in the yellowing of indigo dyed garments:•Position of the dyestuff in the fibre•Absorption and diffusion of moisture in to the fibre•Humidity•Protective chemicals on the fibre•Ozone concentration;
  39. 39. Factors influenced in the yellowing of indigo dyed garmentsPosition of dyestuff in the fibre:The yellowing due to ozone is directly proportional to the amount ofback staining generated in the wash process. Back staining is the re-deposition of indigo dye released during various wash process. Re-deposited dye has more loose sites for oxidation resulting in theyellowing of denim garments, the use of anti re-deposition chemicalsin the de-size and abrasion baths can prevent the re-deposition ofthe released dye by suspending the dye particles in the bath and notallowing the re-deposition to happen.Absorption and diffusion of moisture in to the fibre:The increase in humidity accelerates ozone fading of indigo dye stuffas high humidity give rise to a surface water film that increases theozone absorption rate. This is due to the increased surfaceconcentration and also the increased rate of diffusion in the fibre.Fibres swell after the absorption of moisture and the swollen fibresare always in a more receptive condition. So the problem of ozonefading will be more prominent in high humidity regions
  40. 40. Factors influenced in the yellowing of indigo dyed garmentsHumidity:High humidity raises the absorption rate since the fibre is morereceptive due to swelling. With 0.2 ppm of ozone level, the time to fail(2.5 rating on AATCC -scale) increases substantially as the relativehumidity increases. At the RH of 80, the time to fail would be 34 hoursand this would fall in to 16 hours at RH 85.Protective chemicals on the fibre:The conventional oxidants such as Sodium Bisulfite, Ethylene DiamineDerivatives etc, will provide only short term protection against ozonefading. This type of anti oxidants undergo very rapid chemicalde-composition and do not provide the protection required when thegarments are stored for extended periods of time in high ozoneconcentration.Selected amine based softeners can provide the protection for ozonefading. Since the softeners are applied substantially in large quantitiesas compared to anti oxidants, they can provide protection for anextended period of time.
  41. 41. Factors influenced in the yellowing of indigo dyed garmentsThe usage rate of anti-ozone softeners are highly depened on theactivity of the product. The rate at which the cationic softenerexhausts on the cellulose is related to the pH of the softener bath.Anti-ozonates are solubilized by lowering the pH of the product.Once in solution an increase in pH reduces the solubility of thesoftener and the exhaust rate increases significantly. As the pH ofthe bath reach certain point (pH - 8 or above), the softenerexhausts so rapidly that it plates out on the surface of the fabric.The excess softener on the surface has a clammy, tacky feel andwill yellow severely when dried. For optimum exhaustion of thisproduct on to the garment, the temperature should be kept inbetween 45 - 5 5°C and pH in between 6 to 6.5.Usage of anti-ozone softener to prevent the ozone fading in indigodenim is not the complete solution. Thorough study for thereason for yellowing must be done before going for any remedialmeasures - for the complete control.
  42. 42. Factors influenced in the yellowing of indigo dyed garmentsThe other reasons of denim garment yellowing:This is the yellow discoloration thattextiles can developduring processing, use or storage. Since this yellowdiscoloration, which appears on the fabric on low intensity,it can be visible only on white and pastel shades. Darkshades are also affected, as colour becomes dull. There aremany reasons for this yellowing.•Yellowing due to softeners;•Use of fluorescent whitening compounds;•Phenolic yellowing;
  43. 43. Factors influenced in the yellowing of indigo dyed garmentsYellowing due to softeners;Cationic and silicone softeners are commonly used to impart a good handle tothe fabric. Both these softeners generally contain primary, secondary andtertiary amines and some times amides also. All these groups containHydrogen atom attached to Nitrogen atom. The former is susceptible tosubstitution and can be replaced by chlorine and form chloramines.Chloramines being yellow in colour impart yellowness to the fabric. Most ofthe commercial detergents contain carriers of chlorine bleaches. So eachdomestic wash the fabric tends to yellow more. Also the amines and amidesare nitrogen-based groups can very well oxidized to nitrogen oxides if thefinished fabric is over heated. Even during the normal drying of the garment/fabric these groups can be oxidized and can produce different oxides ofnitrogen. Nitrogen oxides are brownish in colour and at very lowconcentrations they seem yellow.Use of fluorescent whitening compounds;Fluorescent whitening agents are used to improve the whiteness of fabrics,these fluorescent whitening agents absorbs the UV light and emit it in a visibleregion. This emitted light is blue white in colour and mask the yellow colourof the material.
  44. 44. Laser FadingLaser marking/Spray painting is a computer controlledtechnique through which different patterns or designs, suchpictures, images, lines, text etc., can be developed on denimgarments.It is also called spray painting in denims. In this techniquechemicals or pigments is sprayed on the fabric in order toget different pattern on the garments. This is followed bycuring of the garment.
  45. 45. Laser Fading
  46. 46. Laser Fading - AdvantagesThe advantages of the systems is:•It is a water free process. Hence it is an It is an ecological andeconomical process. There is zero effluent discharge•As this process in computer controlled, the chances of humanerror is negligible.•This system having excellent reproducibility and higherproductivity.•The machine requires less maintenance and cleaning.•Consuming less time.•This technique having no adverse effect on fabric strength.
  47. 47. Over-Dyed / Tinted DenimOver-dyeing / tinting of denim is an additional dyeing treatmentwhich is normally carried out on jeans after sewn.This add another tone of color to the jeans.Normally denim garments is over-dyed with yellowish dye forappearing dirty look.Tinted / over-dyed denim garments shows a used / vintage & muddylook to the garments.Tinting of denim garment normally carried out after the stone washprocess.During tinting, a little amount of tint or color is added to thegarment in order to change the hue/cast/tone of indigo shade.However, when the quantity of tint color increases, it cover upindigo.
  48. 48. Over-Dyed / Tinted DenimThere are various types of dyes used for over-dyeing / tintingpurpose, such as:-Direct Dyes-Reactive Dyes-Pigment Dyes-Sulphur DyesTinting process normally taken 5 to 15 minutes.This is followed by dye fixing & clean up of superficial dye.Tinting of denim garment normally carried out after stone washprocess.However this process consumes more water and chemical.
  49. 49. Over-Dyed / Tinted DenimAn alternative methods has been developed, in which novelcolour based enzymes have been used.This process allows tinting and stone washing to be carriedout in a single bath.The advantages of the new technique are:Consumes less water, energy and takes less process time toachieve tinted look.No extra chemical used in this process.Chances of patches or unevenness in the garment is almostnil.
  50. 50. Stretch Denim
  51. 51. Stretch DenimStretch denim is made by combining elastan fiber with cotton.Spandex and Lycra are two of the most commonly used elastics.This is what gives the denim its stretch.Spandex was first created in 1959 by Joseph Shivers, a chemist.The elastic was immediately incorporated in the fashion industry,and in the 1970s it was combined with denim. Today, every jeansmanufacturer has its own version of stretch denim.Stretch denim jeans have the ability to conform to your bodysshape each time you put them on. With most denim, it takes timeto "wear in" a pair of jeans so they fit perfectly. The elastan fibermakes the jeans stretch, so they can fit right every time.
  52. 52. Stretch DenimTypical Application of Spandex Lycra:The Stretch Property can be achieved by insertion of Elastromeric yarn orfilament in the stage of weaving.It is normally applied in the weft direction.Difficult to insert through warp way direction.Though the stretch property required in the width way, it is effective in the weftway insertion.Normally, monofilament of 20 Den, 40 Den, 70 Den and 100 Deniers are useddepends upon the type of denim as well as the stretch required.A heat setting process is required before any wet processing carried out for thestretch denim fabrics to control the stability of Lycra.It will not be affected by any of the chemicals applied on the denim garments.But, the stone wash and sand blasting techniques may abrade the lycra filamenttends to breakage of lycra. Gentle application is required in this finishes.
  53. 53. Stretch DenimWarp way Stretch:For stretch denim, core spun yarns are generally employed.The core yarns are elastomeric filaments, the cover yarns are cottonyarns made generally by open end spinning.During core spinning, the elastomeric filaments are stretched by 300-400 per cent.On contraction of the filaments after the process, stretchability willdevelop on the core spun yarns so formed.In some cases, for cost reduction, wrap cover yarns in which case twoor more wrapping yarns are wrapped round the core elastomericfilaments are used.
  54. 54. Peach Finish
  55. 55. Peach Skin EffectSubjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) toemery wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a specialfinish mostly used in garmentsPeach finish will create dense and short hairs on surface offabrics.This will make fabrics feel soft, delicate and smooth, suitable toall types of garments.With the character of soft, rich and warm hand feeling, the peachproduct is one of the most popular finishes on fabric in recentyears.This finish will turn garments into natural and archaized afterwashing.Mingshi was equipped with several kinds of peach finishingmachines, such as carbonized peach, sand peach and brush etc.
  56. 56. Peach Skin Effect - FeaturesFeatures:1) Micro fiber is also called peach skin, famous for its soft hand feel.2) It can be processed by printing and PA and PU coating.3) It is widely used for jackets, pants and sportswear.4) After the printing of beautiful patterns, it is always used for beach-shorts.
  57. 57. Vintage Denim
  58. 58. Vintage DenimVintage DenimIt is a type of denimwashing in which thedenim garments issubjected to heavystonewashing or acellulose enzyme wash,with or without bleachfor showing an old andworn out look.
  59. 59. Marble Washby Bleaching
  60. 60. Marble Wash by bleachingDenim bleaching normally carriedout with a strong oxidative bleachingagent such as sodium hypochlorite orKMnO4.Bleaching may be carried out with orwithout the addition of stone.The bleaching washing effect and de-coloration usually depends onstrength of the bleach liquor, liquorquantity, temperature and treatmenttime.The bleached fabric materials shouldbe properly antichlored or afterwashed with peroxide to reduced thesubsequent yellowing or tendering ofthe bleached denim fabric.
  61. 61. Marble Wash by bleachingNaOCl Bleach• The bath material to liquor ratio is set at 10:1 and temp. at 140°F.• Add 0.5% owg of Soda Ash• Add 20 - 30 g/l. of Sodium Hypochlorite 12%• Bleaching to be carried out for 10 - 20 minutes with comparing to the wet standard,• Drop and rinseAntichloringAntichloring treatment is required as traces of NaOCl left on the fabric whichwill form hypochlorous acid. This may consequently yellow and weakens thefabric.Antichloring with hydrogen peroxide brightens undyed cotton, increase the fabriccontrast, has no significant odor.Typical steps include the following:• Set the bath temp. at 140°F.• pH of the bath to be adjusted at 9 with soda ash,• Add 1 g/l hydrogen peroxide 50%, and run for 10 min.• Drop and rinse
  62. 62. Marble Wash
  63. 63. Marble WashLimitations of bleaching:There are some limitations of bleaching, such as:•The same level of bleaching is very difficult to achieve inrepeated runs.•Bleaching treatment sometimes damage to cellulose resulting instrength losses and or pinholes at the seam, pocket, etc.•Bleaching liquor is harmful to human health. This may alsocauses corrosion to the machine parts.•Bleaching treatment needs antichlor treatment in order toeliminate the subsequent yellowness to the fabric.
  64. 64. Quick Wash DenimIn normal indigo dyed denim is associated with various problemsduring washing.The denim fabric manufacturer are in search to developed a newdyeing method in which the wash cycle can be minimizes.In this regard, Quick wash denim has been introduced in whichthe fabric is dyed with modified technique of dyeing, so thatduring wash cycle, indigo dye can be removed easily during ashorter washing cycle.Quick wash treatment procedure consume less water andchemicals and required less time for washing, retaining fabricstrength.By controlling the ionic form of indigo and cellulose in the dye-bath, the uniformity of indigo dyeing can be achieved.The alkalis used and pH conditions of indigo dye-bath producestable color yield.
  65. 65. Quick Wash DenimAdvantages of quick wash denim1.Quick wash denim requires less indigo dye. The washingtreatment also requires less enzymes and oxidizing agent.Hence it is an economical and environment friendly process.2. The development of streaks in garments after washing hasbeen avoided by using a modified alkali-ph controlled systemgiving uniformity of shade.3. The washing time is 20-30% less than conventional denim.
  66. 66. Dextroes-Caustic Wash
  67. 67. Dextroes – Caustic WashIn case of Caustic wash, pre-treatment and printing of the garmentsfabric is little bit different then the normal process.Dextrose based reducing agent designed to reduce indigo dye on thegarment .Normally printing on fabric is done after pre-treatment of grey fabricthat is desizing, scouring and bleaching.But in case of caustic wash or Dextroes-Caustic wash, printing is doneon the fabric without pre-treatment of the fabric.These fabrics are used manufacture garments.Then the garments are subjected to caustic wash.During caustic wash 20% – 30% pigment is washed out, as a resultdifferent color fading affect is produced in the garments.
  68. 68. Dextroes – Caustic Wash Recipe Making of Caustic Wash : Dextroes = 0.8 – 1% Caustic = 4%. Soda Ash = 2% Detergent = 1% H2O2 = 4% Stabilizer = 2% M:L =1:5 Temperature = 700C Time = 90 minDuring this processing time, impurities and size materials present inthe garment is removed together with some portion of pigment.Hydrogen peroxide breaks down and produces per hydroxyl ions whichtakes part in bleaching and reduces the color intensity of the pigment.Neutralising by 1% Acetic acid and softener treatment will be given at0.1 to 0.5%.
  69. 69. Crush Finish
  70. 70. Crush Finish or 3D EffectResin ( Formaldehyde free ) being used for achieving 3D effect ( 3Dimensional ), Rigid Look etc.This process can be done by spraying or dipping the garments in to Resin,Catalyst, Silicone & PU solution in right combination according to thefabric strength & desired effect needed.After application of resin solution in right proportion, make manualdesigning as needed on the thigh, hip & back knee area to get3Dimentional effect.After making it , it should be manually dried with hot press or hair dryer& then must be cured in oven at right temperature, time as mentioned inresin product manual.
  71. 71. Crush Finish or 3D EffectIf resin not cured properly , 3 D effect will not be permanent & can causeskin irritation/rashes to the wearer. Highly skilled operators needs toexecute this process in order to get consistency & uniformity.Whole garment can have crushed look by resin dip & crushed manuallyfollowed by oven curing. Silicone plays an important role in gettingsofter hand after oven.Special streaky effect & Crackles also being done by applying resin ondesired area followed by scraping & pp spray then neutralization.
  72. 72. Pseudo DenimThe production of pseudo denim is basedon transfer of a chemical finish to theraised ridges of a natural denim fabric.The chemical finish imparts a cationiccharacter to the raised ridges.The cationic character imparted to theraised ridges permits selective dyeabilityto these areas of the fabric.The transfer technique used for theproduction of pseudo denim is the looppad process.The fabric used for the transfertechnique is a right hand 3/1-twill denim.
  73. 73. Pseudo DenimThis natural undyed denim is then desized, scoured, bleachedand mercerised.If the fabric has a grafted quaternary or amine group, dyeing isperformed under acidic conditions with a reactive or acid dye.The specific formulation consists of DMDHEU, magnesiumchloride hexahydrate, choline chloride and wetting agent.The solution is then applied to the face of the denim fabric witha wet pick up 8-17 per cent.Once the fabric is dried, cured and washed, the raised fabricridges have selective dye affinity.The dyes usually used are blue and red reactive dyes.
  74. 74. Stretch denim