Apparel care & Care Labels


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Apparel Care Labeling and Apparel Care

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Apparel care & Care Labels

  2. 2. Identification of the stainBased on Colour clue.Blue, black or red may be ink-stains.Reds or pinks may be lipstick, rouge or nail polish.Based on AppearanceWax and paint stains build up on the surface of the fabric.Oil and fats cause transluscent stains.Medicine stains, food stains, and perfumes may leave specific odour.Based on Touch.Stickiness may be due to gum or glue, stiffness may be egg or someother albuminous stain, paint may give a smooth feel.In sophisticated laundries stains can be identified by X-ray diffractionand other methods.
  3. 3. Types and Characteristics Nature of The Stain StainsAcid Perspiration, urine (fresh), vinegar, medicines containing nitric acid, picric acid, etc.Base Perspiration, urine (old stains).Fats and Oils Butter, cream, margarine, edible oils, machine oil, hair oil, lard, wax.Grease - Mineral oil Paraffin, vaseline, turpeniine, car grease.Metallic Rust, silver nitrate, brass, copper salts, black ink,chrominum salts, etc.Metalloid Iodine tinctures [Natural dyes and pigments in solution Herbs, vegetables, flowers, fruitdispersion or emulsion in aqueous medium juices, wines, tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, henna, be etle-leaf, tobacco.Synthetic dyes and pigments in solutiondispersion or emulsion in aqueous medium. Inks, markers, hair dyes, type-writer ribbons, water colours, mercurochrome, gentian violet.Sugar solutions and colouring matter. Jams, jellies, syrups, soft drinks, puddings, etc.Solutions, dispersions or emulsion in fatsor oils Mayonnaise, sauces, ketchup, lipstick, rouge, masc ara, printing ink, polishes, tar, smoke, rayons.Solutions, dispersions or emulsions of dyesor pigments in organic solvents. Oil paints, lacquer, varnish, nail-polish.Proteinic Blood, egg, meat juice, fish slime, milk.Miscellaneous
  4. 4. Principles of Stain Removal Nature of the Stain Principle of Removal Neutralization with alkali gives a soluble salt which can beAcid leached out. Neutralization with acid gives a soluble salt which can beBase leached o Oxidation or Reduction (bleaching) gives a soluble,Metal and Metal salt colourless salt, removed in washing Reduction with sodium thiosulphate gives a colourless,Metalloid (Iodine) soluble salt, removed on washing. Any one process • Saponification.Fats and oils • Absorption by an absorbant powder • Dissolution in a solvent. Any one process • Absorption by an absorbant powder.Mineral oil • Dissolution in a solvent. • Emulsification.
  5. 5. Principles of Stain Removal Nature of the Stain Principles of RemovalNatural dyes and pigments insolution, dispersion or emulsion in Oxidation (Bleaching)aqueous medium. One of the following processesSynthetic dyes and pigments in * Reduction followed by oxidation.solution, dispersion or emulsion in 1. Oxidation followed by reduction.aqueous medium. 2. Acidification followed by reduction. 3. Oxidation in acidic medium, Solutilization of the sugar and reduction of the colour.Sugar and Colouring matter Protein Digestion with enzyme protease.Solutions, dispersion or emulsion of Emulsification and dissolution in a solvent.dyes or pigments in organic solvents.Miscellaneous Each of these requires a special treatment.
  6. 6. Classifications of Stain RemoversHydrocarbons Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachlorideChlorinated hydrocarbons Trichloroethylene Perchloroethylene Solvents Petroleum etherPetroleum based Solvent naphtha Kerosene, turpentineAlcohols/Ethers/Ketones Ethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol Amyl acetate, acetone, glycerine. Hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate,Oxidizing agents Bleaches sodium hypochlorite, KMnO4 oxalic acid. Sodium hydrosulphite, sodium thiosulphate,Reducing agents sodium bisulphite.Oils / Fats Coconut oil, olein,Fatty acids oleic acid, Anionic - Soaps, alkylaryl sulphonates, Fatly acid alcohol suiphonates.Emulsifiers Nonionic - Teepol, detergents based on: fatty alcohol and alkylphenol condensates, fatty acid condensates, fatly amine oxides. Organic - 1% oxalic, 30% formic, % acetic white vinegar, tomato,Acids lime, sour milk, curds Inorganic - Dilute hydrochloric acid Ammonium hydroxide % , Liquid ammonia 10%Alkalis Sodium bicarbonate 1% Talcum powder, cornstarch. French chalk ( 3MgO ■ 4SiO2 • H2O )Absorbants Fullers earth ( Al2O3 ■ SiO2 ■ x H2O )
  7. 7. Common Stains and RemovalBall-point Rub lightly with cotton swab soaked in denatured spirit. Bleach with 1% potassium permanganate (the fabric turns brown). Then soak inBeetle leaf (Paan) 1% oxalic acid or 1% sodium bisulphite (till brown colour disappears). Launder. Soak in cold water for about an hour. Then transfer to lukewarm waterBlood containing an enzyme detergent. Soak for 30 minutes, Launder. Or Soak in cold water, to which common salt is added, for about an hour. Launder. Scrape off surface wax with a blunt knife. Place the stain between two tissueCandle wax papers or blotting paper and press with warm iron. Repeat using clean tissue or blotting papers. If a coloured stain remains treat with bleach. Launder. Remove surface gum with a blunt knife. Apply ice to the stain. Allow to soak inChewing gum ice cold water for a few minutes. Launder.Chocolate, cocoa Same treatment as for blood.Coffee, tea Apply borax solution and allow to dry. Launder.Curry (Turmeric and Apply soap and bleach in sunlight. When dry, if the stain has not disappeared, wetoil) it and put it back in sunlight again.Egg Soak in enzyme detergent or in warm salt solution. Launder. White fabrics may be bleached with sodium hypochloritc. Coloured fabrics mayFruit, fruit juice be soaked in warm borax solution. Launder. Steep in methylated spirit. Launder. Dab with swab soaked in a solvent. LaunderGrass Grease with hot water.Glue, gum Steep in hot water containing a few drops of glycerine. Launder in hot water.Henna (Mhendi) Soak in milk for half an hour. Launder. Rinse through with cold water and launder or apply petrol or carbonIce-cream, milk tetrachloride. Launder.
  8. 8. Common Stains and Removal Hold under running water to remove as much of the ink as possible. Then treat using one of the following methods; Apply lime juice and salt and leave for 30Ink minutes and launder. Soak in sour milk or curds for 30 minutes. Launder. Steep in dilute oxalic acid for 10 minutes then rinse thoroughly in dilute borax solution. Launder.Iodine Fresh wet stain : apply starch paste and leave it to absorb the stain. Launder. Dry stain or steep in 1% sodium thiosulphate solution. Launder. Soften theLipstick stain by working glycerine into it. Launder. Apply methylated spirit. Launder.Make-up (mascara, Sponge with denatured alcohol or petrol or ammonia. Launder in hot water.rouge) Steep for one hour in detergent solution containing ammonia. Rinse in water. Soak for another hour in water containing vinegar. Rinse and dry. ApplyMercurochrome denatured spirit, rinse in water. Launder. Sponge with water and alcohol (equal parts), then work glycerine into the stain as long as the colour bleeds. Launder. Soak the stain in dilute potassuim permanganate (1% solution), for 15 minutes.Mildew Rinse in cold water, once. Dip in warm 1% solution of sodium bisulphite till the brown colour of the potassium permanganate disappears. Launder. Scrape off the excess mustard. Work stain in a little perchloro-ethylene. Allow to dry. Soak in water and vineger. Flush with water. If stain persists, bleach forMustard 10 minutes in hydrogen peroxide to which a drop of ammonia is added. Launder. Allow the garment to dry and dust off as much of the mud as possible, thenMud soak the stain in an alkaline bath (20 g/1 of sodium carbonate) for a couple of hours. Launder.
  9. 9. Common Stains and Removal Place the stain against a clean absorbent towel and dab with cotton swab soaked in acetone or a mixture of acetone and amyl acetate or a commercialNail polish nail-polish remover. After a few dabs shift the stain to a clean area of the towel. Repeat till stain disappears. Launder. This process cannot be followed for acetate fabrics. Same process as for nail-polish but the remover used is turpentine, kerosenePaint or denatured spirit. Soak in 1% oxalic acid for 10 minutes. Rinse (through with water and soakPerspiration for 10 minutes in hydrogen peroxide. Do not let the stain age. Wash immediately, preferably in hot water. A weakPerfume solution of acetic acid helps. A patented rust-remover may be used or the stain may be soaked in cold 1%Rust oxalic acid for about 15 minutes and then laundered. First use methylated spirit to soften the stain.Sealing wax Then remove with perchloroethylene. Launder.Scorch Bleach with hydrogen peroxide or with sodium perborate. Launder. Work oil or grease into the stain to emulsify it and launder with hot water. TreatShoe polish with denatured alcohol and launder in hot water.Soot Apply starch paste and launder. First scrape off with a blunt knife. Using a clean cloth rub oil or grease.Tar Launder in hot water. Treat as perspiration or apply ethyl alcohol and allow to evaporate, Tnen applyUrine chloroform and allow to evaporate. Launder.
  10. 10. Systems of Care LabellingSymbols Representing Instruction Wash tub Washing Bleach Bleaching Drier Drying Hand iron Pressing or ironing Drycleaning Drycleaning
  11. 11. Washing Instructions Colour InstructionCanadian Green Machine washable using hot water Amber Machine washable using warm water Amber Machine washable using lukewarm water Amber Hand washable using lukewarm water Red Do not washDutch Green Hot washing permitted {95"C = 203°F) Green Moderately hot water 60°C = 140°F) Amber Lukewarm washing, like wool (40°C - 104°F)
  12. 12. Washing InstructionsBritish Colour Instruction Machine wash, very hot (85°C) to boil. Hand wash hand Black hot (48°C). Maximum agitation. Normal rinse. Spin or wring. Machine wash, hot (60°C), maximum wash. Hand wash, Black hand hot (48°C) maximum agitation. Normal rinse. Spin or wring. Machine wash, hot (60°C}, medium wash. Hand wash, Black hand hot (48°C), medium agitation. Cold rinse, short spin or drip dry. Machine wash, hot (48°C), medium wash. Hand wash, Black hand hot (48°C), medium agitation. Cold rinse. Short spin or drip dry. Machine wash, warm (40°C), medium wash. Hand wash, Black warm (40°C), medium agitation. Normal rinse. Spin or wring. Machine wash, hot (40°C), minimum wash. Hand wash, Black warm (40°C), medium agitation. Cold rinse. Short spin. Do not wring. Machine wash, warm (40°C), medium wash. Hand wash, Black warm (40°C). Do not rub. Cold rinse. Spin, do not hand wring. Black Hand wash only, hand hot water. Warm rinse. Drip dry.
  13. 13. Bleaching Instructions Use chlorine bleach as directed on the Amber container label. Do not use chlorine bleach. Peroxide bleach Red may be used, Bleaching with hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) Green if necessary is permitted. Red Do Not Bleach
  14. 14. Drying InstructionsSymbols Canadian British Instructions It may be dried in a tumble drier at medium to high setting. The British Green Black system only indicates that the item may be.tumble dried. The setting is not specified. It may be dried in a tumble drier at low Amber Black setting. Red Black Do not Thumble dry Green Black It should be hung to dry or line dry. Amber Black It should be dried on flat surface. Green Black It should be hung soaking wet to drip-dry.
  15. 15. Ironing Instructions Symbol Colour InstructionCanadian A setting upto cotton and Green linen may be used A setting of medium Amber should be used A setting of low should be Amber used Red Do not press or iron.
  16. 16. Ironing InstructionsDutch Colour Instructions Green Hot ironing permitted Amber No hot ironing Red No ironing.British Black Hot 210°C Black Warm 160°C Black Cool 120°C Black Do not iron.
  17. 17. Dry Cleaning Instructions Symbol Colour InstructionCanadian Green May be drycleaned It may be drycleaned, but tumble Amber drying should be at low temperature. Red Do not dryclean.Dutch Amber Use of any solvent is permitted. Use of only perchloroelhylene or Green petroleum solvent permitted. Only use of petroleum solvent Amber permitted. Amber Do not dryclean
  18. 18. American Systems of Care Labeling Washing Instructions Launder only by hand in luke warm water cold or hot (upto aroundHand Wash 60DC) water may be used Wash in washing machine or manually. Water upto around 60°CMachine Wash can be used. May be laundered commercially.Warm Wash Initial water temperature 30° - 40°C.Cold Wash Tap water temperature i.e. 29° - 30QC. Do not employ a laundry that uses special formulations, sourDo not have rinses, large loads, high temperature. In other words do not usecommercially comercial, industrial or institutional methods. Employ homelaundered laundering, machine or hand.Small Load Fewer clothes than the normal load.Delicate cycle or gentle Slow agitation and reduced time.cycleWash separately Wash alone or with same colours.Cold rinse Tap water temperature.Warm rinse Around 40°CRinse thoroughly Rinse several times to remove all soap/detergent and bleach.Do not wring Handle to avoid wrinkles and distortion.Damp wipe only Clean with damp cloth or sponge
  19. 19. American Systems of Care Labeling Bleaching InstructionsNo Chlorine Oxygen bleach may be used.No Bleach Use of any type of bleach should be used avoided.Bleach When needed All bleaches may be used. Drying Instructions Use machine drier. When no temperature is specified hot settingThumble Dry may be used. Temperature may be specified as low, medium high or no heat.No Heat Set drier to operate without heat.Remove Promptly When items are dry, remove immediately to prevent wrinkling.Drip dry Hang dripping wet, with or without hand smoothing.Line Dry Hang damp on line in or out of doors.Line dry in shade Dry away from sunLine dry away from heat Dry away from heat.Dry flat Lay out horizontally for drying.Block to Dry Reshape to original dimensions while drying.
  20. 20. American Systems of Care Labeling Ironing InstructionsCool Iron Set iron at lowest setting.Warm Iron Set iron at medium settingHot Iron Set iron at hot settingDo not Iron No ironing is needed.Iron wrong side The article has to be turned right side in.onlySteam Iron Use steam iron or wet press cloth. Articles to be ironed must be damp or dampened beforeIron Damp ironing.Use Press cloth Use dry or damp cloth between the iron and fabric.
  21. 21. American Systems of Care Labeling Dry Cleaning Instructions Can be machine washed in hot water, can be machine dried at a high setting, can be ironed at a hot setting, can be bleached with allWash or Dry clean commercially available bleaches and can be drycleaned with all commercially available solvents Process in a machine that uses any common organic solvent. Moist addition to solvent may be upto 75% RH. Hot tumble drying upto 70°CDryclean and steam press or steam-air finishing. If solvent is specified only that solvent should be used.Short cycle Reduced or minimum cleaning time, depending on solvent used.Minimum extraction Least possible extraction time.Reduced moisture or Decreased relative humidity.Low moistureDo not tumble Do not tumble dry.Tumble warm Upto 49°C.Tumble Cool Tumble dry at room temperature.Steam only Apply no contact press when steaming.No Steam Do not use steam in pressing, finishing, etc.No Dry Cleaning Use recommended methods. No drycleaning materials should be used.
  22. 22. Simple Letter Code Care LabelingWhat is not said on a care label is also important.If the label does not say that you cannot do something, you can assume that you cando it.For instance, if a care label gives washing instructions but does not warn against drycleaning, you should be able to dry clean the garment.Some retailers have their own care-labeling programme. One consists of a simpleletter code that identifies five basic cleaning methods. MH Machine wash hot. Tumble dry. MW Machine wash warm. Tumble dry. MG Machine wash gentle. Tumble dry, low heat. HW Hand wash warm. Line dry. DC Dry clean only.
  23. 23. Internationally accepted Dry Cleaning Symbols Symbols Instruction Articles which are normally for dry cleaning in all solvents normally used for drycleaning. Articles which are used for normal dry cleaning in tetrachloroethylene, trichlorofluoromethane (solvent 11) hydrocarbons (white spirit) trichlorotrifluoroethane (solvent 113) using the normal dry cleaning process without restriction. Articles dry cleanable in the solvents given in the preceding paragraph, but which are sensitive to some dry cleaning processes and for which there is a strict limitation on the addition of water during cleaning, and/or certain restrictions concerning mechanical action and/or drying temperature. Articles which are normal for dry cleaning in hydrocarbons (white spirit) and trichlorotrifluoromethane (solvent 113) using the normal dry cleaning procedures, without restrictions. Articles dry cleanable in the solvents given in the preceding paragraph, but which are sensitive to some dry cleaning procedures and for which there is a strict limitation on the addition to water during cleaning and/or certain restrictions concerning mechanical action and/or drying temperature. Do not dryclean
  24. 24. Japanese Care Labeling Washing IroningMachine wash in water May be ironed directly at 180°C -tempcralure of 95DC or less. 280°C.No other restriction.Machine wash in water May be ironed directly at 170°C -temperature of 60°C or less. 160°C.No other restriction.Machine wash in water May be ironed directly at 80°C -temperature of 40°C or less. 120°CNo other restrictions.Machine wash at delicatecycle or hand wash in water Do not iron.temperature of 40°C or less.Machine wash at delicate May be ironed at 180°C -280°C, if acycle or hand wash in water cloth is placed between iron andtemperature of 30°C or less. garment.Hand wash in w ater Use a medium hot iron with atemperature of 30°C or less. cloth.Do not wash (not washable)
  25. 25. Japanese Care Labeling Bleaching Wringing Wring softly by hand or spin dryUse Chlorine Bleach by machine quickly.Do not Use Chlorine Bleach Do not Wring by hand Drying Dry Cleaning Dryclean. Use any dryHang Dry cleaning agent. Dryclean. Use only petroleumHang dry in Shade based agent.Lay Flat to Dry Do not dry clean.Lay Flat to dry in Shade
  26. 26. Care labels indicating onlywashing, spinning or wringing and drip drying
  27. 27. Care labels developed by theNational Retail Merchants Association