Group Activity• There has been a flood in the Kathmandu valley in Nepal.• Aid workers have arrived to distribute relief to the cyclone-affected families in the valley.• A single family relief kit consists of a bucket, a mug, tarpaulin sheet, some bamboo poles & pegs.• International observers are also on the scene to report the activities to the UN, the media, and the Government of Nepal.
Few questions on the same…• Did you consult the affected population, before starting the aid distribution?• Did you assess their capacities?• Did you prioritize their needs?• How did you ensure that the aid is being given to the most needy… or most vulnerable?• Did the Aid Workers possess appropriate technical qualifications, attitude & experience to carry out an assessment?
Did you use any Core Standards?• Participation To someone with a hammer in his• Initial hands, every Assessment problem looks like a nail.• Response• Targeting• Aid Worker Competencies & Responsibilities
What is Assessment?Discuss (in groups):What do you Click to edit theunderstand by post outline text formatdisaster needsassessment? Second Outline LevelTime: 3 minutes −Third Outline Level • A continuous process of understanding the Fourth risks faced by the disaster affected Outline communities and the resources they have to Level tackle the same.
Why to assess? It helps in understanding the status of affected people and define their immediate needs Allows information gathering for analysis Assists in determining whether there is an emergency Provides a basis for emergency response, programme planning and implementation
An Emergency Situation… • “is any situation where there is an exceptional and widespread threat to life, health or basic subsistence which is beyond the coping capacity of individuals and the community.” Oxfam definition of a Humanitarian Emergency
An Emergency Situation…• Follows from a disaster, and Click to edit the – Puts large number of lives at risk format outline text – Demands immediate action Second Outline – Level Calls for exceptional measures − Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level
What to assess?• Is it an emergency or not?• What type of emergency is it?• Which groups are affected?• Who needs help?• Which groups are worst affected?• What is their situation now?• What resources do they have?• What resources do they need?• How soon?
Trade-off between Speed andAccuracy Accuracy No. of lives saved Time
Assessments should… • Provide a demographic profile of to edit the Click the people outline text format affected. Second Outline • Determine their Level immediate priorities. − Third Outline Level • Identify the Fourth vulnerabilities and Outline Level coping capacities − Fifth Outline Level
Assessments should… • Answer the question: what is theClick toproblem? main edit the outline text format • ProvideSecond Outline sufficient information to enable Level decisions Third Outline − • Level Be an interagency, multi- Fourth sectoral initiative Outline Level • Be carried out− quickly Fifth Outline Level
Assessments should… Click to edit the outline text format • Provide a comprehensive Second Outline picture of the Level − scopeOutline Third of emergency Level rather than a Fourth blinkered sector Outline Level specific detail… − Fifth Outline Level
Assessments should…Use agreed upon Click to edit theand appropriate Standards outline text format Second Outline LevelUse samples rather than generating too much data thatcould not be analyzed − Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level
Assessments would be useless, ifthey…• do not generate recommendations for immediate action• do not indicate the resources needed for immediate action• are not able to ‘trigger’ effective response• are not shared
Bias Organisational mandate or speciality Biased Report Agency Real Resources Needs
Monitoring: continuous assessmentContinued monitoring helps in learning,identifying new problems & applying midcourse
General criteria for good assessmentpractice• Timeliness – providing information and analysis in time to inform key decisions about response• Relevance – providing the information and analysis most relevant to those decisions• Coverage – adequate to the scale of the problem• Continuity – providing relevant information throughout the course of a crisis• Validity – using methods that can be expected to lead to sound conclusions• Transparency – being explicit about the assumptions
• Now let us see what Sphere has to say about needs assessments.