Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Human resources section4-textbook_on_public_health_and_community_medicine


Published on

AFMC WHO Textbook Community Medicine

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Human resources section4-textbook_on_public_health_and_community_medicine

  1. 1. 10095752550
  2. 2. Section 4 : Social, Behavioral and Communication Sciences113 Principles of Sociology in Health Care S S L Parashar 608114 Family Health History & Individual Medico - Social History - Taking RajVir Bhalwar, SSL Parashar 613115 Health Education SSL Parashar 619 Planning, Implementation and Evaluation116 RajVir Bhalwar 624 of Health Education Programmes
  3. 3. living and socializes man. A culture denotes total way of life. Principles of Sociology in Health 113 Care It is recognized that cultural factors are deeply involved in all the affairs of man including health and sickness. The cultural factors such as customs, beliefs, values and religious taboos S S L Parashar create an environment that helps in the spread or control of certain diseases and affect health of the community. The cultural factors are deeply involved in matters of personalSocial, cultural, psychological and behavioural factors are hygiene, nutritional and breast feeding habits, weaning andimportant variables in the etiology, prevalence and distribution rearing practices, family planning, immunization and seekingof disease. The way the people live, their habits, beliefs, values early medical care.and customs are significant determinants of individual andcollective health. The behavioural sciences (sociology, social Family : “The Family is a group defined by a sex relationshippsychology, cultural anthropology) have made significant role precise and enduring to provide for the procreation andin developing better understanding about the social etiology of upbringing of children” (MacIver). The family is a primaryhealth problems. It is recognized that causation and spread of a unit of all societies. As a cultural unit, the family reflects thedisease does not depend entirely upon biological organism. The culture of wider society of which it forms a part and determinescultural and social factors which govern human behaviour also the behaviour and attitudes of its members. The family is anhave dominant role to play in the disease process. Any behaviour epidemiological unit, and a unit for providing social services asis determined by a combination of cultural, psychological, well as comprehensive medical and economical variables. Hence the study of health Family life cycle stages : A family passes through the followingembraces the totality of life and ways of living. stages in its evolution :Sociology : Sociology is the science concerned with the ●● Married couple - beginning of familyorganization of structure of social groups. It studies the kinds ●● Child bearing familyand cause of variation in social structure, and the processes by ●● Family with pre- school childrenwhich intactness of social structure is maintained. Sociology ●● Family with school age childrendeals with the study of society. Society is a group of individuals ●● Family with teenage childrenwho have organized themselves and follow a given way of life. ●● Middle ageThe behaviour of man depends very much upon his relationship ●● Aging family members/ retirementwith other fellow beings. Man is a subunit of a small group; Role of Family in Health and Diseasethe family, while the family is the basic unit of society. Man’s Family is the reproductive nucleus of society, a fundamentalbehaviour is affected not only by his physical and biological and social institution whose primary and essential task is toenvironment but also, to a larger extent by social environments socialize the new born so that they may be placed in life asrepresented by his family. mature and independent. From the time the child is born, theCommunity : In the simplest terms, a community can be defined course of his physical and mental development is determinedas a group of people who have some common characteristics by his initial experiences with the family. Every society fromand are bound together by “WE” feeling. This sense of ‘we’ nomads to city- dwellers has its institution of marriage andfeeling (i.e., shared togetherness) may be due to a place where stable family life. Through the family, human beings maintainthey all stay or due to some other common interest. physical continuity by reproduction, maintain social andAccordingly, communities can be either “structural” or else, cultural continuity through training and education.“functional” communities. Functional communities are non- The health of the child is bound up with the family’s internalgeographical aggregates which are bound together by some and external environment even before it is born, and thecommon factor other than geographical place of residence or foetus in the womb can be harmed by the health, nutritionwork; e.g., religion (as, Hindu community), occupation (as and behaviour of the mother. Undernutrition of mother canmedical community), special interest (as cricket lovers) or need give rise to infants born prematurely and of low birth weight(as socially backward communities). Structural communities with attendant high risks of mortality or damage to theare organised by geographical or political boundaries. It could nervous system. Her unborn child can be damaged by familialbe as small as an “indoor patient’s community in a hospital” infections like rubella and syphilis. Subsequent experiences inor increasingly larger, according to a “Mohalla”, village, slum, infancy, in the quality of feeding and method of training forcity, district, state or even a nation. Community affiliations instance may further influence development, physique, statureoften provide a source of support for individuals and group. The and personality.sense of group identity eases the growth of motivation. For this The members of family share a pool of genes and a commonreason the community is ideal for focal point of programme. environment as well as common modes of thoughts andCulture : Culture is defined as learned behaviour which has behaviour and family material and social environment whichbeen socially acquired. Culture includes all that man acquired includes housing, sanitation and diet. A damp overcrowdedin the mental and intellectual sphere of his individual and house encourages streptococcal infections (Rheumatic fever andsocial life. It is a product of human societies. nephritis). Tuberculosis flourishes in poor and over crowdedCulture is necessary for human being; it makes life worth homes. It is not only infective agents that pass between the members of a family; parents may transmit distorted cultural • 608 •
  4. 4. perceptions & behavioural norms to their children; thus creating the parents. The capacity of an individual to withstanddeviant behaviour and failures of adaptation among them. stress and strain and the way in which he interacts withFamilial beliefs and attitudes go a long way in shaping the other people is to a large extent determined by his earlyreasons for health and disease. The various causes for sickness, experience on the family. The families acts as a placentaas understood, may be classified in two categories : Supernatural excluding various influences, modifying others and passcauses and Physical causes. Supernatural causes include through it and contributes some of its own in layingdiseases caused by (a) breach of taboos e.g. leprosy, sexually foundation of physical, mental and social health of thetransmitted diseases; (b) wrath of god and goddesses e.g. small child.pox & chicken pox; (c) spirit intrusion, ghost intrusion and evil ●● Care during sickness : The family is expected to provideeye. The physical causes include excessive heat or cold, wrong care during sickness and injury of adults and dependentscombination of foods and impurity of blood etc. Prevention of from the public health point of view. Care of women duringdisease and bringing improvements in the health conditions in pregnancy and childbirth is an important function of theany society is dependent upon our ability to understand and family. The joint family provides support, security andimprove the social or environmental factors. encouragement to the aged and handicapped. ●● Family as strength in crisis : The family is understoodAs families enter each new developmental stage, transition as shock absorber. The family is an important source ofoccurs. Events such as marriage, childbirth, releasing members support. During times of illness and crisis the family isas adolescents and young adults, and continuing as a couple there for the individual. The family provides an opportunity,or single person and aging years move families through new both for adults and children, for release of tension so thatstages. Each new developmental stage requires adaptation and the individual can attain mental equilibrium and strivenew responsibilities. Each new stage presents opportunities for to maintain a stable relationship with other people. Thehealth promotion and intervention. There are certain functions family has an important function in stabilization of thewhich are relevant to health behaviour, and are important from personality of both adults and children, and in meetingthe medical sociology point of view. their emotional needs.●● Upbringing of children : One of the important functions ●● Problems in families : The factors in most problem families of the family with which medical and health workers are are usually those of personality and of relationship, concerned, is the physical care of the dependent young backwardness, poverty, illness, mental and emotional in order that they may be survive to adulthood and instability character defects and marital disharmony. These perpetuate the family. It is important to note that child care families are recognized as problems in social pathology. (e.g. feeding, nutrition, hygiene, sleep, clothing, discipline, There is a need to render useful service in rehabilitating habit training) are passed on from one generation to such families in a community. another. The ideas people have about nutrition exercise; The family therefore plays an important part both in health sleep and clothing have a large social component which and disease - in prevention and treatment of individual illness, varies from society to society. in the care of children and dependent adults, and in the●● Socialization in the family : By socializing is meant stabilization of the personality of both adults and children. teaching the values of society and transmitting information, culture, beliefs, general codes of conduct, by example and Crowd : In common usage any large number of people gathered precept, in order to make them fit for membership in the in one place is called a crowd. A crowd is potential medium wider society of the family is a part. The family plays the for arousing emotion and for encouraging its expression. Large most dominant role in the individual’s socialization. The gathering people provide congenial conditions for emotional child finds much to learn in the behaviour of his family contagion. Simulation and suggestions are heightened. The members, parents, relatives and friends. He imitates them presence of others gives a sense of security and approval and in their mannerisms, behaviour etc. He tries to avoid such crowds convey a feeling of anonymity. By their very nature activities which are considered bad in the family. It is the casual crowds and mobs are not part of organised system of family environment which forms his good habits. It is in social relations. the family that the child acquires such important qualities Mob : The term refers to one crowd that is fairly unified and as sincerity, sympathy, self submission and realizing single minded in its aggressive intent. Mob action is not responsibilities. The child’s first school is his home and usually destructive but tends to be focused on some one target family. It is the family which imparts practical education or identity. Mob activity is the most goal oriented and the most to children concerning the customs in society, preservation dependent upon leadership for its direction of health, love, sympathy, cooperation etc. Learning about Sick role : ‘Being Sick ‘ is not simply a state of fact or condition, health promotion and disease prevention begins at birth, it is a specifically patterned social role. To be ill is more than a with the family providing the environment for incorporating medical condition. The patient has a customary part to play in health in the value system of its members. relation to his doctor and to his family members of his society &●● Influence of family on personality : The environment of in turn they expect him to behave in certain prescribed ways. home has a comprehensive influence on the development of personality. In the family the relation of the child with Rights the parents is the most intimate. The cultural development ●● The Sick person temporarily is exempt from normal of the child is very much influenced by the behaviour of social roles. The more severe the sickness, the greater the exemption. • 609 •
  5. 5. ●● The sick person generally is not held responsible for his Practices : Practices are application to particular and personal condition. Illness considered beyond individuals control situation. Practices are guided by principles under the light of therefore not simply curable by willpower. intellect. The individuals modify their behaviour and maintain●● The sick person has a right to be taken care of. the change for the rest of their life. e.g. the individual stopsDuties / obligations smoking after changing attitude.The sick person has an obligation to try to get well. In this Community’s social support systems : In medical practice thecontext exemption from normal responsibilities is temporary ability of a family to provide social support and material aidand conditional upon wanting and trying to get better. to dependent members is obvious importance. When patients who are disabled by sickness are reintroduced to normal socialThe sick person has an obligation to seek technically competent life, for example their family relationships and attitudes help tohelp from a suitably qualified professional and to cooperate in determine the outcome. Support comprises a network of family,trying to recover. friends, co-workers and professionals.Social Pathology : Social pathology is the systematic study Social assistance implies provision of relief to individuals atof human disease in relation to social conditions and disease critical times without having received any contribution fromprocess outside the human body. The cause is to be found in them. Social assistance is a non-contributory benefit extendedthe society. These include Social Problems ( namely, poverty to vulnerable groups including women, children and the aged.and destitution, illiteracy and ignorance, migration, lower The community’s participation in health programmes andstatus of women,, child neglect and child abuse, child labour, programmes which are developed locally is to be found throughdrug abuse, juvenile delinquency); social conditions (as situational analysis. The programmes such as aid to familieshousing, environmental sanitation, crime and corruption, with dependent children, medical aid, family counselingstress, suicide) and social circumstances (Viz., stigma, social services, crisis support (food, shelter, clothing, fuel), referralsisolation, vulnerable populations). The causes of social to appropriate medical services, drug de-addiction services,problems, conditions which affect the health of the people are treatment services for alcoholics, delinquency prevention,to be understood and actions are to be taken to prevent such services for the retarded and emotionally disturbed, incomeproblems through health education and rehabilitation. generation, vocational training services are provided by theSocial Diagnosis : This is made by socio- medical surveys and community through appropriate groups, organizations andby study of domestic and social conditions of individuals. agencies. The philosophy behind tertiary prevention of chronicSocial Therapy : Social therapy offers holistic development diseases is that it is often possible to live with and die withcentered therapeutic and support services. The approach disease rather than dying from the disease. It is possible toaddresses and supports the total social, emotional and prolong time period of optimal physical functioning and socialeducational needs of young and the entire family. Clinical activity by providing social support and self managementtreatment of any disease with drug should be supplemented services.with social therapy as far as possible. The Social security Social Environment : The social environment includes all thosemeasures link between hospital and community, health things which arise out of social relationships such as customs,education, legislation serve as supportive measures. traditions, institutions social conduct, rituals, diet, way ofKnowledge : Education is a process of learning undergone by life and economic status. Health is profoundly influenced byindividuals for gaining knowledge, developing attitudes and the social environment which acts in many ways to shape theacquiring skills. Knowledge is the basis of health education contours of disease, in populations as well as individuals. Forwhere a person gets of information by many modes which promotion and protection of health and prevention and controlbecome his knowledge. Some apply the term knowledge to what of disease, social environment should be free from harmfulare held to be certainties. Knowledge is intellectual and passive. agents. Important measures for providing healthy socialAwareness can be created through imparting knowledge on environment are :a particular topic. e.g. receiving information about harmful ●● Social security against fear and want (ESI scheme, old ageeffects of smoking. pension, life insurance, provident fund and health andAttitudes : Attitudes are mental habits acquired from social medical facilities).experiences that predispose us to react to specific objects, ●● Fair distribution of food and other amenities of life suchpersons or situations in a definite way. They are the crystallized as housinghabits of thoughts that we develop relative to social situations ●● Facilities for exercise and leisureand that set us to respond in a certain manner. An attitude ●● Facilities for education for allis an enduring system that includes a cognitive component, ●● Propagation of healthy customs, freedom of expressionan emotional (feeling) component and an action tendency. and thoughtThey are manifested in conscious experience, verbal reports, ●● Protection of property, life and honourgross behaviour and physiological symptoms. The people are ●● Safe work place which involves establishing a stimulatingmotivated to change attitudes to adopt new health behaviour. work environment and making sure that the work placee.g. the individuals are motivated to stop smoking through creates social contacts which do not interrupt the familyvarious methods of health education and individuals are ready change behaviour. • 610 •
  6. 6. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Voluntary be correlated with social class.Organizations : NGOs form a bridge between the government Kuppuswamy’s scale : The socio-economic status scaleand community and provide platform for people participation (urban) developed by Kuppuswamy attempts to measure theNGOs are many and diverse. Their scale may be large, medium, socio-economic class of family in urban community. It isand small. Their support may come from external sources, from based on three variables - education, occupation, and income.their own fund raising or from Government. Their principle A weightage is assigned to each variable according to sevenactivity may be direct service to those in need in the community, point predefined scale. The total of three weightages gives thehealth education or research. Voluntary organizations could be socio-economic status score which is graded to indicate the fivedefined as those organizations which are non- governmental classes, as per details in Table - 1. To get current income group,and non profit making in character and not fully funded whether a conversion factor based on current All India Consumer Pricedirectly or indirectly only by government. Most voluntary Index (AICPI) is used, which is given later.organizations have four primary purposes (i) raise money to For income, the conversion factor can be obtained by dividingfund research and programmes (ii) provide education to both AICPI by 60.04. The income group in the Kuppuswamy’s scaleprofessional and the public (iii) provide services to individuals are multiplied with the conversion factor to get the appropriateand families affected by the disease and health problem (iv) income group (Indian Journal of Pediatrics, volume 70, Marchto advocate for beneficial policies, laws and regulations. (e.g. 2003). Now, since AICPI in June 2008 was approximately 650,VHAI, Indian Red Cross Society, Hind Kusht Nivaran sangh, hence 650 divided by 60.04 = 10.83. Thus all the income groupsTuberculosis Association of India etc. ) in the Kuppuswamy scale in the above table are multipliedSocial Security : Social security means public programmes with the conversion factor to get the appropriate income group.designed to protect individuals and their families from income Thus, the conversion factor 10.83 is multiplied by Rs. 2000losses due to unemployment, old age, sickness or death and which comes to Rs 21,660/- and rest income groups would beto improve their welfare through public services (e.g. medical as given in Table - and economic assistance. The term may include socialinsurance programmes, health and welfare services and various Table - 2 : Recalculated family income groups of theincome maintenance programmes. Kuppuswamy’s scale as on June 2008Social class and Socio-Economic Status : Socio-economicstandard of people is conventionally expressed in terms of Income Modified by using conversion Scorevarious social classes in which people are distributed which Original factor (multiplied by 10.83)are referred to as social stratification. Social stratification is > 2000 >21660 12a horizontal division of society in to several socio-economiclayers : each layer or social class has a comparable standard of 1000-1999 10830-21659 10living, status and life style. Social class is determined on the 750-999 8122-10829 6basis of three parameters of development, namely education,occupation and income. Education determines the knowledge, 500-749 5415-8121 4attitude, and value system of individuals and their socio-economic growth potential. Occupation determines the income 300-499 3249-5414 3generating capacity of individuals and their status. Income 101-299 1093-3248 2determines the purchasing power of individuals and their socio-economic status. On the basis of these parameters populations <100 <1093 1are divided in to social classes - upper, upper middle, middle,upper lower and lower. These social class gradients have helped The Total score in Kuppuswamy’s classification is calculated asto provide a deeper understanding of clinical phenomena. The the sum total of the three scores, i.e., Education (A)+ Occupationpoor had a higher incidence of some diseases, the rich of others. (B)+ Income (C) Depending on the total score so computed, theHealth practices too, like the use of health services, welfare and five socio-economic classes are as given in Table-3.maternity clinics, and methods of infant feeding were found to Table 1 : Kuppuswamy’s Socio - Economic Status Scale (Urban) Education of head of family Score Occupation Score Family Income per month Score Professional Degree 7 Professional 10 Rs.2000and above 12 Graduate 6 Semi-profession 6 Rs1000-1999 10 Intermediate/Diploma 5 Clerical/shop/farm 5 Rs 750-999 6 High school 4 Skilled worker 4 Rs 500-749 4 Middle school 3 Semiskilled 3 Rs 300-499 3 Primary school 2 Unskilled 2 Rs 101-299 2 Illiterate 1 Unemployed 1 Rs <100 1 • 611 •
  7. 7. services as well as comprehensive medical care. The Family has Table - 3 : Socio-Economic Class an important role to play in Health and Disease. The health of Total Score Class Description the child is bound up with the family’s internal and external 26 - 29 I Upper class environment even before it is born. The members of family share a pool of genes and a common environment as well as 16 - 25 II Upper middle common modes of thoughts and behaviour and family material 11 - 15 III Lower middle and social environment which includes housing, sanitation 5 - 10 IV Upper lower and diet. For health promotion and intervention, every family has certain important functions like Upbringing of children; Below 5 V Lower Socialization in the family; laying foundation of physical, mental and social health of the child; Care during sicknessPrasad’s Scale : Dr. B G Prasad’s social classification was especially pregnant women, children, aged and handicapped;developed in 1961 and is based on per capita per month income. providing support in crisis and problems.There are five classes, as follows Upper class (per capita permonth income Rs 100 and above); Upper middle ( 50-99); Lower Any large number of people gathered in one place is called amiddle ( 30-49); Upper lower ( 15- 29); and Lower (below 15). crowd. A crowd is potential medium for arousing emotion andThe income group can be recalculated by multiplying the above for encouraging its expression. The term mob refers to one crowdmentioned income as mentioned in Prasad’s classification with that is fairly unified and single minded in its aggressive intent.P Kumar’s conversion factor i.e. Mob action is not usually destructive but tends to be focused on some one target or identity. Social Pathology is the systematicConversion factor = (Value of CPI X 4.93) ÷ 100 study of human disease in relation to social conditions andFor example, the AICPI for June 2008 was 650. Thus the disease process outside the human body. Social Diagnosis isconversion factor will be made by socio-medical surveys and by study of domestic and(4.93 X 650) ÷ 100 = 32.04, or roughly, 32. Thus the ranges social conditions of individuals. Social Therapy offers holisticof per capita per month income of this classification for 2008 development-centered therapeutic and support services. Thewill be >Rs 3200; 1600 - 3199; 960 - 1599; 480 - 959; and, approach addresses and supports the total social, emotional< 480. and educational needs of young and the entire family.Pareek’s Scale : The Socio-Economic Scale (rural) developed Education is a process of learning undergone by individuals forby Pareek attempts to measure socio-economic status of a gaining knowledge, developing attitudes and acquiring skills.rural family. It is based on the nine items as follows : Caste; Attitudes are mental habits acquired from social experiencesOccupation of head of family; Education; Levels of social that predispose us to react to specific objects, persons orparticipation; Land holding; Farm power (prestige animals); situations in a definite way. Practices are application toHousing; Material possessions; and, Family type. The combined particular and personal situation. Community’s Social Supportscore for the nine items is graded to indicate socio-economic Systems comprise a network of family, friends, co-workersclass categories. and professionals. Social Assistance implies provision of relief to individuals at critical times without having received anySummary contribution from them. Social Environment includes all thoseSociology deals with the study of society. Society is a group of things which arise out of social relationships such as customs,individuals who have organized themselves and follow a given traditions, institutions, social conduct, rituals, diet, way of lifeway of life. Man is a subunit of a small group; the family, while and economic status. Health is profoundly influenced by thethe family is the basic unit of society. Man’s behaviour is affected social environment. Important measures for providing healthynot only by his physical and biological environment but also, to social environment are : Social Security against fear anda larger extent by social environments represented by his family. want, Good Housing with all important facilities, Protection ofA community can be defined as a group of people who have property, life and honour and Safe work place. Social Securitysome common characteristics and are bound together by “WE” : Social security means public programmes designed to protectfeeling. This sense of ‘we’ feeling (i.e., shared togetherness) individuals and their families from income losses due tomay be due to a place where they all stay or due to some other unemployment, old age, sickness or death. Social stratificationcommon interest. Accordingly, communities can be either is a horizontal division of society in to several socio-economic“structural” or else, “functional” communities. Community layers : Each layer or social class has a comparable standardaffiliations often provide a source of support for individuals of living, status and life style. Social class is determined on theand groups. Culture is defined as learned behaviour which has basis of various scales like Kuppuswamy’s scale for Urban andbeen socially acquired. The cultural factors such as customs, Prasad’s scale and Pareek’s scale for Rural.beliefs, values and religious taboos create an environmentthat helps in the spread or control of certain diseases and Study Exercisesaffect health of the community. The Family is a group defined Long Questions : (1) Describe the role of Family in Health andby a sex relationship precise and enduring to provide for the Disease. (2) Describe the role of Cultural factors in Health andprocreation and upbringing of children. The family is a cultural Disease. (3) What is Social environment? How does it affectunit, an epidemiological unit, and a unit for providing social the health and disease? Enumerate important measures for providing healthy social environment. • 612 •
  8. 8. Short Notes : (1) Social pathology (2) Social Security measures lower class is (a) 11-15 (b) 16-25 (c) 26-29 (d) 5-10(3) Kuppuswamy’s scale. 4. The Socio-Economic Scale developed for rural setup isMCQs : (a) Kuppuswamy (b) Pareek (c) Prasad (d) None of the1. Kuppuswamy’s scale is based on the following variables above except (a) Education (b) Occupation (c) Income 5. The following are Social security measures against fear (d) Housing and want except (a) ESI scheme (b) Old age pension2. According to Kuppuswamy’s scale, total score for upper (c) Housing (d) Life insurance middle class is (a) 11-15 (b) 16-25 (c) 26-29 (d) 29-31 Answers : (1) d; (2) b; (3) d; (4) b; (5) c.3. According to Kuppuswamy’s scale, total score for upper that the family has on the health and disease of individual Family Health History & members of the family. 114 Individual Medico - Social In fact, it would be highly desirable that every Public Health History - Taking Programme Manager and Medical Officers in-charge of a Primary Health Centre (PHC) / Community Health Centre (CHC) should RajVir Bhalwar & SSL Parashar develop “Family Health Folders” for each and every family in his / her area of health care, on the same lines as Departments of Community Medicine in Medical Colleges; maintain andIt is abundantly clear by now that every disease has a regularly update such folders in their respective Rural Healthtremendous social component. The various components of Training Centres (RHTCs) and Urban Health Centres (UHCs). Thesociology, as described in previous chapter, decide whether contents of these family folders should be regularly updated bya given human being will be exposed to the disease process regular visits to the households by medical / paramedical staff,or not; if exposed, whether disease process will perpetuate preferably once in six months and definitely once in a year. Itor not; and finally, what will be the outcome of the disease would be a further good work if the contents of these foldersprocess. It is therefore extremely important that every Doctor be entered into a computer database, so as to help in quickshould work up the psycho-social and behavioural components retrieval and analysis of data, which would greatly assist inof a patient and not simply the clinical findings / laboratory planning and evaluation of public health programmes.investigative results, to effectively treat the patient and toprevent recurrence of the disease. For example, going simply by In the present chapter, we shall be dealing with the detailsthe clinical picture, we may treat a child with dehydration, with of firstly, the ‘family health folder” and secondly, regardingi.v. fluids and supportive therapy, and discharge her after a few medico-social history taking and how to draw conclusionsdays as “cured”. However, if we did not work up the details from such history.of environmental sanitation and water supply at the child’s The Family Health Folder & Family Healthhouse, the knowledge attitudes and health related practices ofthe mother, the family size, and so on, for certain the child Recordswill keep coming to us. Thus, for having a totalistic or holistic As said above, it should be an endeavour of all health careoverview of our patient and to really treat the disease effectively, providers to ensure that they have a detailed family health“from the root causes”, we must take a proper medico-social folder for each and every family in their area of healthhistory, work out the various sociological parameters and treat, care jurisdiction, and these folders should be updated verynot only the clinical disease, but also the social causes. regularly.Medico-social history taking is, therefore, also an essential General description : The family health folder should berequirement at the undergraduate and postgraduate level generally 12 inches X 10 inches and preferably having a hardof medical curriculum, with a view to prepare the general cover to ensure durability. It should have a system so thatand specialist Doctors to function effectively as Community various cards / papers can be filed in the folder. Having aphysicians. “multiple leaflet” folder may be even better as it will assist inIn addition to recording a detailed medico-social history from filing various records separately, for various members of thean individual patient, it is also very important for the public family, within the same manager to consider the “family” as a unit of action The cover of the folder should be printed with the name offor her various health care activities. In the previous chapter, the PHC / CHC or any other health care providing unit whowe have already emphasized regarding the tremendous impact is responsible for health care of that family, and the address • 613 •
  9. 9. and telephone number of the health care unit. In addition, the (as one of the sons who may be working in a town and comingfollowing details should be printed on the cover : to stay only during festivals) should be indicated accordingly.●● The “Family Registration Number”. This is a unique number In column (8), if the person is known to be having any disease, which is allocated to a particular family and acts as a the details should be entered; this should also include entries unique identifier for the family, especially when computer regarding current pregnancy. The remarks column should based records have been made. The number is unique in include any relevant which is considered to be important for that no two families should have the same number. The the health care provider to know, at the first glance. number may be allocated based on some registration Sheet for Socio-Demographic Details given by the local self governmental body as panchayat, The next sheet in the family health folder should be for the or may be developed by the health care providing unit. socio-demographic details of the family, recording the following What is more important is that whatever system has been details : developed should be enforced, ultimately taking care that every family under health care has a registration number ●● Total number of members in the family which is unique for that family. Secondly, every family head ●● Distribution according to age and sex should be communicated about the number (preferably, Age groups Males Females Total given a laminated card having the number printed on it) and they should be advised to bring the laminated card Upto 1 year whenever they come to the health centre. 1 to 5 years●● The name, father’s / husband’s name and date of birth of 6 to 14 years the head of the family.●● The detailed address of the household, including the post 15 - 45 years office and police station. 45 - 64 years●● Telephone number or any other contact number.●● The permanent address in case the family is of a “migratory” > = 65 yars nature or is not a permanent native of that place. ●● Total family income per month (all sources included) Rs.●● The date on which the folder was opened. ●● Per capita per month family income & Social Class●● The date on which the folder was last updated as a part of ●● Distribution according to Educational level the regular survey for updating the family folders.●● The date on which the folder was updated, since some Educational level Males Females Total individual member of the family came in contact with the health care system (e.g., one of the ladies may be seen in Graduate & above an ante-natal clinic). Matriculate butThe inside surfaces of the folder may be provided with pockets not graduatemade of thick plastic or strong cloth, for keeping important Educated moreslips. than 5th standardConfidentiality of Information : It should be ensured by the but not literatehealth care providers that all information recorded in the folder Educated uptoshould be kept strictly confidential, and used for sole purpose 5th standardof health / medical care, as per the laid down / acceptable codesof medical ethics. IlliterateSummary-Sheet : The inside of the front cover should have a Vital Statistics Record Sheet : Information regarding births,printed table, in which the information should be filled up in deaths, marriages, divorces, in-migration and emigrationpencil (to enable making changes); alternatively, the first sheet should be recorded in this sheet, starting from the day the familyin the folder should have the information as given in Table-1. folder is commissioned for the particular family, recording theIn column (7) of Table - 1, a person who comes to stay temporarily date and details of each such event. Table - 1 Current Health Immunisation Contraceptive Or Temporary Date Of Birth Occupation Permanent With Head Resident Remarks Relation Sl. No. Status status Name Age Sex use (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) • 614 •
  10. 10. Sheet for Record of Housing and Environmental Sanitation: as a part of the University curriculum. Similarly, consideringThis sheet should record the following information the over-riding importance of the role of family in health and●● General description of the area, approach, access roads disease, a family is allotted as a project and often during the●● Evidence of water logging and potential mosquito / housefly examination, to be studied and presented as a “unit”, rather breeding points than presenting an individual case with a disease.●● Type of house, condition of roof, floor and walls The details of family-case taking have been already dealt with●● Total floor area in detail, earlier in this chapter, while discussing the family●● Total living rooms health folders. The details of medico-social case work up are●● Total floor area per person and total space (in cubic feet) being discussed herewith in the succeeding paragraphs. per person Approach to the patient : Introduce yourself with a friendly●● Any evidence of overcrowding greeting, giving your name and status. Explain the purpose●● Area of Doors and Windows of your visit, ask for and remember the patient’s name and●● Ventilation request permission to interview and examine the patient. Some●● Availability of electricity patients rapidly tire of being questioned or examined, and●● Details of water supply (source, safety and potability, others may be depressed because they are ill or apprehensive. If quantity, storage) there are difficulties in establishing a rapport, try to determine●● Condition of kitchen, eating place and food sanitation the reason; if in doubt, consult the medico-social worker or practices nursing staff. Show tolerance, particularly with the elderly●● Details of disposal of night soil and the challenged. Seek first to understand and not judge the●● Details of disposal of solid wastes patient so that you don’t react to patients with criticism, anger●● Details of disposal of waste water and storm water or dismissal. Some additional tips for effective medico-socialIndividual Health Record Sheets : One health record sheet case taking are :should be prepared for each individual. It should contain the ●● Maintain good eye contact.details of the general health check up as well as the records of ●● Listen attentively.results of investigations and hospitalization, if any. The same ●● Facilitate verbally and non-verbally.sheet should continue to have entries of treatment given, as ●● Touch patients appropriately.and when the individual reports sick to the health care facility. ●● Discuss patients’ personal concerns.The special health cards (as ante-natal card, under-fives health ●● Give the patient your undivided attentioncard and child health record card) as applicable should also ●● Keep your notes-taking to a minimum when the patient isbe filed alongwith the general health record card for that talkingindividual. ●● Use language which the patient can understandSpecial Health Record Sheets : These would include the ante- ●● Let patients tell their own story in their own waynatal and post-natal health care card, the under-fives health ●● Use open questions initially and specific (closed) questionscard and the school-age child health record card. These should laterbe prepared for each individual member of the family, as ●● Clarify the meaning of any lay terms which patients useapplicable, as per details given in the relevant chapters in the ●● Remember that the history includes events up to the daysection on maternal and child health care. These special health of interviewrecord cards should be filed, in the family folder, alongwith the ●● Summarize (reflect back) the story for the patient to checkgeneral health record sheet for that individual. ●● Utilize all available sources of informationSheets for Record of Special Studies / Surveys : There should The fundamental principles underlying medico-social casebe a separate sheet for recording the findings of special studies work-up : The basic principle which must be kept in mind whilein respect of the family. For example, if a nutritional survey or undertaking a medico-social work-up is that while the patienta geriatric age group survey and so on have been conducted in is the core issue, his disease is actually a result of complexthat area, the findings of these studies / surveys in respect of psycho social interactions between the patient, his / her familythe concerned family should be recorde on this sheet. members, the environment at the workplace (including school), the immediate community members comprising of friendsMedico-Social History Taking & Family Case and close associates, the community at large within whichStudies the patient lives, and the larger society which consists of theAs said earlier, every medical, nursing and paramedical person governmental and non-governmental systems. A systematicshould view a given disease in totality, in context of the various assessment of all these factors is therefore necessary to besocio-cultural, psycho-emotive and economic factors which able to reach the root of the problem and to effectively plan ainitiate and perpetuate the disease process, and not simply holistic therapy, taking care of not only the biological cause ofconfine themselves to only the medical aspects of the disease. the disease but also the wider social reasons that lead to theIt is for this reason that undergraduate medical and nursing causation and perpetuation of the disease. The factors to bestudents as well as post-graduate students in the specialty of considered at various levels are :Preventive & Social Medicine (Community Medicine; Public 1. Factors Within the Individual : The following variableshealth) are required to be trained and examined in the various should be recorded in detail :aspects of medico-social case taking and family case studies, ●● Age • 615 •
  11. 11. ●● Education water.●● Occupation ●● Food hygiene : Methods of cooking, storage of raw and●● Level of protection against common infectious diseases, by cooked food, food hygienic practices. way of immunization or previous infection ●● Nutrition : Assessment of intake of overall calories and●● Lifestyle : details of habitual physical exercise, diet, major macro / micronutrients; deficiency diseases; relative tobacco, alcohol and substance abuse, sexual promiscuity distribution of food among various members; percentage●● Knowledge, Attitudes & Practices (KAP) as regards common of monthly income spent on food. diseases and their prevention ●● Exposure to and protection from insect vectors of●● Psycho-Emotive state : whether cheerful and optimistic or diseases. anxious / depressed or concerned. (c) Psycho-Emotive Factors in the Family : These include●● Separation from family members / near & dear ones. ●● Level of Interactions / Bondages●● Attitudes towards - Between family members - Personal protection, as use of helmets, use of mosquito- - Of family members with the Index Case nets, etc. ●● Family Support System : In terms of financial support, - Personal hygiene, as regular bathing, hand washing, physical support (as readiness to physically assist the oral care, etc. patient in activities of daily living) and emotional support; - Health Care System, whether positive and trusts the and, readiness of family members to provide “support”. health care system or unhappy / skeptical. ●● Understanding, by the family members, of the disease and - Attitudes as regards the disease from which the patient it’s determinant psycho-social problems that the patient is suffering, and his / her concerns as regards it’s is facing perceived future course / management / rehabilitation 3. Factors in the Workplace : (Note that for children, school is2. Factors in the family : These will include three broad to considered as workplace)categories of factors, viz., Social Factors, Physical Factors And ●● General description of the workplace or schoolPsycho-Emotive Factors. ●● Attitude & Support (Emotional, Physical, Financial) on(a) Social Factors in the Family part of●● Type : Whether joint, three generation or nuclear - Employers / Superiors / Teachers●● Organisation & Composition : Total number of members, - Colleagues / Classmates head of the family, description of family members by name, - Subordinates / ancillary staff in school age, sex, and position relative to the head. ●● Availability of facilities, in school / workplace, to cater to●● Religion and caste special needs of the patient●● Education : general level of education; attitudes towards 4. Factors in the Immediate Community : (Immediate formal education; proportion of members who are community consists of the Village / Mohalla in which the professionally qualified / having degree / educated / patient is living). illiterate ●● General description (income levels and standards of living●● Occupational patterns in the family in general, major occupations, general types of housing,●● Income : Total family income; income of the index case; Per educational levels, social aberrations as alcoholism, capita per month income delinquency, etc.)●● Socio Economic Status according to acceptable scales as ●● Community Organisation, strength of “we” feeling, Kuppuswamy or Prasad scale. cohesiveness between the families in the community.●● Knowledge, Attitudes & Practices in the family, in general ●● Interactions, of various community members, with the towards healthy lifestyle, personal protection and Index Case and his / her family members prevention of common diseases. ●● General attitude of community towards disease prevention●● Health Care services for the family. These should be & health care assessed in terms of : ●● Availability of Physical, Financial & Emotional Support - Availability Systems within the community. - Accessibility ●● Health care facilities available - Affordability ●● Availability of School / Special School catering to the - Quality special needs of the index case. ●● Availability of NGOs / Voluntary Bodies and description of - Utilisation their capabilities.●● Social Aberrations if any in the family, as promiscuity, ●● Availability of organised public health & social services alcoholism, delinquency as central water supply and it’s purification, disposal of(b) Physical Factors in the Family : These will include - wastes, transportation and communications.●● Housing : General description, type of construction, area & ●● Political will of the community as strength of its space, ventilation, overcrowding, lighting, other comforts. representation in elected bodies●● Water Supply : Source, hygienicity, adequacy, storage ●● Identification of peers & influential leaders and their●● Disposal of night soil, solid wastes, animal wastes, waste capabilities. • 616 •
  12. 12. 5. Factors in the Community at Large : This includes the - Prevention of Other Diseases and for leading a healthylarger social environment as the District / State where the lifepatient is living. - Disability Limitation●● General Attitude - Physical rehabilitation, eg, physical help for activities - Towards Health maintenance, Disease Prevention & of living, for going till the health care centre, etc. Rehabilitation - Vocational rehabilitation - training, education, earning - Towards the disease in question a livelihood, reservation in job and education, etc.●● Availability of treatment facilities - Emotional Rehabilitation●● Availability of Rehabilitation facilities - Social Security●● Statutory and Administrative provisions to protect / facilitate the index case. Summary●● Availability of VHAs / NGOs It is abundantly clear by now that every disease has a6. Summarize The Medico-Social Findings tremendous social component. Thus, for having a totalistic●● What are the “Key Psycho-Social Issues” in the index case, or holistic overview of our patient and to really treat the his / her family, workplace, immediate community and the disease effectively, “from the root causes”, we must take a community at large. proper medico-social history, work out the various sociological●● What is the “Social Pathology”, i.e. the major “weaknesses”; parameters and treat, not only the clinical disease, but also for example, in a medico-social case of an adolescent polio the social causes. Medico-social history taking is an essential affected girl child, the major weaknesses and hence the requirement at both under and postgraduate level but other social pathology operative in that case could be summed than focusing on the individual patient, it is also very important up as “Alcoholism in the family” with “Poor purchasing for the public health manager to consider the “family” as a unit power” with “ Adverse attitudes towards the girl child” of action for her various health care activities.●● What is the “Social Diagnosis” i.e., those adverse psycho- It is highly desirable that Medical Officers in-charge of a social effects that the social pathology (major weaknesses) Primary Health Centre (PHC) / Community Health Centre would lead to; for example, in the hypothetical example (CHC) should develop “Family Health Folders” for each and of the case of polio affected girl child, “ Gross Physical every family in their area of health care and these should be handicap with Poor Rehabilitation facilities with Broken regularly updated. Family folder should be generally 12 inches family and adversely predisposed community” may be X 10 inches, with hard cover and having “multiple leaflets” identified as the social diagnosis, which will result from so as to record separately, for various members of the family, the identified social pathology, and will therefore need to within the same folder. The cover of the folder should be be “treated”, the way we treat a disease diagnosed by us. printed with the name, health care providing unit along with●● What are the “Major Strengths” in our case. This will be the address and telephone number. In addition on the cover it worked out by analyzing the support systems - Physical, should have “Family Registration Number” (unique number for Social, Vocational, Emotional and Financial, which are each family), name and date of birth of the head of the family, available within the family, workplace, and community detailed address of the household, telephone number, date on systems, as also the strengths within the index case (as which folder was opened and date on which folder was last determination, residual abilities, etc.). updated. On the inside of the front cover or the first sheet in7. Write down the Plan of Management & Social therapy the folder should have a printed Summary-Sheet which would●● Write down in a line each, the following, for the case being have details of all the members of the family. Other details of worked up : the family would be recorded on Sheet for Socio-Demographic - The social pathology Details, Vital Statistics Record Sheet, Sheet for record of - The social diagnosis Housing and environmental sanitation, Individual Health●● Write down your summarized analysis of the Strengths, Record Sheets, Special Health Record Sheets, Sheets for Record Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) in this of Special Studies / Surveys. Finally it should be ensured by the case. health care providers that all information recorded in the folder●● Write down what all should be kept strictly confidential. - Should be done, ideally, in this case All medical professionals should not simply confine themselves - Can be done in this case (“Do-Ability” analysis), after to only the medical aspects of the disease but view a given considering the SWOT. disease in totality. This can be achieved by training in the various aspects of medico-social case taking and family case●● Write down the overall aim and key objectives for the studies. The various essential aspect of medico-social case work medical management part as well as the psycho-social up are, to start with, initial approach to the patient whereby management for the case. you should introduce yourself with a friendly greeting, try●● Now, write down a detailed plan for each of the following and remember the patient’s name and request permission to aspects, indicating “who will do what, how, and in what interview and examine the patient. Show tolerance, particularly time-frame” with the elderly and the challenged. Seek first to understand - Medical management • 617 •
  13. 13. and not judge the patient so that you don’t react to patients (c) Not discuss patients’ personal concerns (d) Not givewith criticism, anger or dismissal. patient undivided attention.The basic principle which must be kept in mind while 6) In KAP “P” stands for : (a) Prevention (b) Practiceundertaking a medico-social work-up is that while the patient (c) Psycho-emotive state (d) Physical factoris the core issue, his disease is actually a result of complex 7) “SWOT” analysis stand for all except : (a) Strengthpsycho social interactions and a systematic assessment of all (b) Weakness (c) Opportunities (d) Treatment.these factors is therefore necessary to be able to reach the root 8) Health Care services for the family should be assessedof the problem and to effectively plan a holistic therapy. For this in terms of all except : (a) Availability (b) Accessibilityfactors need to be considered at various levels, these are Factors (c) Affordability (d) Accountabilitywithin the Individual which would include age, education, 9) Socio Economic Status according to Kuppuswamy oroccupation, lifestyle including consumption of tobacco, alcohol Prasad scale is calculated under which broad heading:etc, Knowledge, Attitudes & Practices (KAP) as regards common (a) Social Factors in the Family (b) Physical Factors indiseases, Psycho-Emotive state and attitudes towards personal the Family (c) Psycho-Emotive Factors in the Familyprotection, personal hygiene etc. Factors in the family which (d) Factors in the workplacewould involve taking detail history under following headings 10) Physical Factors in the Family include all except : (a) TotalSocial Factors in the Family, Physical Factors in the Family, no. of family members (b) Housing (c) Water Supply (d)Psycho-Emotive Factors in the Family. After family one would Nutritionlike to find out factors in the Workplace, Immediate Community 11) Family Support System includes : (a) Financial supportand Community at Large influencing the individual and the (b) Physical support (c) Emotional support (d) All of thedisease. Now summarize the Medico-Social findings under the abovefollowing heads Key Psycho-Social Issues, Social Pathology, 12) Immediate community consists of : (a) Village (b) DistrictSocial Diagnosis, Major Strengths. Finally write down the (c) State (d) Countryplan of management & social therapy keeping in mind SWOT 13) Factors in the Immediate Community include all except :analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) (a) Community Organisation (b) Strength of “we” feelingfor this case and details indicating “who will do what, how, (c) Interaction between family members (d) Cohesivenessand in what time-frame”. between the families in the community 14) “Major strengths” of a case can be worked out byStudy Exercises analyzing : (a) Social Diagnosis (b) Social PathologyShort Notes : (1) Enumerate broad headings under which one (c) Psycho-emotive state (d) support systemswould do medico social case work up (2) SWOT analysis. 15) Plan of Management & Social therapy includes all except:MCQs & Exercises (a) Medical management (b) Giving money (c) Disability limitation (d) Emotional support.1) All are true about “Family Registration Number” except : (a) This is a unique number (b) no two families Fill in the Blanks would have the same number (c) may be given by the 1. Public Health manager should consider_______ as a unit. central government (d) may be developed by the health 2. Family health folder should be updated regularly by visits care providing unit to household by the paramedics preferably once in ______2) Following dates should be written on the cover except : _______ and definitely once in ______________. (a) The date on which one of the family members were 3. Family health folder should of size_____ by _____ inches. vaccinated (b) The date on which the folder was updated, 4. Factors in the family include three broad categories of since some individual member of the family came in factors which are ________, _______ and _______ . contact with the health care system (c) The date on which 5. KAP stands for ____________ , _________ and _________ the folder was last updated as a part of the regular survey Answers : MCQs : (1) c; (2) a; (3) c; (4) d; (5) b; (6) b; (7) d; (d) The date on which the folder was opened (8) d; (9) a; (10) a; (11) d; (12) a; (13) c; (14) d; (15) b.3) Immunization status is recorded in : (a) Vital Statistics Fill in the Blanks : (1) Family (2) 6months; one year (3)12; 10 Record Sheet (b) Sheet for Socio-Demographic Details (4) Social factors, Physical factors and Psycho-Emotive factors (c) Summary-Sheet (d) Sheet for record of Housing and (5) Knowledge, attitudes and practices. environmental sanitation4) Special Health Record Sheets include all except (a) Under- Further Suggested Reading fives health card (b) School-age child health record card (c) 1. Vatsyanan. Principles of Sociology. Publishers : Kedar Nath Ramnath, Meerut (India). Post-natal health care card (d) Ration Card 2. Susser MW, Watson W. Sociology in Medicine. Oxford University Press,5) For effective medico-social case taking one should : (a) Not London 1971. Maintain good eye contact (b) Touch patients appropriately 3. Mandel E. Health Promotion. Elsevier, USA 2006. • 618 •
  14. 14. Information Education Communication 115 Health Education (IEC) IEC is a broad term comprising a range of approaches and SSL Parashar activities. Visible component of IEC is frequently the material produced and used. Effective IEC makes use of a full range ofHealth education is the application of scientific health knowledge approaches and activities. IEC activities are grounded in theor translation of what is known about health into desirable concepts of primary health care, concerned with individualindividual and community health behaviour and actions. It behaviour change and changes in social or communityremoves ignorance and promotes intelligent understanding norms. IEC can be defined as an approach which attempts toof individual and community health needs. It helps people to change or reinforce a set of behaviour in a target audienceachieve health by their own actions and efforts. regarding a specific problem in a predefined period of time.In earlier times, public health dealt with the sanitation of It is multidisciplinary and client centered in its approachthe environment and the control of communicable diseases drawing from the field of diffusion theory, social marketing,enforced by law, if found necessary. However stimulating and behaviour analysis and anthropology. Embodied in IEC is thehelping people to assume responsibility for themselves needs process of learning that empowers people to make decisions,understanding people’s behaviours and the factors influencing modify behaviours and change social conditions. Activities areit. Health education attempts to influence the health related developed based upon needs assessments, sound educationalknowledge, attitudes and behaviours of individuals and principles, and periodic evaluation using a clear set of goalscommunities. In fact, in contemporary public health practice, and objectives.providing health education, with a view to achieve positive Communicationhealth related attitudes and behaviour form community A good working definition for effective communication is tomembers is the most important requirement, be it prevention share meaning and understanding between the person sendingand control of HIV / AIDS or lifestyle (non-communicable) the message and the person receiving the message. The keydiseases or prevention of infectious diseases and so on. element is “understanding.”Definition : Health education is a process that informs , Verbal & Non-verbal Communications : In verbalmotivates and enables people to adopt and maintain healthy communication, the tone of voice can communicate feelingspractices and lifestyles. It also advocates environmental changes and emotions that are as significant as the words being needed to facilitate this goal and conduct professional Accordingly, it is important to choose words that do not offendtraining and research to the same end. In other words, Health in any way and that are easily understood. One should avoideducation may be defined as a process of bringing about change using trigger words, jargon, medical or other sophisticated the individual’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour so as to The use of particular languages may be important in reachingenable him to achieve health. all sections of a community. In non-verbal communication,Principles of Health Education : body position, gesture and facial expression, often referred to1. Community involvement in planning health education is as body language, can communicate as much as words. It is essential. Without community involvement the chances of often through such body language that we express our attitude any programme succeeding are slim. towards an issue, a person or a person’s behaviour. Service2. The promotion of self esteem should be an integral provider must become skilled in interpreting the body language component of all health education programmes. of users as this may assist them understanding users’ needs3. Voluntarism is ethical principle on which all health and concerns more fully. Service providers must also be aware education programme should be built without it health of their body language and signals they may be unknowingly education programmes become propaganda. Health sending to users (e.g. movements or expressions that indicate education should not seek to coerce but should rather aim fatigue, boredom, fear, frustration, indecision) (women may to facilitate informed choice. speak fewer languages than men, for example).4. Health education should respect cultural norms and take Communication Process account of the economic and environmental constraints face by people. It should seek positively to enhance respect In health communication we communicate for a special purpose for all. to promote improvements in health behaviour through the5. Good human relations are of utmost importance in modification of the human, social and environmental factors learning. that influence behaviours. It is necessary to understand how6. Evaluation needs to be an integral part of health communication works. The various components involved in the education. process of communication are depicted in Fig. - 1.7. There should be a responsibility for the accuracy of Components of the Communication process : It is information and the appropriateness of methods used. apparent that several elements are involved in the process of8. Every health campaign needs reinforcement. Repetition of communication. It will also be appreciated that communication messages at intervals is useful. is two way process. This implies that just as the sender (source) is communicating with the receiver; so is also the receiver communicating with the sender. The components are : • 619 •
  15. 15. spoon-fed and passively acquired. As a mass-communication Fig. - 1 : Communication process activity propaganda tends to have short-run situationally- Communicate or Relays defined aims with an appeal to diverse population on the basis Sender with message of immediate interest, fears or desires. The objective is to not feed back so much influence the individual deeply as to win his support Decodes or Understands for some immediate issue. Decodes or Understands the message. Encodes the The aim of ADVOCACY is to place health problems issues on the the message message political agenda and effectively reach the influential group of policy makers, elected representative, professionals and other Choose medium and The Receiver receives interest group to formulate and implement policies to create method the message pressure groups and supportive systems in order to respond appropriately to the health problems. It helps in identifyingThe Sender : Sender is the source of Communication. Sending potential allies and building alliances and relevant policythe message to the receiver will depend on his personality, and decision making channels. The information concerningmannerism, conviction conduct etc. The following aspects need position on the issue is collected and provided. A commonto be particularly considered with regards to the sender : understanding among stakeholders concerning issue is created- His own competence and expertise in the subject. through advocacy and negotiating action on the basis of- His own convictions about what he speaks. common understanding is taken. Through advocacy reasoning,- His own mannerism, which include non-verbal influencing, lobbying, pushing and persuading decision makers communication skills. and other stake holders. The directions of advocacy are;The Receiver : Also called the audiences who are receiving the (a) Advocacy for policy design (b) Advocacy for decision makingmessage sent by sender. at various levels (c) Advocacy for implementation .There are two types of advocacy : Proactive and Reactive advocacy. ProactiveThe Message : This refers to the information which desires to advocacy is bringing a particular issue in to public focus andcommunicate and must possess the following attributes : providing a definite shape for the audience that is sought to be●● Message should be precise and to the point influenced and reactive advocacy entails addressing particular●● The ambiguity in the message may create more harms situation or problem once it has already surfaced in the open. than good. It involves addressing attitudes and opinions after they have●● The information should vary from person to person or from been formed in the recent past. group to group depending upon their background.●● The message must necessarily contain clear concrete Barriers in Communication suggestions for action in day to day life of the receiver. Unplanned distortion during the communication resulting inThe Medium (Channel) : The communication channel through the receiver obtaining a different message than that sent by thewhich the message moves from the sender to receiver is the sender is referred to as barriers in communication (also calledmedium. These include the various methods (as lecture or as “Noise” or “distortions” in communication). These can be :exhibition) and the “aids” (as slides, slide projector) which are Physiological : Difficulties in hearing, expression.utilized to communicate the message. Psychological : Emotional disturbances.Encoding : This process includes the language expression, Environmental : Noise, invisibility, congestion in thegestures and actions utilized for the purpose of making the classroom, etc.information intelligible to the receiver. Obviously the receiver Cultural : Level of knowledge, understanding and receiver’smust be familiar with the code. beliefs, etc.Decoding : The process by which the receiver assigns meaning All barriers should be identified and removed for achievingto the symbols transmitted by the sender. In other words, the effective communication. One of the main challenges in theprocess by which the receiver understands or interprets the design of effective health communication programs is to identifymessage is called decoding. the optimal contexts, channels, content, and reasons that willFeed back : Feedback is the mirror of communication. Feedback motivate people to pay attention to health the receiver sending back the message to the sender, the Communication skills are required to make communicationmessage as perceived. Without feedback communication is effective, the following are the skills required at sourceone-way. The part of the receiver’s response that the receiver level. These include greeting skills, speaking skills, listeningcommunicates back to the sender. skills, questioning skills, and summarizing skills. In shortPropaganda and Advocacy : Propaganda is merely a communication process would be effective if the communicatorpublicity campaign aimed presenting a particular thing or has skills in introduction, skills in presenting and skills inconcept in a favourable light in such a way that public may conclusion. The non-verbal skills play an important role.accept it without thinking. It is a deliberate attempt planned It affects the communication process. Body language is anwith a view to altering and controlling ideas and values along important constituent of non-verbal communication andpredetermines lines. The widely employed techniques are an consists of gesture, postures facial expressions, eye contact,appeal to emotions, feelings and sentiments. It prevents or manipulating the eyebrows etc.discourages thinking by readymade slogans. The knowledge is • 620 •