12-1 Our Bones & MusclesWhat holds up your body.... helping you tostand, walk, sit or chew your food?What protects your brains, your liver and yourheart from getting damaged?What helps you run from danger? Our bones hold our body up. Bones help us do our work. Without bones, we would be like a rag doll. But what helps Our Bones Move? They are Our Muscles. Fixed to our bones, muscles are the ones pulling at the bones and letting our body move.
12-2 Our Bones HOW SOME OF YOURSome of the small- BONES WORK?est bones of thebody are attached While the hands move to taketo our eardrums the food to the mouth, the jawand help us in hear- moves to munch and grind theing. food.Flat Bones : Our Legs help us in running. Theblood is made in ribs keep expanding and con-these flat bones- in tracting about eighteen timesour skull and also every minute to help usribs. breathe.Humerus –hyu- The skull protects the brainmer-us in the from injury —imagine whatupper arm is the would happen to the soft brainbone between the ( it is as fluid as rice porridge!)shoulder and if there was no skull?elbow The rib-cage protects the heartSome bones are long, and lungs. The pelvis protectslike the Femur –- fee- the urinary bladder, and inmer ——in the thigh women the uterus – (yu-ter-is the longest bone of us)—or womb.the body. Why are bones important? • They make the shape and form of the body. • They end in joints that make movement possible. • They allow us to eat food. • They are necessary for running away or fighting. • They protect important organs like the brain and heart. • Blood cells are made in some of the bones. • They start the breathing process.
12-3 Parts of the Skeleton Skeleton is the bony framework of the body and can be divided into: 1 Skull (head) . 2 Vertebral column (neck and backbone) . 3 Rib-cage (chest) . 4 Upper and lower limbs. . How many Bones in Our Skeleton? 206 bones make up our skeleton. Skelton is the form that is left behind when all the soft tissues are removed from the body. Some of you must have seen human skeletons when graves are dug or when bodies are found af- ter a long time.1. The skull (head)It has a number of flat bones that are joined together.These bones make our red blood cells. The skull pro-tects the most important organ. It has holes belowthat allow various nerves and blood vessels to go and Flat bones make up thecome to/from the brain. skull. Blood is made in these flat bones. Sinus pockets The Ear in the skull Sinuses are air- pockets inside the skull like in the face and forehead. In- fection or allergy can cause pain and swelling insideThe eardrum and its bones that help us them. This is calledhear, and small semicircular canals that sinusitis.help our brains determine our position andbalance are also located inside the skull.
12-42. Verterbral ColumnThe vertebral column has 33 bones (each called vertebra) piled one on theother, starting from the neck and ending in the lower back just behind ouranus (where our stools come out from). You may be able to count most ofthem as you run your finger starting from the back of the skull going downthe neck, chest and back and loin to the area between the buttocks.Between every two vertebrra, we have a cushion like disc through whichthe spinal cord carry all the connecting nerves to and from the brain. Un-like the bones of the neck and back which allows easy movement, the ver-tebrae between the chest and pelvis do not allow much movement. Thebones of the vertebral column also produce blood cells for the body. Moreimportantly, they allow us to stand erect and upright and hence, makes ushuman beings different from animls. 3. Rib Cage The rib-cage has 12 pairs of flat bones, ten of them joined to the vertebrae behind. In the front they are joined to softer cartilages that are attached further to the bone in the mid- dle. This allows easy movement for breath- ing. The ribs protect the windpipe, food pipe, lungs, heart and the major blood tubes that leave the heart. The ribcage also protects the liver in the front and also the kidneys behind to some extent. The ribs make blood cells besides help- ing in breathing in and throwing out air.
12-54. Upper and Lower LimbsThe limbs are attached to the central part of the skeleton. Both the upper and lowerlimbs have bigger and longer bones to start with and these become shorter and morenumerous as one goes down. Each upper limb has: Lower Limb Upper limb 1 bone in the upper arm, two in the forearm, eight in the wrist, five in the palm and fourteen in the fingers. (1+2+8+5+14) Each lower limb has: 1 bone in the thigh, two in the leg, seven in the ankle, five in the foot and fourteen in the toes. It also has a knee cap in front of each knee. (1+2+7+5+14) Why do children break their bones less often? 1. Bones are soft in children and they suffer less bone-fractures in falls. As we grow in age, the bones keep getting harder and suffer more fractures. 2. Bones in children are soft as they need to grow, but if they do not get enough Calcium and Vitamin D (mainly from sunlight) needed for absorbing the Calium to make the bones hard, the bones will bend and become de- formed. This is called “rickets”. Bones Need to Heal Fully Bones provide attachments for muscles to move. If they do not heal properly in their original shape, they may result in deformity and we will not be able to move the joints. For this, and to reduce pain, it is important to “splint” the fractured part with a hard stick, etc. and later put a firm plaster so that the dis- rupted parts can align themselves correctly as they heal. A sling also acts like a splint for fractures of the foreaem & arms.
12-6 MUSCLES of our Body Muscles are at- tached to bones on different sides of the joint. Hence, when- ever they tigthen, they will move the joint in the directions shown by the arrows. What Are Muscles?MUSCLES are what you can easily feel on your thigh or above Try this out: Try tothe elbow. They are fixed to the end of two bones to move fold your elbow whilethem. When you want to fold your arm, the brain orders the your neighbourmuscles in the arms to shorten so that it pulls both the bones presses on your wrist to stop you. Feel thetowards each other. muscles above your elbow getting harder. Types of How Do Our Muscles Muscles Work?The muscles attached Nerves connect the brainto our bones can be and the muscle. They bringmoved whenever wewant and are called arm muscles at- commands from the brainvoluntary muscles. tached to bones telling the muscle to move help our arms to or to stop.Another type of mus- movecles are involuntary,i.e., they cannot be or- The brain tells one group ofdered to move and muscles to tigthen and thethey work on their opposite group to loosen soown. They work auto- that we are able to movematically. that part.Examples of involun- When we have had enoughtary or automatic mus- movement, the nerves carrycles are those in the in- Did You Know This? information to the brain totestines . They squeeze The Heart is a Muscle. It is order the muscles to stop .and relax automati- involuntary (automatic) and works by itself. It is very The same signals are passedcally so as to push the special because it is hard- to the joints of our body.food from the top ofthe intestine towards working and a centre of non- This complex system of stop activity. The heartthe bottom and out of nerves with the muscles keeps pumping at 80 times aour body. minute all through our lives and joints is needed to keep to pump out about half a cup our balance and to prevent of blood every minute ! us from falling.
12-7 Muscles Help Change We Eat Our Expressions Muscles Did you know thatSome of the muscles also the flesh we eat ofend into skin, like the ones animals like goat,on our face. These muscles chicken, pig, cowhelp to change our expres- etc. are actually the muscles of thatsion. animal?! Keeping Your Muscles Fit1. Muscle Tear : Strain, excessive exercise or injury may cause muscle tear. The muscles need to be rested for some time followed by slow and careful return to activity.2. Muscles Of Intestine Tighten and can Cause Pain To throw out disease causing germs from our intestines, the muscles may squeeze faster and tighter. This causes pain and loose motions. Though some medicines may lessen the squeezing and the pain, one should be careful about giving such medicines too early. If given carelessly, the infection may stay on longer and cause more harm. 3. Keeping the Heart Muscles Fit The heart muscle may not get enough blood supply for its non-stop activity especially in smokers and old people and may thus stop func- tioning. This is what is called a heart attack.4. Muscles Need Minerals To do their work well, muscles need small amounts of minerals like sodium, potassium and calcium. These are found in soil, salt, vegetables, fruit, milk and meat. They are absorbed from the food in small amounts and are also lost by the body through sweat- ing and urine and stools. That is why our muscles feel tired when we have diarrhoea or when we sweat too much !5. Muscles Need Food To prevent important muscles like the heart from getting affected during a diar- rhoea and illnesses, we must continue to give food and ORS or sugar-salt solution.
12-8TENDONS: Small bones as in thehands and feet need a lot of different mus- Tendonscles to move. But there is notenough space for the muscles tobe attached to the bones. Hence,these muscles end in tough ropelike things called tendons.These can attach easily to thesmall bones. You can feel theseon the front of your wrist and ontop of foot close to the big toe.As many of the tendons have topass over joints that keep mov-ing and hence may get damaged, Bags of oilythere are bags of oily substance substancethat separate them from thejoints. Occasionally these toomay get swollen and cause pain. LIGAMENTS are also like tough bands and ropes that hold the bones together. They prevent the joint from moving beyond a limit and thus make the joints more stable. However, when we have a fall or an accident or while playing games, the ligaments may tear or break. Because tendons and ligaments are poorly supplied by blood tubes, healing is difficult. It may take much longer and may even need an operation to repair tendons and ligaments.
12-9 JOINTS Places where two bones come together are called “joints”. Movement of the bones is possible at Joints: * Joints like those of the hip and the shoul- der allow for full round movement; hinge joints there are higher chances of pulling the bones out of their place (Ball and socket ball & socket joint). joint; thumb * Joints in the knee and those in the elbow allow movemnet allow in one direction; like in a door (Hinge joint). saddle joint * Joints as in the ankle are a mix of the two above (saddle joint). What is Arthritis (ahr-thry-tis)? The ends of each bone of a joint are cov- * Joint like the one in our neck that allows ered with tough cartilage and with an us to turn our head from side to side oily fluid. These help to avoid any fric- (Pivot joint). tion or roughness in movement. How- ever, due to injuries, disease, or old age - Some joints do not allow any the end of the bones and the cartilage movement, for example, bones in may get damaged and thus every the skull (Plane joint). movement becomes difficult and pain- ful – this is what is called arthritis.How to Treat Sprains (Joint Injury) ?1. The bones of a joint may get seperated more than normal during falls, accidents or while playing. In such a case, you should put ice or cold water pack on the first or second day. This should be done many times. The joint will become normal faster. Only after that you should put anything warm on the joint. 2. If pain-relieving medicines are not enough, the joint may require to be operated by a bone specialist. These days it is possible to even change the en- tire joint if it is giv- ing trouble like pain and swelling.
12-10 Know the Answers Our Bones & Muscles1. Bones are important because they do the following functions: a. b. c. d. e.2. Rickets is caused by deficiency of ______________________ and __________________.3. To allow bones to heal properly to their natural shape and lessen pain after a fracture, we need to fix them with a ____________________________.4. Heart is a type of __________________________ muscle because it automatically pumps blood to _____________ times every minute.5. Muscles attached to our bones are types of _________________________ muscles because we can move them whenever we want.6. Muscles end in rope like structures called ____________________ which attach to the small bones of our hands and feet.7. ______________ help to give support and stability to joints.Mark whether “right “ or “wrong” :a. Knee joint is a type of ball and socket joint.b. Humerus bone in the leg is the longest bone in our body.c. Each ear has 3 small bones to help us in hearing.d. The ribs are attcahed to the vertebral column (or spine).e. In case of sprains, apply warmth immediately to relieve pain.
12-12 DISEASES of Our MUSCLES AND BONESOur bones help us do anything we may wish to. But there are times when we face problemswith them due to injury or disease. General Principles to deal With Bones & Muscles Injury Use only Cold Water ! · In muscle or bone injuries of all types : Apply something COLD to the injury for the first two days. Use water which is as cold as possible (with some ice if possi- ble). Soak the part in cold water for 10 -15 minutes four times a day. This reduces the swelling and restores the part to its origi- nal shape. DO NOT apply warm or hot water to it. Do not massage the injured part the first two days. · ONLY after the first two days, one may apply something hot to the part. We can put towels dipped in hot water to this part. This attracts blood to the area and warms it up - both help in healing the injury. · Allow the part to take rest for a few days. Do not lift heavy weights with an injured arm. And do not bear weight on an injured leg. If necessary, restrict its movement by splinting the part. · If the pain is too much, eat Anti-inflammatory tablets ASPIRIN, PARACETAMOL or IBUPROFEN. Usually called painkillers, these medicines not only reduce pain but also reduce swelling and redness. In this section we will learn about: Muscle Diseases Bone Diseases 1. Muscle Cramps 1. Fractures 2. Muscle Tear 2. Sprains 3. Arthritis 4. Backache 5. Spine injury Muscles Diseases1. Muscle CrampsMuscle cramps are often seen when someone is doing heavy work or playing in hot weather.Felt usually in the lower leg or in the foot or in the thigh, the person feels severe pain anda tightening of the muscles there.Mainly due to heavy work and too much of sweating, the usual reason is less salt in thediet.What to do?· Ask the person to rest. Lay down the person if possible.· Giving some warmth to the part will help.· Feed the person a glass or two of water with a two-finger pinch of salt and some sugar/ glucose. This is all that is necessary to relieve the cramp within a few minutes and allow the person to play/work again.
12-132. Muscle TearA sudden sharp pain while playing or lifting heavy weights, etc tells us that it is a muscle tear.This is usually in the thigh or calf, or in the shoulder or back. After the sharp pain, it soons be-comes very painful to move the limb. The area swells up, gets hot and may appear red also. What to do in Muscle Tear? · Dip the part in cold water, or apply cold water to it. · Ask the person to rest the part and not move it for a few days at least. · Apply some cream that has muscle relaxant in it (available under brand names like DOLOPAR, RELAXYL, BUTARIL, CAPSIGEL or MEDICREME, etc.) · With food a medicine to decrease the pain and swelling, like ASPIRIN, PARACETAMOL or IPBUPROFEN may also be given. Bones Diseases1. FracturesThe breaking of a bone is called a fracture. Usually a fall on somepart of the body can cause a fracture.Simple Or Compound FracturesFractures are called simple if there is no injury to the skin above them. If theskin on top of the fracture breaks as a result of the accident, the fractures arecalled Compound fractures. What Happens in a Fracture? When we see a bent – which is not natural - in that part of the body where an injury has taken place, we can suspect a fracture. The bone has broken at this point and when we move this part, the ends of the bones rub and cause great pain and swelling.Besides pain, the ends of the broken bone may also press upon some important part like a bloodtube or a nerve. Always check if the person - with eyes closed — can feel the touch of a soft clothbelow the area of fracture. Also check for the pulse below the fracture. If any of the two are found,RUSH THE PERSON TO A DOCTOR. What to do in Fractures? · Ask the person not to move the area that is broken. · Rest the part by splinting it. Tie a cloth or string to pieces of wood or iron that can stretch beyond the joints above and below the fractured bone(s). The arm can be put in a sling. For the shoulder, the entire arm can be tied to the body at two points. A finger may be tied to the next one to splint it and the leg also to the other in case a stick of suitable size is not available. Check Phase I Manual (First Aid) · DO NOT pull at the bone. DO not massage the area. on how to bandage · Pain killers like Injection Morphine may be required if the pain is unbearable. Get an X-Ray and send the patient to a surgeon. In case of a compound fracture, clean the wound carefully with a clean swab different from the one used to clean the dirt from around the injury. If more than six hours have lapsed, the wound must heal before any attempt is made to correct the fracture.
12-14 2. Sprains Abnormal twisting of a joint beyond its free range causes pain and swelling in and around the joint. This is called a sprain or a strain. Often seen in the ankle while landing on a false step or when our foot gets stuck in a crevice, sprains also happen in wrists while opening tight containers, in knees while playing sports like football, etc and in shoulders while wearing clothes. What to do? • Rest the part for a few days. • Apply cold cloth over it a few times a day for two days. • After the first two days, hot fomentation may be done. • Any liniment or similar cream will help to relieve the pain. A number of creams are available in the market, like IODEX, MOOV, etc • Tablet ASPIRIN, PARACETAMOL or IBUPROFEN with meals may be needed.3. ArthritisAn inflammation of the joints is called Arthritis. Although pain, swell-ing and redness over the joint can also be due to injury - this too can be Knee Jointcalled arthritis - commonly the term is used for joint inflammation With Arthritiswhose reason is not clearly known as yet.Some of the types of arthritis affect only the small joints like that offingers and toes. Starting quite young, such arthritis can be cripplingand can destroy the normal shape of fingers making them crooked.The person often has to be on life-long treatment of medicines likeASPIRIN, PARACETAMOL or IBUPROFEN.In some others, young women get swelling and pain in their biggerjoints like their knees, elbows and wrists. Such arthritis may affectdaughters of women who also had the trouble. A life long course ofanti-inflammatory drugs may be required. joint get inflammed - pain, swelling, rednessIn old age, wear and tear of joints also causes arthritis, especially inknees, hips and shoulders. What to do in Arthritis ?What is needed is :1. Warmth over the joints. Arthritis gets worse in the winters,and warm pads over large joints feel very comfortable. 2. Anti-inflammatory drugs on a regular basis. Gooseberry3. A diet containing amla (gooseberry), lemon, oranges or ( amla) is veryguava that are rich in Vitamin C may also be helpful. good for Vitamin C.
12-154. BackacheBackache is one of the commonest of complaints in recent times. It affects people of all ages. Inearly days, we had strong muscles in our back because we had to do lot of hard work, like carry-ing loads on our heads for long distances. With modern lifestyles, most people use buses andother vehicles and we do not get to use our back muscles all the time.All of a sudden, if we have to lift a weight or shift some furniture in the house, our muscles whichhas not been used gets overworked. We get strains in the joints of the back, small tears in the backmuscles or to the cushion-like discs between the vertebrae. This causes backache. What to do in backaches? 1. Rest : 3. Exercise : Resting the In those who get backaches very often, it is worthwhile to back for a few strengthen the muscles of the spine with daily exercises. days is wise or else it ay Try some of these exercises. Do them very slowly. get worse. They are very good if practised twice daily on a regular basis. This is the only sure way of getting rid of your backache on a long term. 2. Medicines: Anti-inflam- • lie on your belly and raise your up- matory medi- per body on your hands cines by • lie on your belly; lift your upper body mouth and and your legs above the ground and try pain relieving to hold your feet with your hands) creams like IODEX and In those whose backaches started with a clear incident of injury to the MOOV may back, it is important to consult the doctor before trying any exercises. be helpful. How To Avoid Backaches 1. Sleep either on the floor or 2. Bend your knees and pick on a firm flat surface. up heavy weight. 3. Always stand straight.
12-165. Spine injuryFor any injury to the spine that may result in severe pain in theback - as in falling from a height - - and/or the inability to movethe limbs, great care needs to be taken.Lack of care in handling spinal injuries may result not only in afresh paralysis, but may also worsen the injury and the paralysis.What to do in a Spinal Injury?Whenever a person has fallen from a height and complains of a pain in the backor the inability to move her limbs, assume it is a spinal injury. Carry the person on a hard flat bed or a large piece of wood - e.g., that of a door, or a special spinal stretcher. If more than one person needs to move the patient, all of them have to coordinate their actions so that the spine does not get bent even more and worsen the injury. Take the person to a specialist centre where s/he can be rehabilitated in the use of the spine. Painkiller like injection Morphine may be necessary to reduce the pain. Severe Spine Injury Where the person is unable to move her/his legs immediately after the injury, total or partial recovery is also possible. However, in most cases there is no more recovery after the first month or so. The person, like a child will have to be retrained to empty her bladder and bowels. She will require a lot more care with her skin. As she will not be able to move her own legs, she will have to be turned from one side to another every few hours in order to avoid bed sores from developing. In severe spine injury, person could be paralysed and cannot move. Bed sores will develop if not careful. Turn the person every few hours to avoid bed sores.
12-17 Know the Answers BONES & MUSCLES DiseasesFill in the blanks with the right answer:1. In any type of bone or muscle injury, you should apply ___________ water for the first two days.2. In muscle cramps, the person feels severe ____________ and ______________ of muscles.3. Painkillers like ________________, ____________________ and ______________ can be given in case of severe pain in muscle tear.4. In sprains the joints get twisted beyond its free range and we will get ________________ and___________________ in and around the joint that is injured.5. Foods having Vitamin ___ such as _____________, ______________, ___________ should be given people suffering arthritis.6. Spine injury can result in a person losing movement of the body called ___________.Mark whether “right” or “wrong” :1. Something warm must be put at once when there is a muscle tear so that the blood flows quickly to lessen pain.2. When the top of the skin tears because of a fracture, it is called a coumpund fracture.3. You should immediately pull the bone and set it in place in case of a fracture.4. In joint sprains, one should exercise the part as much as possible so that it gets strong faster5. Arthritis gets worse in cold weather, one should apply warm pads over it.6. Gooseberry which has Vitamin C should be given to people suffering from arthritis.7. Exercise for the back is the best way to strengthen back muscles and get rid of back pain..