Power Factor & APFC
What is power factor…? Power Factor = Active Power (kW)/Apparent Power (kVA) PF≤1.0 Usually P.F is always “Lag” (Inductive...
Origin of Low Power Factor <ul><li>Electrical Equipment need Reactive Power </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive loads draw Reactiv...
Disadvantages of low power factor <ul><li>Inefficient use of Electrical Energy: </li></ul><ul><li>Overloading of Transform...
Power Factor Correction V= Line Voltage I=Active Current I 1 I 2 I R(L) I R(C) Reactive Current  (inductive) Reactive Curr...
Reduction in Transformer Rating Reduction in KVAR Demand Advantages of  P.F Correction Reduction in KVA Demand Reduction i...
  ESTIMATION OF  kVAr REQUIRED for New Electrical Installations  M 75 HP, (415V,  3ph, compressor pf. 0.7) 75 HP, (415V,  ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar For The Supply Transformer- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For 500 kVA transformer, kVAr = 30 kV...
Type of compensation <ul><li>Fixed compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Variable compensation(for varying loads)- APFC </li></ul...
Disadvantages of fixed capacitor <ul><li>Manual operation(on/off) </li></ul><ul><li>Not meet the require kvar under varyin...
<ul><li>varying power demand on the supply system.  </li></ul><ul><li>power factor also varies as a function of the load r...
Benefits of APFC <ul><li>Consistently  high power factor under fluctuating loads </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of leading p...
Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC): <ul><li>Capacitors grouped into several steps. </li></ul><ul><li>•  Suitable swi...
How to Improve Power Factor Without Causing Harmonic Problem ? <ul><li>Conventional capacitors should not be used. </li></...
Network With Harmonic Filters No resonance at harmonic frequencies as filter is inductive at such frequencies Harmonic cur...
Specification of capacitors in APFC <ul><li>Qkvar </li></ul><ul><li>Degree Of Protection IP20 </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient te...
Selection of switching equipment <ul><li>FOR LT </li></ul><ul><li>Switch- fuse units/CBs/ Thyristers </li></ul><ul><li>Swi...
Harmonics and parallel resonance <ul><li>H=Kp  ± 1 (converter)  where k= 1,2,3,4,……. </li></ul><ul><li>p= pulsating index ...
Series reactor <ul><li>X T = Xc/h 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Supress  high inrush current to safe value at time of capacitor swit...
TYPES OF CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>MPP - METALLISED POLYPROPYLENE </li></ul><ul><li>MD - MIXED DIELECTRIC </li></ul><...
METALISED POLYPROPELENE CAPACITOR <ul><li>MPP - METALLISED POLYPROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>METALISATION HAS BEEN DONE ON O...
MIXED  DIELECTRIC TYPE <ul><li>MD - MIXED DIELECTRIC </li></ul><ul><li>PP FILM, FOIL AND PAPER ARE USED TO FORM  CAPACITOR...
FILM FOIL  OR APP <ul><li>FILM FOIL  OR APP - ALL POLY PROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>METAL LAYER IS PLACED IN - BETWEEN PP F...
FILM FOIL  OR APP <ul><li>FILM FOIL  OR APP - ALL POLY PROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>METAL LAYER IS PLACED IN - BETWEEN PP F...
MIXED DIELECTRIC - LOW LOSS <ul><li>MD-XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS </li></ul><ul><li>PP FILM AND DOUBLE SIDED  METALISE...
Film foil/APP verses Mixed dielectric comparison Film foil/APP Mixed dielectric <ul><li>low dielectric watt loss </li></ul...
Mixed dielectric verses MDXL Comparison Mixed dielectric MDXL <ul><li>High dielectric watt loss </li></ul><ul><li>Paper im...
APFC
Power factor correction in harmonics enrich environment <ul><li>percentage of Non linear loads in an installation becomes ...
solution <ul><li>Use detuned filter circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid parallel resonance by offering inductive impedance to ...
COMPONENTS
CONTROLLER
REACTOR DRY TYPE RESIGN EMBADED
Circuit Diagram
THYRISTER CONTROLLED VAR STATCOM
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Apf Cpresentation

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POWER FACTOR CORRECTION FUNDAMENTALS,SELECTION OF PF IMPROVEMENT CAPACITORS

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  • DRY TYPE RESIGN EMBADED
  • STATCOM
  • Apf Cpresentation

    1. 1. Power Factor & APFC
    2. 2. What is power factor…? Power Factor = Active Power (kW)/Apparent Power (kVA) PF≤1.0 Usually P.F is always “Lag” (Inductive) Some time P.F can be “Lead” (Capacitive).
    3. 3. Origin of Low Power Factor <ul><li>Electrical Equipment need Reactive Power </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive loads draw Reactive Power </li></ul><ul><li>Phase difference between current & Voltage reduces “Displacement PF”. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Power to maintain magnetic fields in Motors. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Linear loads reduces “Distortion PF”. </li></ul><ul><li>True PF, being product of displacement and distortion PF is lower than both. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitors can only improve displacement PF. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Disadvantages of low power factor <ul><li>Inefficient use of Electrical Energy: </li></ul><ul><li>Overloading of Transformer/Generator; </li></ul><ul><li>Overloading of Cable, Switchgear, Busbar … </li></ul><ul><li>Higher temperature due to increased losses </li></ul><ul><li>Imposes larger kVA demand </li></ul><ul><li>Limits No. of loads that can be connected </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced revenue to Electrical Utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Voltage regulation </li></ul>
    5. 5. Power Factor Correction V= Line Voltage I=Active Current I 1 I 2 I R(L) I R(C) Reactive Current (inductive) Reactive Current (capacitive) <ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Reduction in Transformer Rating Reduction in KVAR Demand Advantages of P.F Correction Reduction in KVA Demand Reduction in Line Current Reduction in Line loss Reduction in Cable / Bus-bar size Reduction in Switchgear Rating Avoid power factor penalties Reduction in KVA Demand
    7. 7. ESTIMATION OF kVAr REQUIRED for New Electrical Installations M 75 HP, (415V, 3ph, compressor pf. 0.7) 75 HP, (415V, 3ph, compressor) 20 HP, (415V, 3ph, Pump, PF =0.70 Lag) Other loads, (total of 25 Kw) 500kVA, 11kV/415V, %Impedance = 4.25% 50 kVA, (440V, 3ph, UPS) Lighting (Load 10kW) M 30 HP, (415V, 3ph, I M pf 0.7) Let us assume that the target Power Factor as desired by the Customer is 0.95. M M
    8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar For The Supply Transformer- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For 500 kVA transformer, kVAr = 30 kVAr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar For Induction Motor- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rating of motor = 200 HP x 0.746 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= 150 kW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar for motor = 150*[tan(cos -1 (0.95)- tan(cos -1 (0.99)] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> = 104 Kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar For UPS- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rating of UPS = 50 KVA* 0.7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= 35 Kw </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar for UPS = 35 [tan(cos -1 (0.70)- tan(cos -1 (0.99)] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> = 25 Kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar For Others & lighting load- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kvar for UPS = 24 [tan(cos -1 (0.70)- tan(cos -1 (0.99)] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> = 17 Kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total kvar requirement = (30+104+35+25+17)kvar =211 Kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming 15% design assumption and contigency = 221*0.15=31.65 Kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total kvar = 242.65 kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kavr recommended= 250 kvar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacitor req. (c) = Qc/V 2 (2  f) </li></ul><ul><li>Hence Capacitor req. for UPF=10 6 * 250/(230 2 * 100  ) </li></ul><ul><li>= 150.51  F. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Type of compensation <ul><li>Fixed compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Variable compensation(for varying loads)- APFC </li></ul><ul><li>Svc </li></ul>1. Individual compensation 2. Group compensation 3. Central compensation - Steady Loads – No load compensation of Induction Motors – No load compensation of Transformers
    10. 10. Disadvantages of fixed capacitor <ul><li>Manual operation(on/off) </li></ul><ul><li>Not meet the require kvar under varying loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Can result leading power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Cause over voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Mal-operation of relays, diesel generators </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation of transformer </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty by electricity authority </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>varying power demand on the supply system. </li></ul><ul><li>power factor also varies as a function of the load requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to maintain a consistent power factor by use of Fixed Compensation i.e. fixed capacitors. </li></ul><ul><li>leading power factor under light load conditions(fixed compensation) </li></ul><ul><li>This result in over voltages, saturation of transformers, mal-operation of diesel generating sets, penalties by electric supply authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>automatically variation, without manual intervention, the compensation to suit the load requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Power Factor Correction(APFC) system provide this facility. </li></ul><ul><li>leading power factor will be also prevented. </li></ul>NEED FOR AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
    12. 12. Benefits of APFC <ul><li>Consistently high power factor under fluctuating loads </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of leading power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate power factor penalty </li></ul><ul><li>Lower energy consumption by reducing losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously sense and monitor load </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically switch on/off relevant capacitors steps for consistent power factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures easy user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Protect under any internal fault </li></ul><ul><li>Advance µ- relay with communication facility </li></ul><ul><li>Used MPP-H/MD-XL/FF(APP) type capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>User friendly, aesthetecally designed enclosure, dust and vermin proof. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC): <ul><li>Capacitors grouped into several steps. </li></ul><ul><li>• Suitable switching devices with coupled with inrush current limiting devices are provided for each step </li></ul><ul><li>• Power Factor sensed by CT in line side </li></ul><ul><li>• kVAr required to achieve target PF is computed by the Microprocessor based APFC relay </li></ul><ul><li>• APFC relay switches appropriate capacitor steps </li></ul><ul><li>• CT senses improved PF and gives feedback </li></ul><ul><li>• Thus target PF is achieved </li></ul>
    14. 14. How to Improve Power Factor Without Causing Harmonic Problem ? <ul><li>Conventional capacitors should not be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitors should be replaced by harmonic suppression filters (series combination of suitable series reactor & capacitors) so that, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It offers capacitive reactance at fundamental frequency for necessary power factor correction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It offers inductive reactance at all higher order dominant harmonic frequencies to avoid resonance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its self series resonance frequency “f R ” do not coincide with predominant harmonics. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Network With Harmonic Filters No resonance at harmonic frequencies as filter is inductive at such frequencies Harmonic currents flow towards Grid , as it offers least impedance compared to filter Predominantly fundamental current flows through Capacitors Moderate THD(V) in the Bus No harmonic overloading of Capacitors Improvement in Power Factor without Harmonic overload Non Linear Load BUS M GRID Z T Equivalent Load Impedance “Z L ” Z N L C
    16. 16. Specification of capacitors in APFC <ul><li>Qkvar </li></ul><ul><li>Degree Of Protection IP20 </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage rise should be ≤ 3.0% [ % Vc = (Q kvar *%X)/(kva)] </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage rise due to series reactor and harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>Size of individual capacitor banks (step requirement) </li></ul><ul><li>Directly connected Discharge Device(Resistor, VT) to discharge the capacitor to reduce voltage to 50 volts within one minute </li></ul>
    17. 17. Selection of switching equipment <ul><li>FOR LT </li></ul><ul><li>Switch- fuse units/CBs/ Thyristers </li></ul><ul><li>Switch should be quick make and break type </li></ul><ul><li>Rating of CB, contactors, fuse and cable should be≥130% of capacitor rated current. </li></ul><ul><li>For automatic switching, each step capacitor should be provided with fuse and contactor. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR HT </li></ul><ul><li>Ht capacitor is connected to bus by CB </li></ul><ul><li>Cb rating should be ≥ maximum operating voltage of circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous current rating of CB should be ≥ 135% of rated capacitor bank current </li></ul>
    18. 18. Harmonics and parallel resonance <ul><li>H=Kp ± 1 (converter) where k= 1,2,3,4,……. </li></ul><ul><li>p= pulsating index </li></ul><ul><li>High Harmonics current produces high harmonics voltages. </li></ul><ul><li>When harminics current frequency and parrellel resonance become equal than corrosponding harmonics voltage produces over current in capacitor. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Series reactor <ul><li>X T = Xc/h 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Supress high inrush current to safe value at time of capacitor switching. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve voltage waveform </li></ul><ul><li>Reactor should be able to carry 135%of rated contineous current. </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge VT </li></ul><ul><li>To discharge voltage of capacitor </li></ul>
    20. 20. TYPES OF CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>MPP - METALLISED POLYPROPYLENE </li></ul><ul><li>MD - MIXED DIELECTRIC </li></ul><ul><li>FF/ALL PP - FILM - FOIL OR ALL POLY PROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>MD -XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS </li></ul>
    21. 21. METALISED POLYPROPELENE CAPACITOR <ul><li>MPP - METALLISED POLYPROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>METALISATION HAS BEEN DONE ON ONE SIDE OF POLY PROPELENE FILM AND USED FOR CAPACITOR WINDING </li></ul><ul><li>ECNOMICAL AND COMPETITIVE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>MPP-S - NORMAL DUTY </li></ul><ul><li>MPP-H - MEDIUM DUTY </li></ul>PP FILM METALLISED LAYER
    22. 22. MIXED DIELECTRIC TYPE <ul><li>MD - MIXED DIELECTRIC </li></ul><ul><li>PP FILM, FOIL AND PAPER ARE USED TO FORM CAPACITOR WINDING </li></ul>PP FILM FOIL PAPER
    23. 23. FILM FOIL OR APP <ul><li>FILM FOIL OR APP - ALL POLY PROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>METAL LAYER IS PLACED IN - BETWEEN PP FILM TO FORM CAPACITOR WINDING </li></ul>PP FILM FOIL PP FILM
    24. 24. FILM FOIL OR APP <ul><li>FILM FOIL OR APP - ALL POLY PROPELENE </li></ul><ul><li>METAL LAYER IS PLACED IN - BETWEEN PP FILM TO FORM CAPACITOR WINDING </li></ul>PP FILM FOIL PP FILM
    25. 25. MIXED DIELECTRIC - LOW LOSS <ul><li>MD-XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS </li></ul><ul><li>PP FILM AND DOUBLE SIDED METALISED FILM ARE USED TO FORM CAPACITOR WINDING </li></ul>PP FILM DOUBLE SIDE METALLISED PAPER
    26. 26. Film foil/APP verses Mixed dielectric comparison Film foil/APP Mixed dielectric <ul><li>low dielectric watt loss </li></ul><ul><li>Film not impregnable </li></ul><ul><li>More prone to ‘Self healing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior long term stability </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate harmonic overload </li></ul><ul><li>capability </li></ul><ul><li>High dielectric watt loss </li></ul><ul><li>Paper impregnable </li></ul><ul><li>less prone to ‘Self healing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Superior long term stability </li></ul><ul><li>Good harmonic overload </li></ul><ul><li>capability </li></ul>
    27. 27. Mixed dielectric verses MDXL Comparison Mixed dielectric MDXL <ul><li>High dielectric watt loss </li></ul><ul><li>Paper impregnable </li></ul><ul><li>less prone to ‘Self healing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Superior long term stability </li></ul><ul><li>Good harmonic overload </li></ul><ul><li>capability </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest dielectric watt loss </li></ul><ul><li>Combines plus points of MD </li></ul><ul><li>and APP types </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent long term stability </li></ul><ul><li>Superior harmonic overload </li></ul><ul><li>capability </li></ul>
    28. 28. APFC
    29. 29.
    30. 30.
    31. 31. Power factor correction in harmonics enrich environment <ul><li>percentage of Non linear loads in an installation becomes greater than 20% of connected load. </li></ul>Conventional capacitor N/w Harmonics Parallel resonance Current amp Overloading cap Voltage distortion Cap failure
    32. 32. solution <ul><li>Use detuned filter circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid parallel resonance by offering inductive impedance to specific harmonics frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>The tuning frequency is generally lower than 90 % of the lowest harmonic frequency whose amplitude is significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect capacitors from harmonics over loading </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces over loading of transformer and other rotating equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent current amplification </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve consistently high power factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as fixed or APFC </li></ul>
    33. 33. COMPONENTS
    34. 34. CONTROLLER
    35. 35. REACTOR DRY TYPE RESIGN EMBADED
    36. 36. Circuit Diagram
    37. 37. THYRISTER CONTROLLED VAR STATCOM

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