TRAINING  AND DEVELOPMENT
<ul><li>HOW ARE TRAINING NEEDS SPOTTED? </li></ul><ul><li>Identification tools? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Why Training?   </li></ul><ul><li>Sales were flat in spite of variety of  </li></ul><ul><li>advertisements. </li><...
<ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>To train employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Newly hired employees spent a week in the practic...
Why Training? <ul><li>Employees are selected on the basis of their predicted likelihood of succeeding on the job. </li></u...
What is Training? <ul><li>Consists of an organizations planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related knowledge, sk...
Training, Education & Development <ul><li>Refer to the imparting of specific KSA to an employee. </li></ul><ul><li>These t...
<ul><li>Development  refers to those learning opportunities designed to help the organization grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Prov...
Designing Training Programs <ul><li>Assessing training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure readiness for training </li></ul><ul...
Assessing Training Needs <ul><li>Organizational Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at training needs in the light of organiz...
<ul><li>Person Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Process used to determine an individual’s need and readiness to training. </li><...
Plan Training Program <ul><li>Who are the trainees? </li></ul><ul><li>Selected on the basis of self nomination, recommenda...
<ul><li>Methods Of Training </li></ul><ul><li>On-Site Training Methods </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job training </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>2. Job Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Workers rotate through a variety of jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Used with both blue-...
<ul><li>3. Apprentice Training </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest types of training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Particula...
<ul><li>Off-Site Training Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Popular form of instruction. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>2 . Audiovisual Material </li></ul><ul><li>Covers a variety of training techniques such as films, slides and video...
<ul><li>3 . Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses two-way communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective when the ratio of tr...
<ul><li>4.  Programmed Instruction (PI) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves an actual piece of equipment or a specially constructed...
<ul><li>c) Participant answers the first frame. If the answer is correct, then he/she proceeds to the next frame. </li></u...
<ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Time – consuming – Material is broken down into logical steps. Each frame has to b...
<ul><li>Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Most recently developed training. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to ...
<ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to replicate the essential characteristics of the real world necessary to pr...
<ul><li>Many simulations use games. </li></ul><ul><li>Business games  trains employees in certain skills. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at enhancing skills and human relations skills or sales techniques. </li></ul...
Evaluation <ul><li>Main objective is to determine whether the program has achieved the training objectives. </li></ul><ul>...
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T&amp;D

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Training and devlopment in HR

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  • Eg: downsizing requires training for both the people who will be laid off as well as people who will be retained.
  • Interpersonal skills may be taught at universities. Large organizations may have their own training departments.
  • Eg:how to speak a foreign language to how to fly helicopters.
  • Eg; scenario where one participant takes the role of an irrate customer and the other is the clerk who attends the customer.
  • T&amp;D

    1. 1. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
    2. 2. <ul><li>HOW ARE TRAINING NEEDS SPOTTED? </li></ul><ul><li>Identification tools? </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Why Training? </li></ul><ul><li>Sales were flat in spite of variety of </li></ul><ul><li>advertisements. </li></ul><ul><li>Customers attracted by the ads were not coming back. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Identified – Poor customer service </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>To train employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Newly hired employees spent a week in the practice facility. </li></ul><ul><li>This was followed by another week of on-the-job training. </li></ul><ul><li>Training helped to provide quick customer service. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why Training? <ul><li>Employees are selected on the basis of their predicted likelihood of succeeding on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them get time to grow in their new jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>This growth process is helped by the training programs designed for the purpose. </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is Training? <ul><li>Consists of an organizations planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors with the goal of applying these on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles or skills that result in improved performance at work. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Training, Education & Development <ul><li>Refer to the imparting of specific KSA to an employee. </li></ul><ul><li>These terms are somewhat different. </li></ul><ul><li>Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Education is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>These two terms are complementary. No training is complete without an element of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are part of organizational training program. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help the organization grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides general knowledge and attitudes which will help employees in higher positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Training- Operatives </li></ul><ul><li>Development – Higher positions </li></ul><ul><li>Education - General </li></ul>
    9. 9. Designing Training Programs <ul><li>Assessing training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure readiness for training </li></ul><ul><li>Plan Training program </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives, Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Training program </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
    10. 10. Assessing Training Needs <ul><li>Organizational Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at training needs in the light of organizational strategy, resources available for training and management support for training activities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Training is more effective if there is a supportive climate. </li></ul><ul><li>3. It looks at the system wide factors that facilitate or retard transfer of skills. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Person Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Process used to determine an individual’s need and readiness to training. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to answer 2 questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Who within the organization needs training? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What kind of training is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly based on performance appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>Self evaluations are also useful. </li></ul><ul><li>May be directed to future needs. SME’s usually articulate the KSA’s needed for future requirements. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Plan Training Program <ul><li>Who are the trainees? </li></ul><ul><li>Selected on the basis of self nomination, recommendations of supervisors/HR department. </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the trainers? </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate supervisors, peers, HR staff, other specialists, consultants, industry associations and faculty members at universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection will be based on where the program is held and the skill that is being taught. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Methods Of Training </li></ul><ul><li>On-Site Training Methods </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job training </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest and most common method. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are trained on-the-job. </li></ul><ul><li>No special equipment or space is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors are more established workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is by observation and imitation of behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures transfer of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly and poorly structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as nuisance by trainers. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>2. Job Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Workers rotate through a variety of jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Used with both blue-collars production workers and white collar managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Acquaints workers with many jobs in a company </li></ul><ul><li>Gives an opportunity to learn by doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates flexibility and marketability. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides work on systematic basis. </li></ul><ul><li>More common for employees early in their career. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Due to individual differences, people are not equally suited for all jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges the concept of job-person fit. </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to learn is important. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>3. Apprentice Training </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest types of training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly common in skilled trades. </li></ul><ul><li>New worker is “tutored” by and experienced worker for a long period. (5 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice serves as an assistant. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used in plumbing, carpentry and electrical trades. </li></ul><ul><li>Training is intense, lengthy & on a one-to-one basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of time an apprenticeship lasts is pre-determined by members of trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences are not allowed. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Off-Site Training Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Popular form of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>a) Large number of people can be taught at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Utility for imparting specialized knowledge is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>One-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>Effective with a homogenous audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Not the best method for skill acquisition. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>2 . Audiovisual Material </li></ul><ul><li>Covers a variety of training techniques such as films, slides and videotapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Good at capturing interest. </li></ul><ul><li>After the initial cost of creating such a program, the cost of repeated use is minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for training people in a work process or sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to modify audiovisual material. </li></ul><ul><li>Production costs of training films is substantial </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>3 . Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses two-way communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective when the ratio of trainees to trainers is not very large. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful when the material needs clarification/elaboration or when discussion will facilitate understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes lecture method is followed by conference. </li></ul><ul><li>Success of this method depends on the skills and personality of the leader/trainer. </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on the learning principles of motivation and feedback. Participants join in the discussion and then receive feedback on their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to enhance knowledge or attitudinal development. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants willingness to acquire new knowledge or explore attitudinal change influences the success of this method. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>4. Programmed Instruction (PI) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves an actual piece of equipment or a specially constructed paper booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>3 main characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are active and determine their own learning pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to be learned has many discrete pieces of material and participants get immediate feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Material is divided into an organized sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming to develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Common features: </li></ul><ul><li>Frame - Single piece of information presented </li></ul><ul><li>Program – All frames taken together </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>c) Participant answers the first frame. If the answer is correct, then he/she proceeds to the next frame. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Frames are arranged in the exact sequence that occurs in the work process. </li></ul><ul><li>e) Emphasis is on correct answers rather than work speed. </li></ul><ul><li>f) Initially a criterion of mastery has been set, if this level is reached then the training program ends. </li></ul><ul><li>If this criterion is not met then the program is repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>No gaps in presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are active learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient way to train people on material that is structured and rote.. </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Time – consuming – Material is broken down into logical steps. Each frame has to be checked to make sure it is accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Some work procedures are hard to break into exact sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot be used for all training needs. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Most recently developed training. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to teach a wide range of skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Some CAI programs are similar to human interaction. This enhances motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced training time </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of travel for training. </li></ul><ul><li>Self paced learning </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: </li></ul><ul><li>Training program development is far behind computer development. </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to replicate the essential characteristics of the real world necessary to produce learning and transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to produce psychological fidelity – to reproduce those KSA’s necessary to perform the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment is recreated under the control of trainer. </li></ul><ul><li>Permits the trainer to expand, compress or repeat time, depending on the needs of trainees. </li></ul><ul><li>Final job behaviour to be learned is too complex to be handled safely in real-life situation. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Many simulations use games. </li></ul><ul><li>Business games trains employees in certain skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Games may stimulate interpersonal relations, problems, financial, budgeting issues and resource allocation decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>An objective is stated and participants are evaluated in terms of whether they can achieve the objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Business games are used for training managers and executives particularly financial matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with games is that the participants may not take it seriously. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage is a high degree of transfer of training. </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at enhancing skills and human relations skills or sales techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves many people. </li></ul><ul><li>The enactment is followed by a discussion where participants suggest how the problem could be handled more effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Many variations are possible. An enactment may be repeated several times or roles may be switched. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are highly active, understand from others point of view </li></ul>
    26. 26. Evaluation <ul><li>Main objective is to determine whether the program has achieved the training objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine their cost effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>To explain failure of program, if it occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Success enhances the credibility of training and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Four criteria are used to evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction criteria - immediate reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning criteria – How much has been learned </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral criteria – actual changes in performance when back on job. </li></ul><ul><li>Results criteria – economic value of the training program to the company. </li></ul>

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