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ITEM OF WORK
FLOOR FINISHES
FLOOR FINISHES
 Flooring includes a variety of materials that are used to
permanently cover a floor.There are three main ...
 Before constructing the flooring, levelling should be done
and marking should be done on wall at 30 cm above from
requir...
TYPES OF FLOOR FINISHES
TILES
WOOD
PVC
MARBLE
GRANITE
GLASS
NATURAL STONES
TILES
Tiles
 Types : Ceramic, vitrified and glass mosaic.
 Finish : Glossy
 Durability : 10-15 years
 Usage :Tiles are...
 The tiles shall be of approved make and shall generally conform to IS:15622.
They shall be flat and true to shape and fr...
 Mortar shall be spread, tamped and corrected to proper levels and allowed to harden
sufficiently to offer a fairly rigid...
WOODEN FLOORING
 Types : Laminated, grooves, rough, parquet
and real wood.
 Finish : Satin
 Durability : 5-6 years
 Us...
PVC FLOORING
 PVC orVinyl
 Types : Rolls and tiles
 Finish : Matt
 Durability : 4-5 years
 Usage :Vinyl flooring is n...
MARBLE FLOORING
 Types : Sandstone, composite, Kota stone and
white marble.
 Finish : Satin, though you can opt for a gl...
Laying of marble tiles:
Before laying the tiles thin paste of cement
slurry (4.5 kg/m2) is spread and tiles are lid
flat o...
GRANITE FLOORING
 Types : Crystal, honed, polished. It also comes in
various colours.
 Finish : Glossy
 Durability : La...
GLASS FLOORING
 Glass flooring usually employs
toughened/ temepered glass
for load bearing floors
 Usages- residential( ...
STONE FLOORING
 Usage(for residential)- it is the
perfect,permanent solution for
covering basement,garage,and
patio concr...
TYPES OF STONE FLOORING
LIMESTONE
STANDARD
SIZES(CM)
30X30
40X40
60X30
60X40
60X60
90X30
90X60
• Recognized for its great ...
• FINISHES:Natural,caliberated,honed,polish
ed,bush hammered and flamed
• Forms- tiles, slabs, cobbles
IS383-1970
Sandstone
 The entire range is acknowledged
for perfect finish, high tensile
strength, breakage resistance and
durability...
 Specifications:
 Standard Sizes of Sandstone:
 30 x 30 cm (12 x 12 inches)
 40 x 40 cm (16 x 16 inches)
 60 x 30 cm ...
QUARTZITE FLOORING
 This fireproof and non-slippery
stone is widely used in wall-
cladding, roofing, flooring and for all...
COBBLESTONE
 Cobblestone (usually used for old roads) •
cobblestone is used basically to make
pathways, pavements and for...
SLATE STONE
 Slate stone (thin stone flakes, colored gray
to dark gray variants)
• Suitable for exterior and interior app...
PEBBLESTONE
 Pebbles stones (an
aggregate) are used as
decorative landscaping
stones in homes, artificial
ponds, fountain...
 • Specifications:
 • Standard Sizes:
 • 15mm- 30mm
 • 25mm- 50mm
 • 50mm-100mm
 Finishes: Dry tumbled pebbles, wet ...
THANK YOU
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Types of floor finishes

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Types of floor finishes

  1. 1. ITEM OF WORK FLOOR FINISHES
  2. 2. FLOOR FINISHES  Flooring includes a variety of materials that are used to permanently cover a floor.There are three main categories of flooring products-  Commercial-designed for educational, health care, retail,light industrial, office and other commercial settings.Product includes wear-resistant carpets,laminate flooring,ceramic tile.  Residential-designed for bathroom,bedroom,dining room,family room,foyers,home offices,kitchens and living room. Products include ceramic tile,laminates,granite and wood floors.  Industrial-designed for factories, garages, warehouses, etc.Products includes, vinyl tiles, ceramic tiles, granite.
  3. 3.  Before constructing the flooring, levelling should be done and marking should be done on wall at 30 cm above from required level. For this purpose spirit level or mercury level should be used. For better accuracy, water level used by mason (mistry), should not be used. Due to more length of pipe and friction inside the pipe, results are not accurate. One should use long wooden patty while making floors so that floor surface can be flat.  In some places concrete is used before flooring.This concrete is known as subgrade.The places where flooring is done directly on soil, surface should be rammed with the help of wooden hammer, so that the surface should not be settled down. If concrete is used after 24 hours, cement slurry (2 kg cement per square meter) should be laid and then flooring is done. If this concreting is done on ground it is known as base concrete. If it is done on RCC slab, it is known as kusson of size 100 mm and 40 mm respectively.
  4. 4. TYPES OF FLOOR FINISHES TILES WOOD PVC MARBLE GRANITE GLASS NATURAL STONES
  5. 5. TILES Tiles  Types : Ceramic, vitrified and glass mosaic.  Finish : Glossy  Durability : 10-15 years  Usage :Tiles are mostly used for exteriors such as lobby and verandah and can be fitted with cement.  Installation time : 2 days  Cost (per sq ft): Ceramic: Rs 15-40; vitrified: Rs 32-150; glass mosaic: Rs 275-1,200  Labour cost : Rs 10-25 a sq ft  Installation cost for a 12'x12' room : Rs 5,120.  The tiles need to be laid down smoothly. If uneven, air pockets between the tiles will lead to cracks. CERAMICTILES
  6. 6.  The tiles shall be of approved make and shall generally conform to IS:15622. They shall be flat and true to shape and free from blisters, crazing, chips, welts, crawling or other imperfections detracting from their appearance.The tiles shall be tested in accordance with IS:13630.  The tiles shall be square or rectangular of nominal size such as 150 x 150 mm, 200 x 200 mm, 300 x 300 ,The thickness of the tiles shall be 7 mm as specified  Tolerance in SizeThe length of all four sides shall be measured correct to 0.1 mm and average length / breadth shall not vary more than ± 0.8 mm from the specified dimension.The variation of individual dimension from average value of length/breadth shall not exceed ± 0.5 mm.Tolerance in thickness shall be ± 0.4 mm.  NOTE : The actual size of tiles supplied shall be 1 mm less so that with 1 mm joint, the tile when laid shall conform to the nominal size.  The top surface of the tiles shall be glazed and the glaze shall be either glossy or matt as specified.The underside of the tiles shall not have glaze on more than 5% of the area in order that the tile may adhere properly to the base. The edges of the tiles shall be preferably free from glaze. However, any glaze if unavoidable, shall be permissible on only upto 50 per cent of the surface area of the edges.  Preparation of Surface and Laying Base concrete or the RCC slab on which the tiles are to be laid shall be cleaned, wetted and mopped. The bedding for the tile shall be with cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement : 4 coarse sand) or as specified. The average thickness of the bedding shall be 10 mm while the thickness under any portion of the tiles shall not be less than 5 mm.
  7. 7.  Mortar shall be spread, tamped and corrected to proper levels and allowed to harden sufficiently to offer a fairly rigid cushion for the tiles to be set and to enable the mason to place wooden plank across and squat on it.  Over this mortar bedding neat grey cement slurry of honey like consistency shall be spread at the rate of 3.3 kg of cement per square metre over such an area as would accommodate about twenty tiles. Tiles shall be soaked in water washed clean and shall be fixed in this grout one after another, each tile gently being tapped with a wooden mallet till it is properly bedded and in level with the adjoining tiles. The joints shall be kept as thin as possible and in straight lines or to suit the required pattern.  The surface of the flooring during laying shall be frequently checked with a straight edge about 2 m long, so as to obtain a true surface with the required slope.  Where full size tiles cannot be fixed these shall be cut (sawn) to the required size, and their edge rubbed smooth to ensure straight and true joints.  Tiles which are fixed in the floor adjoining the wall shall enter not less than 10 mm under the plaster, skirting or dado.  After tiles have been laid surplus cement slurry shall be cleaned off.  Pointing and Finishing  The joints shall be cleaned off the grey cement slurry with wire/coir brush or trowel to a depth of 2 mm to 3 mm and all dust and loose mortar removed. Joints shall then be flush pointed with white cement added with pigment if required to match the colour of tiles.The floor shall then be kept wet for 7 days. After curing, the surface shall be washed and finished clean. 6.4 Acceptance CriteriaThe finished floor shall not sound hollow when tapped with a wooden mallet.  No loose tiles shall be accepted. Joints cannot be too wide and too narrow, and shall be in straight lines or as per the layout drawing. Joints shall be parallel to wall and orthogonal
  8. 8. WOODEN FLOORING  Types : Laminated, grooves, rough, parquet and real wood.  Finish : Satin  Durability : 5-6 years  Usage :Wooden flooring is mostly used in bedrooms or stairs. It helps keep the room cool in summers and warm during winters, and can be easily laid on the existing floor by using foam.  Installation time : 1 day  Cost (per sq ft): Laminated: Rs 40-60; grooves (4"x8"): Rs 175-200; rough (4"x8"): Rs 200-350; parquet: Rs 50-60; real wood: Rs 300-1,200  Labour cost : Rs 10-15 a sq ft  Installation cost for a 12'x12' room : Rs 7,560  One can use a damp cloth or mop, but never drain it with water for cleaning it. BS-8201 CODE OF PRACTICE for wooden flooring
  9. 9. PVC FLOORING  PVC orVinyl  Types : Rolls and tiles  Finish : Matt  Durability : 4-5 years  Usage :Vinyl flooring is not as hard as marble or tiles and is water-resistant. So, it's suitable for children's room and the kitchen. It can be easily applied with adhesive.  Installation time: 1-2 days  Cost (per sq ft): Roll (6"x50"): Rs 22-25; tile (4"x8"): Rs 60-90  Labour cost : Rs 10-15 a sq ft  Installation cost for a 12'x12' room : Rs 4,968#  The flooring can be easily dented or scratched if you use or drag heavy material.
  10. 10. MARBLE FLOORING  Types : Sandstone, composite, Kota stone and white marble.  Finish : Satin, though you can opt for a glossy one by polishing it or a matt finish through a honed polish.  Durability : 25 years  Usage : Marble is fitted with cement and is suitable for both the exterior and interior of a house.  Installation time : 8-10 days  Cost (per sq ft): Sandstone (2"x2"): Rs 22-25; Kota stone (2"x2"): Rs 25-28; composite: Rs 175- 600; white marble (9"x9"): Rs 60-80  Labour cost : Rs 10-50 a sq ft  Installation cost for a 12'x12' room : Rs 7,488.  It needs regular maintenance and can be easily damaged by acidic chemicals or liquids. It's also slippery when wet.
  11. 11. Laying of marble tiles: Before laying the tiles thin paste of cement slurry (4.5 kg/m2) is spread and tiles are lid flat over it by gently pressing them into the bedding mortar with the help of wooden mallet till levelled surface is obtained.The flooring is then cured for seven days, then grinding and polishing is done in the same manner.These days glazed tiles are commonly used in houses.
  12. 12. GRANITE FLOORING  Types : Crystal, honed, polished. It also comes in various colours.  Finish : Glossy  Durability : Lasts a lifetime with good care.  Usage : It's handy for the kitchen as it is resistant to oil spills, sugary drinks and acid. Honed granite is good for the bathroom.  Installation time : 3-4 days  Cost (per sq ft): Grey: Rs 70-120; pink or white: Rs 70-110; black: Rs 110-190; earthen: Rs 175- 300  Labour cost : Rs 10-50 a sq ft  Installation cost for a 12'x12' room : Rs 14,400  Though it doesn't crack or damage easily, it needs regular cleaning. Polished granite is very slippery when wet.
  13. 13. GLASS FLOORING  Glass flooring usually employs toughened/ temepered glass for load bearing floors  Usages- residential( floors, stairs) commercial SPAN(M) SIZES(MM) TOUGHENED AND LAMINATED GLASS 1.2 2X12 1.5 3X10 1.8 3X12 2.0 4X10
  14. 14. STONE FLOORING  Usage(for residential)- it is the perfect,permanent solution for covering basement,garage,and patio concrete floors even in flood prone areas.  The under layer of the flooring shall be-1:1:2 (cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate)  Basic types of natural stones- limestones,sandstone,quartzites tone,slatestone,cobblestone,pe bblestones.
  15. 15. TYPES OF STONE FLOORING LIMESTONE STANDARD SIZES(CM) 30X30 40X40 60X30 60X40 60X60 90X30 90X60 • Recognized for its great strength as it does not blister upon exposing it to water •Well suited for flooring and paving purposes • Also be used in any weather, as extreme degree of temperature, cold or hot, hardly affects the color and texture of limestone • Generally used as limestone tiles, limestone blocks, limestone slabs, limestone chips in flooring, wall cladding, countertops, fireplace mantels and for pavement of floors of large commercial complexes, hospitals, airports, shopping malls, railway stations, parks etc.
  16. 16. • FINISHES:Natural,caliberated,honed,polish ed,bush hammered and flamed • Forms- tiles, slabs, cobbles IS383-1970
  17. 17. Sandstone  The entire range is acknowledged for perfect finish, high tensile strength, breakage resistance and durability thereby widely used for all types of interior & exterior applications depending upon the imagination of an architect.  Every slab shall be chisel-dressed on all sides to minimum depth of 20mm  Further, it is available in different sizes and finishes like natural, calibrated, honed, polished and flamed.
  18. 18.  Specifications:  Standard Sizes of Sandstone:  30 x 30 cm (12 x 12 inches)  40 x 40 cm (16 x 16 inches)  60 x 30 cm (24 x 12 inches)  60 x 40 cm (24 x 16 inches)  60 x 60 cm (24 x 24 inches)  90 x 30 cm (36 x 12 inches)  90 x 60 cm (36 x 24 inches)  Finishes:Natural, Honed, Calibrated, Sawn, Sandblast Forms:Tiles, Slabs, Blocks  StandardThickness:10- 20mm
  19. 19. QUARTZITE FLOORING  This fireproof and non-slippery stone is widely used in wall- cladding, roofing, flooring and for all types of interior as well as exterior decorations. • Standard Sizes of Quartzite: •30 x 30 cm (12 x 12 inches) • 40 x 40 cm (16 x 16 inches) • 60 x 30 cm (24 x 12 inches) • 60 x 40 cm (24 x 16 inches)  Finishes:Honed, NaturalCleft, Polished, Calibrated,Any cut to size  Forms:Tiles StandardThickness:10 mm - 15 mm
  20. 20. COBBLESTONE  Cobblestone (usually used for old roads) • cobblestone is used basically to make pathways, pavements and for landscaping, cobbles stone are fireproof, need little maintenance and no paint. • Standard Sizes: • 10x10x8 cm/4x4x3 in • 14x14x6 cm/5x5x2 in • 14x14x8 cm/5x5x3 in • 14x20x8 cm/5x8x3 in • 20x10x8 cm/8x4x3 in  Finishes:All sides natural (Hand dressed). Top surface can be honed, Flamed  Forms: Sandstone cobbles, Limestone cobbles, Granite cobbles StandardThickness:6- 8cm/2-3Inch
  21. 21. SLATE STONE  Slate stone (thin stone flakes, colored gray to dark gray variants) • Suitable for exterior and interior applications such as wall-cladding, roofing, flooring, hearths, fireplaces, kitchen, landscaping, driveways, pools, etc • Standard Sizes: • 30 x 30 cm (12 x 12 inches) • 40 x 40 cm (16 x 16 inches) • 60 x 30 cm (24 x 12 inches) • 60 x 40 cm (24 x 16 inches) • 60 x 60 cm (24 x 24 inches) Finishes:Natural,Calibrated, Honed, Polished Forms:Tiles, Slab StandardThickness:10 mm - 15 mm
  22. 22. PEBBLESTONE  Pebbles stones (an aggregate) are used as decorative landscaping stones in homes, artificial ponds, fountains, posh lounges, open air theaters, aquaria, parks, out houses and gardens. • Example of floor finish specifications: Pebble wash-out flooring.
  23. 23.  • Specifications:  • Standard Sizes:  • 15mm- 30mm  • 25mm- 50mm  • 50mm-100mm  Finishes: Dry tumbled pebbles, wet tumbled pebbles, natural river pebbles.The finished surface varies as dry tumbling provides the pebbles a polished and smooth finish in comparison to the wet tumbled stones  Forms: Round, Flat, Oval  StandardThickness:15mm- 4inch diameter
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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