Basics GNU/Linux Commands
#1. ls : list directory contents
If you want to see hidden files/directories (beginning with dot.), the use -a flag.
Check the manual for more detail (man ls).
#2. cd : Change Directory
. represents the current directory
.. represents the parent directory
~ represents the home directory (of the user)
#3. pwd : print the current/working directory
#4. mkdir : make/create directory.
#5. rm : remove/delete file/directory
NOTE : it removes directories only if it’s empty, unless you specify -f flag for force deletion. But you must be careful with the arguments such as -r, -f. (-rf is
#6. sudo : superuser do, to gain root privilege
sudo apt-get install gnome-shell
Then enter your user account password, and you would be able to do administrative tasks like root. So if you’re getting any permission error using a
command, then adding sudo as a prefix, might help.
#7. mv : rename or move a file/directory
mv file1 ~/Downloads/Archive/
the above command will move the file from the current directory to target directory.
mv logo_2.jpg new_logo.jpg
it will rename the file to new_logo.jpg.
#8. cat : View File contents
#9. man : A Reference manual for utils/commands/programs
e.g if you want to know more about rm command, then type –
#10. cp : Copy Files/Directories
cp movie_name.mp4 ~/Downloads/movies/
The above command will copy the movie_name.mp4 to the specified directory.
#11. wget : Download files from server
GNU Wget or wget is very handy in downloading stuffs from internet, over the command line.
#12. gksudo : Run GUI Application with Root privilege
The above command will open nautilus with root privilege. It’s just like sudo, but in GUI mode.
#13. shutdown : To shutdown the computer from terminal
where time can be 0 if you want to shutdown now or specify the exact time such as 10:30.
#14. restart : Restart the computer
These are Ubuntu Specific commands. It Requires root privilege, so just add the sudo prefix before each command (it will ask for the user password and
#15. apt-get : Command Line Tool for handling packages
There are various options such as
install – To install package.
e.g Install the program PyRoom (A distraction Free Text Editor)
sudo apt-get install pyroom
remove – To remove package
sudo apt-get remove kate
update – To update the package cache
sudo apt-get update
#16. add-apt-repository – To add a PPA (for your favorite Application)
e.g add the PPA for the App Eidete (Screencasting program)
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:shnatsel/eidete-daily
After, adding the PPA, apt-get update command is required.
#17. apt-cache : To access the Package details from cache
search : search for the related packages in the apt-cache
apt-cache search image editor