Digitizing the 7 Vectors


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Exploring College Student Digital Identity Development through the lens of Chickering's 7 Vectors

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Digitizing the 7 Vectors

  1. 1. Digitizing  the  7  Vectors:     ì   Exploring  How  College  Students  Develop  their  Digital  Identity   Student  Affairs  Counseling,  M.Ed.  -­‐  Capstone  Research  Project  Defense  –  May  9,  2013  
  2. 2. College  Student  Identity  Development   In-­‐Person  IdenGty   Digital  IdenGty   ì  Personality   ì  Defines  Personality   ì  Values  &  EmoGons   ì  Manages  EmoGons   ì  Religion  &  Spirituality   ì  Displays  Values     ì  Sexual  OrientaGon   ì  Purpose  /  Career  AspiraGons   ì  Family,  Friends,  Partner   ì  IdenGfies  OrientaGon   ì  Defines  Our  Purpose/Goals   ì  IdenGfies  Family,  Friends,   Partner,  etc...  
  3. 3. Photo  Courtesy  of  #WhatShouldWeCallStudentAffairs  Tumblr   Its  all  about  the  Impressions  you  make   One  post,  One  picture,  One  Like  or  Comment  can  define  you...   ì  
  4. 4. W.W.W.   ì  You can learn a lot. ì  Others can learn A LOT about you!!! ì  What do you want them to know??
  5. 5. Great  GPA,  Community   Service,  Greek  Life,  etc...   Your     Stuff  that  makes  you   Billboard   look  GOOD!  
  6. 6. Digital  Brand  Creation  
  7. 7. Limitless  Potential...   Limitless  Virtual  Space...   Every  minute  of  the  day:     •  100,000  tweets  are  sent;     •  684,478  pieces  of  content  are  shared  on  Facebook;   •  2  million  search  queries  are  made  on  google;     •  48  hours  of  video  are  uploaded  to  YouTube;     •  47,000  apps  are  downloaded  from  the  App  Store;     •  3,600  photos  are  shared  on  Instagram;     •  571  websites  are  created  and     •  $272,000  is  spent  by  consumers  online  (Pring,  2012)    
  8. 8. The  concept  of  developing  an  online  presence  in  college   is  simple,  but  for  many  college  students,  there  is  much  in   jeopardy,  whether  they  are  aware  of  the  risks  or  not.       Kevin  Kruger  (2009)  asserts  that  there  is  a  “conflict   between  individual  rights,  privacy  and  claims  of  free   speech  and  the  responsibility  of  colleges  and  universiNes   to  monitor  the  behavior  of  their  students”  (p.  589).     What  is  a  Digital  Identity?  
  9. 9. A  digital  idenDty  (DI)  is  the  extension  of  one's  in-­‐person   idenDty  projected  onto  the  World  Wide  Web  through   social  media  profiles  and  linked  online  accounts.     It  can  be  thought  of  as  a  person’s  individual  brand  and   can  facilitate  both  posiDve  and  negaDve  impacts  on  the   21st  Century  life  experience.     What  is  a  Digital  Identity?  
  10. 10. The  Seven  Vectors...   Chickering  &  Reisser  (1993)   ì  Vector  1:  Developing  Competence   ì  Vector  2:  Managing  EmoGons   ì  Vector  3:  Moving  Through  Autonomy,  Towards  Interdependence   ì  Vector  4:  Developing  Mature,  Interpersonal  RelaGonships   ì  Vector  5:  Establishing  IdenGty   ì  Vector  6:  Developing  Purpose   ì  Vector  7:  Developing  Integrity  
  11. 11. Implications  of  a  Digital  Identity...   Privacy  +  Anonymity    Internet     ì  At  least  27%  of  college  admissions  offices  are  reviewing  applicants’   social  media  profiles  via  Google,  and  26%  check  applicant  Facebook   profiles  during  the  admissions  process.     ì  35%  of  admissions  representaGves  said  that  “they  reviewed   something  on  these  sites  that  negaGvely  affected  a  student’s   chances  of  being  accepted”  (Quinn,  2012).     ì  In  addiGon,  51%  of  employers  are  saying  that  social  media  use  has  a   negaGve  impact  on  workplace  producGvity    (Staffing  Industry  Analysts,  2012).        
  12. 12. Implications  of  a  Digital  Identity...   The  NaGonal  Survey  of  Student  Engagement  (2012)  (NSSE)  found:     ì  89%  of  college  students  use  social  media   ì  40%  of  first  year  students  look  to  social  media  to  find  out  how  to  get   involved  on-­‐campus   ì   90%  of  college  students  are  connected  on  social  media  plaforms  (Dahlstrom,  deBoor,  Grunwald,  &  Vockley,  2011;  Junco,  2011a;  and  Mastrodicasa  &  Metellus,  2013).       ì   “There  is  increasing  evidence  that  social  media  have  a  posiGve   effect  on  a  wide  range  of  personal  and  developmental  outcomes.   Recent  studies  have  shown  that  social  media  have  a  perceived   posiGve  effect  on  emoGonal  well-­‐being,  confidence,  and  sympathy   toward  others  and  lead  to  more  successful  relaGonships  with  friends   and  family  members”  (Common  Sense  Media,  2012;  Kruger,  2013,  p.  32).    
  13. 13. Implications  of  a  Digital  Identity...   ì  “The  manner  in  which  we  engage,   share,  promote,  and  present   ourselves  online  has  become  a   major  facet  in  many  of  our  lives.     ì  No  longer  seen  as  being  separate   from  ‘real  life,’  an  individual’s   digital  idenGty  is  intricately   connected  to  their  overall   idenGty”  (Stoller,  2012a).    
  14. 14. Implications  of  a  Digital  Identity...   ì How  others  perceive  n  which  we  engage,   increasingly   “The  manner  i one’s  digital  idenGty  has  become   significant,  as  it  offers  a  synopsis  optresent   job  candidate,  or  student.     share,  promote,  and   f   he  person,     ourselves  online  has  become  a   College  students,  most  importantly,  need  to  understand  that  they  have   created  a  dfacet  in  many  of  our  lives.     an  account  online.     major   igital  idenGty  the  moment  they  created     They  contribute  to  this  “online  resume”  with  every  Tweet,  ‘like’  or  picture   they  choose  separate   ì  No  longer  seen  as  being  to  post.   from  students  are  unaware  of    the  impact  that  their  digital  idenGty   ‘real  life,’  an  individual’s    If  college   digital  iboth  their  c s  intricately   can  have  on  denGty  iollege  experience  and  future  career  goals,  the   consequences  c their  overall   connected  to  an  be  damaging  to  their  limitless  potenGal.     idenGty”  (Stoller,  2012a).    
  15. 15.   Chickering  &  Reisser’s  7  Vectors   Like  geong  involved  in  college,  “there  is  undoubtedly  much  to  be  gained  from   taking  control  of,  and  acGvely  developing  our  digital  idenGty”          (The  Paradox  of  Openness,  2011).   “AcGvely  creaGng  learning  spaces  that  foster  posiGve  development  of  digital  idenGty  should  be   our  mandate.  It  hasn’t  been  created  (yet),  but  the  addiGon  of  digital  idenGty  to  the  current   canon  of  student  development  theories  seems  like  a  logical  evoluGon”  (Stoller,  2012a).      
  16. 16. Virtual  Vector  1:  Developing  Competence   ì  Competence   Digital  idenGGes  are  created  via  social  media   networking  sites  and  are  proving  to  be  more  than   ì  1.  Intellectual  Competence   just  a  markeGng  tool  for  big  business;  they   ì  2.  Physical  &  Manual  Skills   relentlessly  contribute  to  a  students’  personal   and  professional  online  brand  and  idenGty   ì  3.  Interpersonal  Competence     (Couros,  2012).       •  self-­‐confidence,   •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  persistence,     leadership,     empathy,     social  responsibility,   understanding  of  cultural  and  intellectual  differences  ...     criGcal  thinking,   reflecGve  judgment,   the  ability  to  process  and  use  new  informaGon  and  to  communicate  it  well,     the  ability  to  reason  objecGvely  and  to  draw  objecGve  conclusions  from  data,     the  ability  to  evaluate  new  ideas,  arguments  and  claims  criGcally,   the  ability  to  become  more  objecGve  about  beliefs,  aotudes  and  values”    (Chickering  &  Reisser,  1993,  pp.  54-­‐55)  
  17. 17. Virtual  Vector  2:  Managing  Emotions   ì  “Students  come  to  colleges  loaded  with  emoGonal  baggage”  (Chickering  &   Reisser,  1993,  p.  83)   ì  Oqen,  they  are  unable  to  “escape  anger,  fear,  hurt,  longing,  boredom,  and   tension.  Anxiety,  anger,  depression,  desire,  guilt  and  shame  have  the   power  to  derail  the  educaGonal  process  ...  [and]  these  emoGons  need   good  management”  (p.  46).     ì  Managing  emoNons  digitally  means  engaging  students  to  further   hone  self-­‐asserNve  tendencies.     ì  Student  affairs  professionals  must  acknowledge  distress  signals  that   students  post  online  and  guide  them  toward  appropriate  channels   to  release  their  irritaGons.    
  18. 18. Virtual  Vector  3:  Moving  Through   Autonomy,  Towards  Interdependence   ì  College  students  are  “self-­‐regulaGng,  autonomous   individuals”  (Mastrodicasa  &  Metellus,  2013,  p.  25).       ì  A  “key  developmental  step  for  students  is  learning  to  funcGon  with   relaGve  self-­‐sufficiency,  to  take  responsibility  for  pursuing  self-­‐ chosen  goals,  and  to  be  less  bound  by  others’  opinions”  (Chickering   &  Reisser,  1993,  p.  47).       ì  Students  take  “increasing  responsibility  for  self-­‐support”  as  they   travel  through  this  vector,  and  educators  can  help  students  to   “clarify  goals,  reorder  prioriGes,  and  ask  family  members  to  support   them  as  they  redefine  themselves”  (Chickering  &  Reisser,  1993,  p.   115).  
  19. 19. Virtual  Vector  4:  Developing  Mature,   Interpersonal  Relationships   ì  “In  person  and  online  college  seongs  offer  opportuniGes  for   students  to  learn  about  others  from  different  backgrounds   and  to  establish  mature,  mutual  relaGonships  with   them”  (Renn  &  Reason,  2013,  p.  148).     ì  “RecogniGon  and  acceptance  of  interdependence  is  the   capstone  of  autonomy.  It  cannot  be  experienced  unGl  a   measure  of  independence  has  been  achieved  and  a  sense  of   one’s  place  in  the  community  and  global  society  has  been   awakened”  (Chickering  &  Reissder,  1993,  p.  140).      
  20. 20. Virtual  Vector  4:  Developing  Mature,   Interpersonal  Relationships   ì  “In  person  and  online  college  seongs  offer  opportuniGes  for   students  to  learn  about  others  from  different  backgrounds   The  o  establish  mature,  mutual  relaGonships  with   and  tInternet  is  a  catalyst  for  exploring  idenGty  online,   and  can  showcase  student  capacity   them”  (Renn  &  Reason,  2013,  p.  148).     for  inGmacy  and   vulnerability.  It  also  risks  inappropriate  self-­‐disclosure,   ì  “RecogniGon  and  as  important  ithat  student  affairs   which  is  why  it  i cceptance  of   nterdependence  is  the   capstone  of  autonomy.  It  cannot  be  experienced  unGl  a   professionals  engage  with  students  and  help  them   measure  of  independence  has  been  achieved  and  a  sense  of   develop  their  d community  a and  teach  them  a been   one’s  place  in  the  igital  brand  nd  global  society  has  bout   congruency,  respect,    Reissder,  1993,  p.  140).     awakened”  (Chickering  &honesty  and  responsibility  as  it   relates  to  their  idenGty  (Chickering  &  Reisser,  1993).    
  21. 21. Virtual  Vector  5:  Establishing  Identity   ì  Establishing  idenGty  involves  the  “growing  awareness  of   competencies,  emoGons  and  values,  confidence  in  standing  alone   and  bonding  with  others,  and  moving  beyond  intolerance  toward   openness  and  self-­‐esteem”  (Chickering  &  Reisser,  1993,  p.  173).     ì  “The  hazards  of  [the]  existence  [of  social  media]  force  a  conGnual   process  of  integraGon  and  that  we  struggle,  progress,  and  regress  in   trying  to  maintain  equilibrium”  (p.  174).    
  22. 22. Virtual  Vector  5:  Establishing  Identity   ì  Establishing  idenGty  involves  the  “growing  awareness  of   Digital  idenGty-­‐diffusion  as  a  virtual   competencies,  emoGons  and  vdevelopmental  stage  rin  standing  alone   alues,  confidence  efers  to  a  beginning   point  where  college  students  begin  to  fully  realize  that  each  of  their  online   and  bonding  with  heir  idenGty.     moving  beyond  intolerance  toward   accounts  arGculates  t others,  and   openness  and  self-­‐esteem”  (Chickering  &  Reisser,  1993,  p.  173).       ì  This  unawareness  may  result  in  students  not  experiencing  any  dissonance  (or   crisis)  surrounding  t[the]  rofiles.     “The  hazards  of   heir  p existence  [of  social  media]  force  a  conGnual     process  of  integraGon  and  that  we  struggle,  progress,  and  regress  in   When  students  think  criGcally  about  what  is  appropriate  to  post  on  the  Internet   trying  to  s  naintain  mquilibrium”  (p.  1t74).  tage.     and  what  i m ot,  they   eay  be  experiencing   his  s     Foreclosure  insinuates  that  no  “idenGty  crisis  has  been  experienced”  (Chickering   &  Reisser,  1993,  p.  175),  yet,  virtual  foreclosure  might  also  inform  pracGGoners   that  some  commitments  surrounding  a  student’s  personal  values  and  intenGons   to  be  congruent  have  been  made,  or  are  about  to  be  made.    
  23. 23. Virtual  Vector  5:  Establishing  Identity   continued...   ì  Virtual  moratorium  could  suggest  that  a  student  is  gaining   competence  and  congruency  within  their  social  media  presence,  but   all  the  while  are  sGll  either  in  crisis,  exploring  and  evaluaGng   themselves,  and/or  formulaGng  their  own  values  and  judgments   about  how  they  want  their  personal  brand  to  be  perceived  online.       ì  Lastly,  college  students  may  display  virtual  idenGty-­‐achievement.     ì  The  realizaGon  and  digital  publicaGon  of  persevering  through  a   crisis,  or  life  experience  assists  students  in  commiong  to  and   idenGfying  values  and  aspects  of  their  (digital)  idenGty.    
  24. 24. Virtual  Vector  6:  Developing  Purpose   ì  Chickering  and  Reisser  (1993)  said  that  developing  purpose  “entails   an  increasing  ability  to  be  intenGonal,  to  assess  interests  and   opGons,  to  clarify  goals,  to  make  plans,  and  to  persist  despite   obstacles”  (p.  209).       ì  “Developing  purpose  requires  formulaGng  plans  for  acGon  and  a  set   of  prioriGes  that  integrate  three  major  elements:     ì  (1)  vocaGonal  plans  and  aspiraGons,     ì  (2)  personal  interests,   ì  (3)  interpersonal  and  family  commitments.  It  also  involves  increasing   intenGonality  in  exercising  personal  will  on  a  daily  basis.       ì  To  be  intenGonal  is  to  be  skilled  in  consciously  choosing  prioriGes,  in   aligning  acGon  with  purpose,  in  moGvaGng  oneself  consistently  toward   goals,  and  in  persevering  despite  barriers  or  setbacks”  (Chickering  &   Reisser,  1993,  p.  212).    
  25. 25. Virtual  Vector  7:  Developing  Integrity   ì  Integrity  is  what  you  do  when  no  one  is  watching;  it's  doing  the  right   thing  all  the  Nme,  even  when  it  may  work  to  your  disadvantage.   ì  Integrity  is  keeping  your  word.  Integrity  is  that  internal  compass  and   rudder  that  directs  you  to  where  you  know  you  should  go  when   everything  around  you  is  pulling  you  in  a  different  direcNon.     ì  Some  people  think  reputaNon  is  the  same  thing  as  integrity,  but  they   are  different.     ì  Your  reputaNon  is  the  public  percepNon  of  your  integrity.  Because  it's   other  people's  opinions  of  you,  it  may  or  may  not  be  accurate.   Others  determine  your  reputaNon,  but  only  you  determine  your   integrity  (Qualman,  2012).  
  26. 26. Leaving  a  Legacy...   On  the  Internet,  college  students  are  constantly  seeking  to  affirm  their   core  values,  along  with  their  cyber-­‐friends’.  Digital  Integrity  “permeates   across  the  vectors  to  bring  competence,  emoGons,  relaGonships,   idenGty,  and  purpose  together  in  a  coherent  way  ...       Many  students  may  not  be  ready  to  pull  their  enGre  development  into   congruence,  but  by  poinGng  out  that  this  is  possible-­‐or  by  poinGng  out   when  students’  speech  [including  online  posGngs]  and  acGons  lack   integral  congruence-­‐educators  lay  a  foundaGon  for  potenGal  future   growth”  (Renn  &  Reason,  2013,  p.  149).       It’s  kind  of  like  leaving  a  legacy...  
  27. 27. @PMaxQuinn   What  do  you  want  your  legacy  to  be?   “To  Be  Remarkable,  Means  to  Act  with  AuthenGcity”     “Life  isn’t  about  finding  yourself,  its  about  creaGng  yourself”   For  a  full  list  of  sources,  please  contact  Max  –  pmaxquinn@gmail.com