RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                            Quinn 1                                          	                ...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 2         Women have experienced som...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                      Quinn 3         The formulation of Women...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 4clients’ worldview. Help female cli...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 5movement in the United States (Gutw...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                      Quinn 6place in the world” can become in...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                Quinn 7Norfolk, Plymouth and Barnstable Counti...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                 Quinn 8householders are living without husban...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 9(income-to-poverty ratio) of their p...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 10invisible glass ceiling. The data s...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 11and pathological forces that damag...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                     Quinn 12means to be a Woman, as each indi...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 13         Counseling a lesbian, bis...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 14practices and oppression. All of th...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 15these factors into awareness, and h...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 16Summarizing, reflection, clarificat...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 17may even sacrifice the needs of the...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                      Quinn 185.       Thrice-Black and Foster...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 19         Within the state of Massa...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 20strength. Women are determined to s...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                  Quinn 21bring about social activism in our s...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                 Quinn 22Appendix A - Written Consent: An inte...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                   Quinn 23Appendix B - An interview with a Wo...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                 Quinn 24         A typical challenge that wom...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                Quinn 25Appendix C - Resources for WomenLocal ...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                               Quinn 26The Women’s Center “The Women’s Center ...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                Quinn 27National Organization for Women - NOW ...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                Quinn 28Women’s Education Center  • A comprehe...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                               Quinn 29Appendix D - Women’s Critical Historica...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 30       n 1963 – Congress passes t...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                    Quinn 31       n 1994 – The Violence Agai...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                                  Quinn 32                                    ...
RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism                                              Quinn 33Spain, D. (2011, March). Womens Rights a...
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Counseling Women & Navigating Sexism

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Counseling Women & Navigating Sexism

  1. 1. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 1                 Counseling Women and Navigating Sexism Peter M. Quinn Multicultural Counseling Bridgewater State University    
  2. 2. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 2 Women have experienced some of the greatest degrees of oppression in the history of theUnited States. Men have, since the birth of America, dominated the political and economic worldthat we live in. For the last few centuries, however, women have been fighting for an equal pieceof the American dream, yet have been continuously oppressed and marginalized. Thisdisenfranchised group has overcame some of the most incredible hurdles and persevered throughit all with one goal in mind: fair and equitable treatment. With pioneers such as Susan B.Anthony, Rosa Parks, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, Eleanor Roosevelt, Sojourner Truth, andcountless others, women have sparked one of the most comprehensive and revolutionarymovements in U.S. history. We must understand where women came from and listen to theirvoice in order to help them make more progress towards the fulfillment of the American dream.First, we must start with their worldview, as it will provide us with a lens to empower andsupport them.1. When considering the general worldview of women, we must define what a worldview is.“Worldviews answer basic questions about what exists, how we know it, how things work, whatis good and bad or right and wrong, and who we are” (Jun, 2010, p. 24). American Women sharevalues and worldviews that are centered around perceptions that manifest during childhood (Jun,2010). These perceptions and observations continue to expand as a person grows and develops,creating an internalized assumption of the world and those who inhabit it. Children learn to internalize privilege and oppression at an early age ... Repeated experiences of this type of learning add to one’s intrapersonal communication, which is based on the way one is treated (dichotomously and hierarchically). Repeated inappropriate thinking styles become thinking patterns, and thinking patterns become automatic by internal repetition. The process of learning internalized privilege and oppression is gradual, subtle, and often unconscious. Thus, it is difficult to be aware of internalized privilege and oppression (Jun, 2010, p. 25)    
  3. 3. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 3 The formulation of Women’s feelings and attitudes surrounding equity, gender roles, andidentity are all part of the worldview, values, and the critical norms that this disenfranchisedgroup share. Subjective to the individual, cultural and religious or spiritual backgrounds tend toplay a major role in what a woman values. However, a worldview most certainly varies fromperson to person. A safe way to describe such a diverse worldview may be as follows: somewomen are in support of gay marriage, whereas others may identify with the religious belief thatonly men and women can marry. This example speaks to the variety of values, perceptions andworldviews that women both share, and disagree with. While it may be difficult to pinpointvalues that all women share, some generic values may relate to the entire group; family ispriority, equal rights, freedom of expression, and fair treatment are just some values that mostwomen might identify with. When counseling women, it is important to question and challenge our own positions andvalues as they may relate to our female clients and the issues we are collectively exploring. Aswell, being cognizant of the power differential (especially for those counselors who identify as amale) that exists between clients and counselors is of utmost importance. Maximizing the client’svoice is endemic to counseling women. Counselors should support women in their concernsabout family, their rights, and abilities so that they can feel safe, be heard and a feel a sense ofbelonging, not only in the counseling relationship, but also in the world (McGoldrick, Giordano,& Garcia-Preto, 2005). It is important to take into consideration the following when counselingwomen. Counselors need to help female clients explore the societal myths and labels that theyencounter, and those that are concerning to them. Work with the client to identify harmful andoppressive messages that might be internalized, help to bring about awareness, and collaborate toidentify ways in which you both can change some of the messages that are ingrained in the    
  4. 4. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 4clients’ worldview. Help female clients gain an awareness of the sociocultural forces that affecttheir lives, and empower clients to become change agents in their own lives. All of theseconcepts are overarching therapeutic goals that can help women cope with the oppression thatthey face (Choate, 2009).2. Women have a rich and liberating history within the United States. Gutwill, Gitter, andRubin (2011) talk about the patriarchal constraints that motivate women to fight for their rightsand freedom. Men continually challenged women “against taking [them]selves seriously, takingpower, and ... judging [them]selves exclusively based on [their] bodies, sexual performances, ornurturing activities” (p. 145). This snapshot of oppression provides us with a glimpse of justsome of the struggles that women have faced during their history in the United States. As we participated in building the women’s movement, we worked to expose and struggle against actual violence to women’s bodies—rape, sexual abuse and incest—as well as the lack of birth control information, and the pathologizing of abortion, making it unavailable in safety, when necessary. We also critiqued symbolic violations of women in the form of being judged on the basis of our bodies, persecuted by ‘‘lookism,’’ and encouraged to worry more about being thin than about what we thought about and could contribution to the liberatory struggles of our day (Gutwill, 1994). We struggled for the right to be full partners in social movements rather than just making the coffee, having sex with the leaders and cleaning up the mess. We struggled for access to jobs, equal rights in society and equal pay at work. We struggled for sexual liberation rather than objectification (Gutwill, Gitter, & Rubin, 2011) This quote speaks to the worldview that many women may share. These issues wereprevalent during the women’s right movements, and unfortunately, almost 200 years later, theystill ring true today. Sexist attacks of women, scapegoating, the projection of hatred rage, and aneffort to control a woman’s body have inspired three sources of female oppression andexploitation: Intensified assaults on the female body via mass media, an increased worldwideassault on girls and women through rape, molestation, and sex slavery, and the overwhelmingcontrol over the reproductive rights of women are at the front lines of the woman’s suffrage    
  5. 5. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 5movement in the United States (Gutwill et al., 2011). This backdrop can provide the empathyneeded for therapists when counseling women. In an effort to better understand the individualclient and the issues that they face, counselors should research critical historical experiences thathave plagued women in this country since the 1800s.3. In 1893, Colorado was the first state to adopt an amendment that granted women the rightto vote. With the help of Susan B. Anthony, August 26th 1920 stands as one of the most historicaldays in women’s United States history; the passing of the 19th amendment federallyacknowledges a women’s right to vote. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, theEqual Pay Act, the approval of the Food and Drug Administration to regulate birth control pills,and the National Organization of Women (NOW) are cornerstones of women’s historicalachievements. The Equal Rights Amendment, Title IX, and Roe v Wade all contributed to the fairtreatment of women throughout the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, making them “equitable” partners inAmerica. Although these milestones advanced the ethical and fair treatment of women, they stillface some of the very same issues today that their ancestors faced a hundreds of years ago. In 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay RestorationAct, which empowers women to assume their right for fair and equal treatment and pay in theworkplace. Being aware of such historic events will help counselors to evaluate social factorsthat impact the lives of their clients, and will inspire clients to develop and recognize their ownpersonal sense of power, and its’ correlation to connectedness (Choate, 2009). The above-mentioned historical events and experiences have severely impacted thedevelopment of the female identity, and are infused into the values, behaviors, and “ways ofbeing” for the American Woman. As a “dynamic interplay between an individual and thesociocultural context” of their being, “the organization of self-understanding that defines one’s    
  6. 6. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 6place in the world” can become ingrained in one’s identity (Jun, 2010, p. 285). These events canhelp a women understand why they have been oppressed, why the faced such struggles, and thereasons to keep addressing concerns that inhibit their happiness in society. A woman’s personalidentity, social identity, and cultural identity are connected, and interwoven to make up the fabricof the individual. Counselors can help women overcome issues related to their identity byempowering them to confront challenges, and by helping them to acquire new skills that willbring about change in their environment and replace internalized messages with self-enhancingbeliefs (Jun, 2010; Choate, 2009; Corey, 2009). The impact of critical historical events, such as legalized abortion, personal safety, theright to vote, and equal pay opportunities, are some of the most important issues facing thepursuit of gender equality (Spain, 2011). Gerald Corey (2009) and Daphne Spain (2011) suggestthat counselors need to understand the ways sexist and oppressive societal beliefs, such as thoseevidenced in this analysis, can impact women clients in very negative ways. In order to affectpositive social change, counselors must evaluate the social factors facing their client, and assessthe impact on their ability to express all aspects of themselves versus feeling limited intraditionally held expectations or stereotypes. Spain (2011) proposes that women need to learnhow to value their strengths and positive qualities in an effort to challenge internalized messagesthat women are subject to believing in. Understanding the impact of such issues and their effecton the counseling relationship is a major competence counselors must possess if they wish toempower women to view gender from a strengths-based and holistic perspective (Spain, 2011).4. In the 2010 United States Census, Massachusetts was estimated to have a total populationof 6,547,629, with women accounting for more than half of the state’s residents (3,381,001).There are 1,013,088 women out of the 1,956,649 total populations of Bristol, Dukes, Nantucket,    
  7. 7. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 7Norfolk, Plymouth and Barnstable Counties that make up Southeastern Massachusetts (2010Census). Comparing Massachusetts to the total population in the United States, the 2010 U.S.Census estimates that there are 308,745,538 people living in America, and women still accountfor (156,964,212) 51% of the total population. In the U.S., There are 9,881,935 females under 5years old (6.3%); 9,959,019 5 to 9 years old (6.3%); 10,097,332 10 to 14 years old (6.4%);10,736,677 15 to 19 years old (6.8%); 10,571,823 20 to 24 years old (6.7%); 10,466,258 25 to 29years old (6.7%); 9,965,599 30 to 34 years old (6.3%); 10,137,620 35 to 39 years old (6.5%);10,496,987 40 to 44 years old (6.7%); 11,499,506 45 to 49 years old (7.3%); 11,364,851 50 to 54years old (7.2%); 10,141,157 55 to 59 years old (6.5%); 8,740,424 60 to 64 years old (5.6%);6,582,716 65 to 69 years old (4.2%); 5,034,194 70 to 74 years old (3.2%); 4,135,407 75 to 79years old (2.6%); 3,448,953 80 to 84 years old (2.2%); 2,346,592 85 to 89 years old (1.5%);1,357,162 90 years and older (0.9%); accounting for in the U.S. to have a median age of 38.5years old (35.8 compared to men’s median age) (2010 Census). Women are living longer thanmen, as well; there are more women than men living in the United States. Yet, women are themajority and still considered an oppressed group. Subgroups that make up the female populationin the United States can be identified as White, African American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian,American Indian, Alaskan, Native, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, Central American,South American, and many more that were not included in the 2010 Census. Related to households and families, the 2010 Census accounts for 116,716,292 totalfamily households in the United States. Of which, 21% or 24,573,779 women are householders.There are 39,177,996 nonfamily households, and 20,718,743 female nonfamily householders(17.8%), along with 17,298,615 (14.8%) of women living alone (6.7% are 65 years of age orolder). 56,510,377 husband-wife families are living in the United States, but 15,250,349 female    
  8. 8. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 8householders are living without husbands present in their families. 65% of women living withouthusbands in their households are living with related children that are under 18 years old. 54.9%are living with their own children whom are under 18 years old (11.2% are under 6 years old and33.7% are aged between 6 to 17 years old). It should be known that same-sex couple households(about 1% of all households in MA and .7% of all households in the U.S.) are included in thefamily household category, and same-sex couples with no relatives are included in the nonfamilyhousehold statistics (2010 Census). The median household income for the average American family was $49,445 in 2010,which hit a 2.3% decline from 2009 (2010 Census). Household family income declined by 1.2%($61,544), and nonfamily household income decline by 3.9% ($29,730). Female householders(no husband present) were identified in the 2010 Census as earning a median income of $32,031,(which decreased by 3.3.% since 2009) and Female householders in nonfamily householdsearned a median income of $21,234 with a decline of 0.9% since 2009. In the northeast UnitedStates, the median household income was $53,283, with full-time workingwomen earning$42,834 compared to men who earned $56,412 reports the 2010 Census. This data suggests thatmen earn 39% more than women on the average annual salary. Women with a documenteddisability only earned an average of $31,851 in 2010, compared to men with a documenteddisability earning on average $41,506. Between 1960 and 2010, women have increased theirmedian earnings from about $20,000 to $36,931, compared to men who have increased theirearnings from about $35,000 in 1960 to $46,715 in 2010 (2010 Census). In total, male workershave earned $81.2 million since 1960 and women only $42.8 million, a 53% margin ofdifference in total net earnings over the last 50 years. 51.2% of women earn income below 200%of their poverty threshold says the 2010 Census, with men earning only 43.6% under 200%    
  9. 9. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 9(income-to-poverty ratio) of their poverty threshold, which suggests that women have not beenable to make much progress in relation to equitable pay, regardless of legislation that has beenpassed. The 2010 Census reports that female’s ages 25 to 44 years old earned, on average,$30,455, compared to a male within the same age range who earned $38,211. Female’s with lessthan a 9th grade education level earned $13,943 in 2010; 9th to 12th grade (non-High Schoolgraduates) earned $15,650; High School graduates (including GED) earned $21,452; somecollege women (no degree achieved) earned $26,615; Associates Degree’s earned women$31,537; and Bachelor’s Degree holding women earned $45,232 who, compared to men, earned$63,265 with a degree at the Bachelor’s level or higher. This is a 39% difference in pay forobtaining the same degree. A larger proportion of women than men had completed high school or more education. A larger proportion of men had received at least a bachelor’s degree. However, because women 25 years old and over outnumber men aged 25 and over, the number of women with bachelor’s degrees is larger than the number of men with these degrees. Among people aged 25 to 34, the percentage of women with a bachelor’s degree or higher was 35 percent compared with 27 percent of men ... Gender differences in education continue to exist. In 2009, a larger proportion of women than men had completed high school with a high school diploma, some college, associate’s, and master’s degrees. On the other hand, a higher proportion of men had completed high school with a GED, as well as bachelor’s, professional, and doctorate degrees. Although women 25 years and over were less likely than men to have bachelor’s, professional, or doctorate degrees, they were still ahead of men by some measures. Because there were more women than men 25 years old and over, the number of women with a bachelor’s degree or higher (28.7 million) was greater than the number of men with a bachelor’s degree or higher (27.7 million). In addition, among people aged 25 to 34, the percentage of women with a bachelor’s degree or higher was 35 percent compared with 27 percent of men (2010 Census) Needless to say, the 2010 Census reveals shocking, but expected, earning differentialsbetween men and women. Even though women aged 25 years or older outnumber men, men stillearn, regardless of the degree attained, on average, .60 cents more to the dollar more thanwomen, so it is no wonder why it seems almost impossible for a women to break through the    
  10. 10. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 10invisible glass ceiling. The data suggests that women may never be able to reach the social statusor gain the social power that men have simply due to their earnings ratio. Men earn more moneyand therefore have privilege over women in regards to economic and social status, solely basedon the amount that they earn. Pay rate issues have been affecting women for hundreds of years,and although legislation has been passed through the executive branch of the government (e.g.,Lily Ledbetter Act), women remain in a high-risk situation that impacts their (monetary) worthin the economic arena. This will always be a challenge that women have to face, and it seemsthat no amount of litigation will cease to close the earnings gap between men and women. Evenholding the same degree, a woman, on average, earns about 40% less than a man. Knowing this,we must look to counseling theories to best be able to reach our female clients.6. “A feminist standpoint is an epistemological position with Marxian roots: a position forwhich the divisions of labor within a society produce knowledge, and theories of knowledge, thatattest to divergent perspectives on the relations of human beings with one another, and with thenatural world. It celebrates the transformative potential of the knowledge available, throughstruggle, to oppressed groups who (often as a consequence of participation in consciousness-raising) can achieve a firsthand awareness of the institutions and power” (Hedman, p. 86).“Although significant advances have been made to refine theory and practices in this area duringthe past several decades, there is a call for continued attention to girls’ and women’sdevelopment, counseling concerns, and approaches that best meet their needs” (Choate, 2009, p.179). This continued attention has been highlighted by Corey (2009), who believes thatpersonal counseling is a legitimate way to manifest change. Therapy, as Corey (2009) suggests isa partnership between equals that “builds mutuality” and should focus on the “social, political,    
  11. 11. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 11and pathological forces that damage and constrain girls and women, as well as males” (p. 343).Feminist Therapy is the ideal counseling lens to utilize when working with women. Its’ diversefocus is on the specific problems and issues the most women in the United States are facing(body image, abusive relationships, eating disorders, incest, and other sexual abuse trauma).Feminist Therapy advocates for social activism and helps individuals overcome the “limits andconstraints of traditional gender-role socialization patterns” (Corey, 2009, p. 343). Enns,Sinacore, Ancis, & Phillips (2004) tell us that “multicultural counselor training approachesemphasize communication and pedagogy within the counseling relationship and differ in termsof how culture is defined as well as the extent to which they emphasize the role of culturalinfluences in peoples lives, the goals of training, and the content and process of training” (p.421). They suggest that there are four approaches to counseling women. The first is the Post-Modern Feminist Perspective, which proposes specific goals of the therapeutic process: (a) developing a "third eye" or self-reflective awareness of the changing contexts in which oppression and empowerment occur; (b) being observant of the complex intersections of power, privilege, race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and how they affect the learning process; and (c) using this information to deal with difference effectively and develop flexible, "situated" ways of seeing themselves and the world. Important pedagogical questions focus on the meaning of difference, and how gender and other social identities are created and modified (Enns, Sinacore, Ancis, & Phillips, 2004) The second approach is titled: Women of Color Feminisms. Enns et al. (2004) value thepersonal experience of racism to be more “visible, virulent, and commonplace than is sexism” (p.415). A major component of this approach is to eliminate forms of oppression (racism, sexism,heterosexism, and classism). It is very important for counselors to recognize the importance ofexamining the oppression and double binds faced by women and men of color (Enns, et al.,2004). Spelman (1988, p. 102) said that "all women are women, there is no being who is only awoman". This speaks volumes to multicultural counseling. There is no one definition of what it    
  12. 12. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 12means to be a Woman, as each individual interprets that meaning for her (or him) self.Multicultural counselors must place emphasis on the centrality of a woman’s self-definition(their voice), and analyze the interlocking aspects of their oppression (Collins, 2000). The features women are presumed to have in common ... are in fact features that only some women have in common. ... [W]omanness is inseparable from other aspects of one’s identity (such as race and class) and thus individual women do not share womanness ... [S]ince womanness is socially constructed and social construction differs from one society to the next, womanness is a culturally specific feature and that women with similar racial, cultural, and social backgrounds share a particular gender. Feminist positions that endorse gender realism are mistaken ... because they rely on a false metaphysical picture wherein women ... share a single feature constituting womanness. Spelman’s train of thought has convinced many to reject gender realism as untenable. Iris Marion Young, for instance, has claimed that with these arguments “Spelman shows definitively the mistake in any attempt to isolate gender from identities of race, class, age, sexuality, ethnicity, etc., to uncover the attributes, experience, or oppressions that women have in common” (Mikkola, 2006, pp. 78-79) This quotation is at the core of multicultural counseling. Women in therapy cannot befully understood unless gender, race, social class, disability, sexual orientation, and other factorsthat affect their social opportunities are considered (Choate, 2009). The third approach that Enns,et al. (2004) identify is Lesbian Feminism and Queer Therapy. Lesbian feminists view issues related to sexuality and sexualized images of women as central to the analysis of womens oppression. Heterosexism and "compulsory heterosexuality" (Rich, 1980) support the assumptions that heterosexuality is the only natural form of emotional and sexual expression, male-female relationships are a fundamental building block of society, and same-sex intimate relationships hold no social reality. Lesbian feminists note that womens subordination to men is often solidified through various heterosexual norms and traditions, including heterosexual romantic traditions and rites of passage, womens acts of caring for men, heterosexual pornography and erotica, and heterosexualized humor and dress. They deconstruct heterosexist assumptions as well as affirm lesbian life experiences such as: (a) the impact of growing up lesbian in a heterosexual society; (b) the "coming out" process; (c) lesbian culture and lifestyles; (d) lesbian intimate partnership and parenting; (e) differences between lesbian and gay identity; and (f) the life experiences of lesbians from diverse race, ethnic, and class backgrounds (Calhoun, 1997; Kitzinger, 1996). Lesbian feminists also emphasize the centrality of social activism. For example, the act of "coming out" requires a public declaration of ones sexual orientation, which makes lesbian experience visible and decentralizes heterosexuality (Enns, et al., 2004, p. 416)    
  13. 13. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 13 Counseling a lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered woman, as this quotation suggests, isunique to that individual, and it is very important to hear the person’s voice, and empower themto strive for social activism. Counselors must assess the clients comfort level in relation to the“coming out” process, their openness to share, reflect, and challenge their perception of theirself, and the potential challenges facing them. Counselors should “seek to create environmentswhere "coming out" and "being out" are valued as personal and political statements” and shouldunderstand that “both lesbian feminism and queer theory emphasize the importance of: (a)exploring multiple identities and their relationship to oppression, (b) deconstructing assumptionsabout normative heterosexuality as well as the subtle ways in which heterosexism permeatespsychological theory and notions about normality, (c) emphasizing social action, and (d)appreciating the diversity among those with marginalized sexualities” (pp. 416-417). In the final approach, Enns et al. (2004) discuss is Transnational Feminism. Thisapproach speaks to women’s experiences across national boundaries. Global and transnationalfeminisms analyze interdependencies of women in order to understand interconnections betweenreligion, colonialism, nationalism, multinational systems and gender. “Global feminisms alsochallenge feminists to acknowledge how western feminisms have sometimes promoted intrusive,patronizing, or disrespectful treatment of women around the world. One western ethnocentricpractice is the tendency to view women in many parts of the world as passive victims who needwestern womens expertise and insights to overcome oppression” (Enns et al., 2004, p. 417). Sextrafficking, tourism, prostitution, sexual violence, and the exploitation of women are majorfocuses of the global feminist therapist (Enns et al., 2004). This attention to the national andglobal issues that women face is an important and unresolved issue that counselors must becomeaware of and be willing to explore with women who may be affected by various cultural    
  14. 14. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 14practices and oppression. All of the four approaches mentioned in this analysis stem from thecontextual intersection of the issues that women are constantly facing: gender, privilege, race,class, and sexual orientation (Enns et al., 2004). The four forces of Counseling are, psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, existential-humanistic, and multicultural. Corey (2009) describes Cognitive Therapy as a framework toaddress problems that manifest “from commonplace processes such as faulty thinking, makingincorrect inferences on the basis of inadequate or incorrect information, and failing to distinguishbetween fantasy and reality” (p. 287). Multicultural counselors who are serving women shouldseek to help the client overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking,behavior, and emotional responses that play into their identity, self-efficacy, and worldview.Helping women to develop skills that will modify their beliefs is a vital aspect of therapy. Assistwomen in identifying the cause of their disoriented thinking, and empower them to changenegative behaviors that contribute to their oppression should be a major focus of the counselor. Alimitation of cognitive therapy when using it with women may be the inability to change thebehavior of others (those who are perpetuating the oppressive behaviors and stereotypes) and itseffect on women’s self-esteem and privilege. However, cognitive therapy may help in assistingwomen to understand that although they may not be able to control others, they can control theirown behavior. This is when empowerment can be brought into the counseling relationship, andchallenge women to change their reactions to others behavior, or initiate social activism. According to Freud, “behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconsciousmotivations, and biological and instinctual drives that evolve through key psychosexual stages”(Corey, 2009, p. 61). The psychodynamic force speaks to the irrational, or unconscious, drivesthat determine human behavior, experience, and cognition. Counselors must attempt to bring    
  15. 15. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 15these factors into awareness, and help women to understand the impact of their experiences andthe role they play in their development. The events that occur in early childhood play a majorrole in sculpting a person’s perception of the world, and the development of one’s personality.Conflicts occur as a result of the conscious view of reality and unconscious material attribute toanxiety, depression, and other mental health issues that woman commonly face. Counselors muststrive to “make the unconscious motives conscious, for only then can an individual exercisechoice. Understanding the role of the unconscious is central to grasping the essence of thepsychoanalytic model of behavior” (Corey, 2009, p. 62). Sometimes choice is not an option, andmore environmental factors influence the issues that a woman is facing. With this limitation,counselors should understand the cultural context behind an issue, and allow the authentic voiceof the client to remain present. Only then can the counselor empower their client to movetowards the achievement of the therapeutic goals. A common stereotype of women is that they are too emotional. Behavioral theories speakto the acting, thinking and feeling of the client, and help them in understanding why they feel theway they do, and how to modify behaviors so that they can achieve happiness and positive self-efficacy. The goal is to modify the person’s environment in order to effectively alter the client’sbehavior. Counselors will want to spend time dealing with the client’s current problems, andthose factors that influence them, instead of focusing on the “historical determinants” of theproblem (Corey, 2009). Conducting a behavioral analysis (functional assessment) will help toidentify the dimensions of the problem(s) and the potential consequence(s) of said issue. TheABC model (Corey, 2009) “addresses antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. This model ofbehavior suggests that behavior (B) is influenced by some particular events that precede it, calledantecedents (A), and by certain events that follow it called consequences (C)” (p. 239).    
  16. 16. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 16Summarizing, reflection, clarification, and open-ended questioning are just some of thetechniques that Corey (2009), B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura suggest that a counselor use toidentify goals and treatment plans when working with clients. No problem can be resolved without addressing the Humanistic, or Holistic approach tothe human existence. Counselors should work with clients equitably to investigate the clients’creativity, free will, and “human potential”. The existential view of human nature, as Corey(2009) suggests speaks to the basic dimensions of the human condition and their potential: Thecapacity for self-awareness; freedom and responsibility; creating one’s identity and establishingmeaningful relationships with others; the search for meaning, purpose, values, and goals; anxietyas a condition of living; and the awareness of death and nonbeing are all essential in helpingwomen work through and understand the issues that they are confronted with. People areinherently good, and it is the counselor’s role to shed light on this issue and help womenunderstand the power they do have, and enable them to create positive change for themselves. The multicultural force speaks to the context of the person and the acknowledgement ofthe issues of the oppression, privilege, and power that the client is facing. Women experiencepower and privilege in different ways, so it is very important to define the context of the concern,and allow for the authentic voice of the client shine through. These forces are extremelyimportant factors that make up the counseling relationship, and should be highlighted in order toallow a woman’s voice to truly be heard.7. As a supplement to this analysis, the author conducted a brief qualitative interview with a27-year-old female who spoke to some of the issues women in America face. Education is acommon value that most women share, and should be regarded as a main component of theiridentity, however, family may be the most important value that a woman subscribes to. Women    
  17. 17. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 17may even sacrifice the needs of the self in order to serve the needs of their families. Theyunderstand the impact of the familial relationship, and will work relentlessly to make their familyhappy, even if it means forgoing their own happiness. Women are proud to be women, yet theystruggle with the way men continuously act towards them. Women are continuously “catcalled”and have to deal with feeling scared or unsafe, and like they can’t protect themselves when beingsubjected to such abuse. Women dress the way they want to be treated is another commonstereotype, and one that bothers a lot of them. In most cases, women are working harder thenmen, and still are unable to get ahead. Oppression in the form to making judgments based onwhat women are wearing is a battle that men continue to win. Another typical challenge that women face is constantly having to prove oneself as beingcompetent. There are many times when a woman’s voice is not heard. Sometimes a male withsame idea as a woman gets the job, promotion, or credit for idea, when in fact, it was the womanwho was more credible or had the original thought in the first place. Counselors need to be open-minded and understand that women enter the counseling relationship with different backgrounds,education, and ways of being. A person’s sex should not matter to a counselor, and they shouldenable the individual’s voice to be heard. Women want counselors to listen to what they have tosay and understand where they are coming from (sociocultural context). They are asking forcounselors (and men alike) to truly listen to their stories, and not judge them based on theirphysical appearance or history of their ancestors. A counselor should never generalize onewomen with another simply based on hearing similar scenarios or stories. Each woman is anindividual, and deserves the counselor’s full attention and empathy. When facing issues thatthey cannot solve on their own, women may seek the help of formal counseling, familymembers, doctors, or other people whom they can trust.    
  18. 18. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 185. Thrice-Black and Foster (2011) suggest that women may seek out their physicians advicewhen dealing with issues of fatigue, overwork, and lack of sexual interest in their relationships: Contemporary sociocultural constructions of motherhood, coupled with unrealistic media images, are incongruent with the realities of motherhood and the challenges of reassembling sexual identity, self-image, and sexual scripts. Feminist-informed counseling may offer an engaging and affirming crucible within which mothers, especially those with young children, can construct a fresh, personally identified sexual self, exploring the connections between sexual desires, practices, attitudes, ideals, and duties that shift throughout their lifespan. Corey (2009) affirms that “the majority of clients in counseling are women, and themajority of psychotherapy practitioners at the master’s level are women” (p. 341). Knowing thatwomen may feel more comfortable confiding and seeking advice from other women, it isimportant for counselors to embrace Feminist Therapy. Feminist Therapy was developed bywomen (the developers - Jean Baker Miller, MD; Carolyn Zerbe Enns, PhD; Oliva M. Espin,PhD; & Laura S. Brown, PhD), and incorporates a therapeutic lens from the perspective (voice)of a female (Corey, 2009). Aside from physicians and female counselors, some women may seekthe company of their female friends or family members that may or may not have experiencedsimilar issues that they are seeking to resolve. The interview that the Author conducted broughtthis aspect to light. Lots of decisions or conflicts revolve around the family and it appears thatwomen may choose to put the families’ needs first and above their own. When in conflict,women may tend to consult with female friends or other females within their family such asmothers, aunts, cousins, or grandmothers. Religion, spirituality and a women’s culturalbackground may also determine whether counseling is an appropriate avenue to explore for theindividual. It is difficult to pinpoint just one source of support for women seeking counseling.Different types of people, relational statuses, and religious affiliation all play a role in the peoplethat a woman will choose to seek help from.    
  19. 19. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 19 Within the state of Massachusetts there are numerous agencies and organizations thatprovide support services for women, whether they be social or counseling based. The Women’sCenter (405 County Street, New Bedford, MA - 508. 996.3343 & 209 Bedford Street, FallRiver, MA - 508.672.1222) has a 24-Hour Hotline (508.999.6636) and seeks to empower andsupport positive choices for women. As well, they educate and take action in the localcommunity in order to prevent oppression and violence against women(http://www.thewomenscentersc.com/). The Massachusetts Domestic Violence Advocates &Support Contacts host a website that lists support contacts and resources listed by county forthe state of Massachusetts. They offer help with abuse in relationships, sexual victimization,stalking, provide statistics, victim Assistance, public arrest records, overview of laws, aspects ofabuse, and much more (http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/states/massdv.shtml). Similarly, TheWomen’s Center (46 Pleasant Street, Cambridge, MA - 617.354.6394) is an anti-racistcommunity center for women that fight for women’s rights and are against all forms ofoppression (http://www.cambridgewomenscenter.org/). These resources, and many others, canbe found online by conducting a basic search for women’s support services in Massachusetts.Countless other online and in-house resources are available to Massachusetts’ women and forwomen all across the country. The most important piece is for women to seek help when needed,and not wait until the problem or concern becomes unmanageable. Regardless of the issues thatwomen face, they have many strengths that are vital to their happiness and success.8. It would be stereotypical to believe that women are weak, and that only men can bestrong. Women are strong in many physical and mental ways that prove this to be a falseaccusation. There are countless female athletes who are stronger, faster, and more competentthan men, as well; the educational background of a woman can be a considered another great    
  20. 20. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 20strength. Women are determined to succeed, and prove to men that they are equal to them in avariety of ways. Perseverance, hard work, and empathy are some core strengths that womenshare. These three assets are what have given women the drive to fight tirelessly for their rightssince the 1840s (and even earlier). When thinking about the counseling process, counselors cansurely capitalize on these strengths. Counselors should work towards empowering women to takeaction and make personal and behavioral changes so that they can rid themselves of stereotypicalassumptions and live a life that is harmonious and fair. Knowing that a woman will be likely towant to persevere and work hard, counselors can prescribe homework, and collaborate toredefine goals that will help women make progress towards living in a better and more equitablesociety. When counselors are empathetic, they show women that they are hearing them, and arein-tune with their struggles. Likewise, women can empathize with one another, and form bondsthat will provide them with support. Capitalizing on these three strengths will help counselors toempower women and strengthen the individual person. Although women have dealt with muchoppression during their time in the United States, today’s Woman is stronger than ever, and evenmore equipped to affect social change in America. Over the past 170 years, women have been engaged in a battle for equality. Fairtreatment, equal rights, and a stake in America’s future have been some of the reoccurringthemes that women have been fighting for. With the dawn of the 21st Century, women have seenradical changes in the world, and should feel empowered to keep fighting for what is right, just,and fair. The future for Women in the United States is bright, and counselors are assisting increating positive social change each and every day that they are working with female clients.Utilizing the counseling interventions and approaches highlighted in this analysis, as well asformulating a multicultural competence will provide counselors with the tools to continue to    
  21. 21. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 21bring about social activism in our society. Women are the greatest stakeholders America has, andit would be to our detriment to continue to oppress a group that has so much to offer. Pioneers inthe women’s suffrage movement have laid a foundation that will benefit American women forthe hundreds of years to come, and the hard work and perseverance of these sojourners haveinspired women (and men) all across America to challenge the way things are in an effort tocreate a better and more equitable America for us all.    
  22. 22. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 22Appendix A - Written Consent: An interview with a WomanI, _______________________________________________ (please print name) freely give myconsent to be interviewed by __________________________________, who is a student atBridgewater State University; I understand that the interview will be videotaped. I alsounderstand that the videotape will only be used for educational purposes and will be shown tograduate students who are enrolled in the Bridgewater State University Multicultural Counselingclass, which is being taught by Dr. Maxine L. Rawlins. Finally, I understand that if thevideotape was to be used for any other purpose, that I would need to provide additional writtenconsent._________________________________________ (Interviewee Signature)_________________________________________ (Witness/Interviewer Name) (Print)_________________________________________ (Interviewer Signature)_________________________________________ (Date)    
  23. 23. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 23Appendix B - An interview with a WomanSUMMARY- A brief qualitative interview with a 27-year-old female: Women deserve respect, and should be addressed in a respectful way that is ageappropriate. Older individuals do not always support being addressed as “Ma’am”, so it is a bestpractice to use the suffix Ms. or to simply ask if you can call them by their first name. Educationis a common value that most women share, and should be regarded as a main component of theiridentity. Women with terminal degrees are proud to be called Dr., and it is important toacknowledge them for all the hard work that went into gaining such a title. Also, family may bethe most important value that a woman subscribes to. Women take pride in being female, andtruly do enjoy shopping and participating in “girly hobbies” such as getting their nails and hairdone, and engaging in thoughtful discussions with other female friends. Women are strong in many physical and mental ways. There are countless female athleteswho put the stereotype that “women are weaker than men” to bed, as well; the educationalbackground of a woman can be a considered a great mental strength that is quite competitivewith men. Being treated equal to men, gaining equitable pay rates, and battling with the glassceiling are challenges that women still face today. On the other side of this pride for beingfemale, women struggle with the way men continuously act. Getting “catcalled” and dealing withmale privilege can scare women and make them feeling unsafe and like they can’t protectthemselves. This is a despicable act, and men who do this should feel ashamed for demeaningwomen. Women dress the way they want to be treated is another stereotype that haunt women allacross America. In most cases, women are working harder then men, and still are unable to getahead, yet these stereotypes (and many others) seem to be a major cause of the challenges thatawait women when they leave their homes.    
  24. 24. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 24 A typical challenge that women face is constantly having to prove oneself as beingcompetent. There are many times when a woman’s voice is not heard. Sometimes a male withsame idea as a woman gets the job, promotion, or credit for idea, when in fact, it was the womanwho was more credible or had the original thought in the first place. Counselors need to be open-minded and understand that women enter the counseling relationship with different backgrounds,education, and ways of being. A person’s sex should not matter to a counselor, and they shouldenable their individual voice to be heard. Listen to what women they have to say and understandwhere women are coming from (sociocultural context), and truly listen to their stories. Don’tgeneralize one women with another simply based on hearing similar scenarios or stories. Eachwoman is an individual, and deserves the counselor’s full attention and empathy.    
  25. 25. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 25Appendix C - Resources for WomenLocal Community Support Agencies / Organizations for WomenThe Women’s Center “To empower and support positive choices for all and to educate and take action in the community for the prevention of oppression and violence” • 405 County Street - New Bedford, MA - 508. 996.3343 • 209 Bedford Street, Fall River, MA - 508.672.1222 o 24-Hour Hotline - 508.999.6636 • Website: http://www.thewomenscentersc.com/Center for Women & Enterprise Education, Training, Technical Assistance, Women’s Business Enterprise Certification • Boston - 24 School Street - 7th Floor - Boston, MA - 617.536.0700 • Worcester - 50 Elm Street - 2nd Floor - Worcester, MA - 508.363.2300 • Providence - 132 George M. Cohan Blvd. - 2nd Floor - Providence, RI - 401.277.0800 • Website: http://www.cweonline.org/New Women’s Center, Inc. A nonprofit organization that educates pregnant women in crisis, and offers counseling and support services: Pregnancy tests, Medical referrals, Housing referrals, Food program alternatives, Emergency assistance, Educational referrals, Social agency referrals, Emotional support, Maternity clothes, Baby clothes, food, and adoption information. • 2645-A Main Street - Springfield, MA - 413.455.3493 • Website: http://www.newwomenscenter.org/The Divorce Center Mission: “We lessen fear through knowledge. We educate parents about the effects of divorce on their children. We provide assistance and training for the professional community. We provide referral services directly to those going through divorce.” Support groups, Parent education, & Resources for all • Riverside Center - 275 Grove Street - Building Two, Suite 400 - Newton, MA - 888.434.8787 • Website: http://www.divorcenter.org/resources/supportgroups.phpArmenian International Women’s Association “Our objective is to create a safe environment for women – a place where they receive support,empathy, and the knowledge that they are not alone in their struggles. Women are provided with practical learning about domestic violence, as well as counseling that bolsters self-esteem and confidence.” • 65 Main Street, #3A - Watertown, MA - 617.926.0171 • Website: http://aiwainternational.org/initiatives/womens-support-center    
  26. 26. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 26The Women’s Center “The Women’s Center is an anti-racist community center for women - fighting women’s rights and against all forms of oppression” • 46 Pleasant Street - Cambridge, MA - 617.354.6394 • Website: http://www.cambridgewomenscenter.org/Massachusetts Domestic Violence Advocates & Support Contacts See website for support contacts in your county! Resources listed by county for the state of Massachusetts: Abuse in relationships, SexualVictimization, Stalking, Statistics, Victim Assistance, Bookstore, Public Arrest Records, Laws, Aspects of Abuse, and much, much more! • Website: http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/states/massdv.shtmlWomen’s Support Group: Online Meet-up Groups Local support groups for women • Websites: http://womens-support-group.meetup.com/cities/us/ma/boston/ o http://womens-support-group.meetup.com/cities/us/ma/bridgewater/ o http://womens-support-group.meetup.com/cities/us/ma/worcesterOnline Resources for WomenActionAid • A website dedicated to ending poverty and the injustices that cause it. o http://actionaidusa.org/what/womens_rights/?gclid=CMDN_qz7r7ACFUOo4Aod _z1iUg oFeminist.com • “Whether youre a student who stumbles upon our site while researching a term paper, a veteran feminist who proudly identifies with the "f-word," or someone curious about the vast ways that womens issues intersect with every other part of life, we welcome you and hope you find great value from visiting Feminist.com” o http://www.feminist.com/Feminist Geek • Online resources related to Women’s history, Non-Western Women’s history, Western Women’s history, Women’s Studies, and general web archives related to Women, technology, and online media. o http://feministgeek.com/bibliography/index.htmlGender & Sexism • Online resources that relate to Gender and Ethics: Court decisions, Commission Reports & Documents, Gender-Related Web Sites, Online Surveys, NPR’s Talk of the Nation, A Bibliographical Survey of Philosophical Literature on Gender, Recent Literature on Gender, and Suggestions for Discussion Questions and Term Paper Topics. o http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Applied/Gender/index.asp    
  27. 27. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 27National Organization for Women - NOW • An online resource that raises awareness of the issues facing Women in the US: “domestic violence; sexual assault; sexual harassment; violence at abortion clinics; hate crimes across lines of gender, sexuality and race; the gender bias in our judicial system that further victimizes survivors of violence; and the violence of poverty emphasized by the radical rights attacks on poor women and children”. o http://www.now.org/issues/violence/Online Resources for Feminist Activism • An A-Z listing of online resources available to women from across the country. Sponsored by Stanford University Women’s Community Center. o http://studentaffairs.stanford.edu/wcc/resources/activismSexism Resources • Sexism resources on marriage and divorce, birth and death, prejudice and equality, war, peace, and human rights, care for the planet, wealth and poverty, and genetic engineering. o http://www.rsrevision.com/GCSE/christian_perspectives/prejudice/sexism/resourc es.htmTasmania Department of Education Website • Online articles and print publication resources related to sexism. o http://www.education.tas.gov.au/school/health/inclusive/antidiscrimination/sexis m/resourcesUnderstanding Prejudice • An amazing resource that features links and articles to websites related to Sexism, Women’s Rights, Violence towards women, feminism, sexual harassment, gender inequality, and many more topics! o http://www.understandingprejudice.org/links/sexism.htmViolence Against Women Online Resources - VAWOR • “A cooperative project of the Office on Violence Against Women and the Minnesota Center Against Violence & Abuse at the University of Minnesota”. o http://www.vaw.umn.eduWe Help Women • A online resource that provides programs and courses in career for women, finances, and personal development, empowerment, and leadership. o http://www.wehelpwomen.com/Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000 • A resource capturing Women’s history in the US. More than 105 document projects/archives and 4,100 documents and 150,000 pages of additional full-text sources. o http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/index.htm    
  28. 28. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 28Women’s Education Center • A comprehensive website that offers resources related to Women’s health, finances, work life, and much more! o http://www.womenseducationcenter.com/Women’s Health Online Resources • Links and resources related to Women’s health. Complete health library, glossary of medical terms, diseases and conditions, tests and procedures, wellness library, interactive tools, dietary guidelines, audio podcasts, video podcasts, e-newsletters and much more! o http://nyp.org/health/women-online.htmlWomen’s Studies Online Resources • In partnership with the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, this website provides information on web resources, women’s studies, women’s issues, as well as many programs and information related to gender issues. o http://userpages.umbc.edu/~korenman/wmst/    
  29. 29. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 29Appendix D - Women’s Critical Historical Events (U.S.)1848 - 1893 n 1848 – 1st Women’s Rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, NY n 1850 – 1st National Women’s Rights Convention takes place in Worcester, MA n National Conventions were held yearly through 1860 n 1869 – National Woman Suffrage Association was formed n GOAL: Achieve voting rights for Women via Congressional Amendment to US Constitution n Wyoming passes 1st women’s suffrage law – Women begin serving on Juries in 1870 n 1890 – National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) is formed – Waged state-by-state campaigns to obtain voting rights for women n 1893 – Colorado is 1st state to adopt amendment granting women the right to vote. n Utah & Idaho in 1896 n Washington State in 1910 n California in 1911 n Oregon, Kansas & Arizona & 1912 n Alaska & Illinois in 1913 n Montana & Nevada in 1914 n New York in 1917 n Michigan, S. Dakota, & Oklahoma in 19181896 – 1920 n 1896 – National Association of Colored Women is formed n 1903 – National Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) is established – Advocates for improved wages and working conditions for women n 1913 – Congressional Union is formed to obtain passage of federal amendment to give women the right to vote. Later named National Women’s Party n 1916 – 1st US Birth-Control Clinic is opened in Brooklyn, NY n Clinic was shut down 10 days later, but in 1923, Margaret Sanger opened another clinic in New York City n 1919 – The Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment (written by Susan B. Anthony) is passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate. Sent to states for Ratification. n August 26, 1920 – 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote is signed into law!1921 - 1964 n 1921 - Margaret Sanger founds the American Birth Control League n Later evolves into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1942 n 1935 – National Council of Negro Women is organized n 1936 – A federal law to prohibit the dissemination of contraceptive information through the mail is modified and birth control information is no longer classified as obscene n 1955 – Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) is founded as the first lesbian organization in the US n 1960 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Birth Control Pills n 1961 – President John F. Kennedy establishes the President’s Commission on the Status of Women    
  30. 30. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 30 n 1963 – Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, making it illegal for employees to pay a woman less than what a man would make doing the same job n 1964 – Title VII of the Civil Rights Act bars discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex1964 - 1972 n 1964 – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is established to investigate complaints and impose penalties n 1965 – Griswold v Connecticut -Supreme Court decision to prohibit the use of contraceptives by married couples n 1966 – The National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded n 1967 – Executive Order 11375 expands affirmative action policy of 1965 to cover discrimination based on gender n 1968 – The EEOC rules that sex-segregated help wanted ads in newspapers are illegal n 1969 – California becomes the 1st state to adopt a “no fault” divorce law, which allows couples to divorce by mutual consent n By 1985 every state had adopted a similar law n 1972 – The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is passed by Congress n Eisenstadt v Baird - Supreme Court rules that the right to privacy includes an unmarried persons right to use contraceptives n 1972 – Title IX of the Education Amendments bans sex discrimination in schools n As a result, enrollment of women in athletic programs and professional schools increases dramatically1973 - 1978 n 1973 – Roe v Wade – Supreme Court established a women’s right to safe and legal abortion, overriding the anti-abortion laws of many states n 1974 – The Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibits discrimination in consumer credit practices on the basis of sex, race, marital status, religion, national origin, or receipt of public assistance n 1976 – The 1st marital rape law is enacted in Nebraska, making it illegal for a husband to rape his wife n 1978 – The pregnancy Discrimination Act bans employment against pregnant women. A woman cannot be fired or denied a job or a promotion because she is or may become pregnant, nor can she be forced to take a pregnancy leave if she is willing and able to work1984 – 1999 n 1984 – EMILY’s List (Early Money Is Like Yeast) is established as a financial network for pro-choice Democratic women running for national political office n 1986 – Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson – Supreme Court finds that sexual harassment is a form of illegal job discrimination n 1992 – Planned Parenthood v Casey – Supreme Court reaffirms the validity of a woman’s right to abortion under Roe V Wade    
  31. 31. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 31 n 1994 – The Violence Against Women Act tightens federal penalties for sex offenders, funds services for victims of rape and domestic violence, and provides for special training of police officers n 1996 – United States v Virginia – Supreme Court rules that all-male Virginia Military School has to admit women in order to continue to receive public funding n 1999 – Kolstad v American Dental Association – Supreme Court rules that a woman can sue for punitive damages for sex discrimination if the anti-discrimination law was violated with malice or indifference to the law, even if the conduct was not especially severe2003 – 2012 n 2003 – Nevada Department of Human Resources v Hibbs – Supreme Court rules that states can be sued in federal court for violations of the Family Leave Medical Act n 2005 – Jackson v Birmingham Board of Education – Supreme Court rules that Title IX also inherently prohibits disciplining someone for complaining about sex-based discrimination n 2006 – Supreme Court upholds the ban on the “partial-birth” abortion procedure – Upholds the Partial-Birth Abortion Act n 2009 – President Obama signed the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allows victims of pay discrimination to file a complaint with the government against their employer within 180 days of their last paycheck. n 2010 – Don’t’ Ask Don’t Tell Repeal Act is signed into Law by President Barack Obama n 2011 – US Department of Education holds its first-ever Federal LGBT Youth Summit in Washington, D.C. n 2012 – March was proclaimed Women’s History Month by President Barack Obama    
  32. 32. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 32 References2010 Census Interactive Population Search. (n.d.). In US Census Bureau. Retrieved June 22, 2012, from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/ipmtext.php?fl=25 http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p60-239.pdf http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p20-566.pdfChoate, L. H. (2009, March). Girls’ and Women’s Issues in Counseling: A Theory-Based Course Design [Electronic version]. Counselor Education & Supervision, 48, 179-190.Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought (2nd ed.). New York: RoutledgeCorey, G. (2009). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.Enns, C. Z., Sinacore, A. L., Ancis, J. R., & Phillips, J. (2004). Toward Integrating Feminist and Multicultural Pedagogies.Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from Academic Search Premier.Gutwill, S., Gitter, A., & Rubin, L. (2011). The Women’s Therapy Centre Institute: The Personal is Political. Women & Therapy. doi:10.1080/02703149.2011.532703Hedman, C. (1991). Will the "Good Enough" Feminists Please Stand Up? Social Theory and Practice, 17(1). Retrieved June 15, 2012, from Academic Search Premier.Jun, H. (2010). Social justice, multicultural counseling, and practice: beyond a conventional approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Ethnicity & Family Therapy (Third ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Mikkola, M. (2006). Elizabeth Spelman, Gender Realism, and Women. Hypatia, 21(4). Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Academic Search Premier.    
  33. 33. RUNNING HEAD: Women & Sexism Quinn 33Spain, D. (2011, March). Womens Rights and Gendered Spaces in 1970s Boston [Electronic version]. Frontiers: A journal of women studies, 32(1), 152-171.Spelman, E. (1988). Inessential woman. Boston: Beacon PressTrice-Black, S., & Foster, V. A. (2011, April). Sexuality of Women with Young Children: A Feminist Model of Mental Health Counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(2). Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Academic Search Premier.    

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