1 Form A -‐ Critical Evaluation Counseling & Development Form A -‐ Theory: Reality Therapy Name: Peter Max Quinn Critical Evaluation Format Dr. Ciri -‐ CN528 Counseling & Development Date: December 12, 2011 KEY Concepts of Reality Therapy: View of Human Nature / Basic Assumptions Underlying Reality Therapy • Choice theory posits that we are not born blank slates waiting to be externally motivated by forces in the world around us. Rather, we are born with five genetically coded needs • Human beings are motivated to change once they determine that what they are doing is not getting them what they want • When students believe they can choose other behaviors that will get them close to what they want, they are more likely to change! • Because we are by nature social creatures we need to both receive and give love • The need to love and to belong is the primary need because we need people to satisfy the other needs • Our brain monitors our feelings to determine how well we are doing in our lifelong effort to satisfy these needs • Whenever we feel bad, one or more of these five needs is unsatisfied • We do not need to satisfy our needs directly • We keep track of anything that does not feel good and store information inside our minds to build a file of wants, called our Quality World -‐ At the core of our lives: The world we would like to live in if we could o The quality world consists of specific images of people, activities, events, beliefs, possessions, and situations that fulfill our needs. It is like a picture album we develop of specific wants we well as precise ways to satisfy them o Students choose to behave in a way that gives them the most effective control over their lives o Some picture may be blurred, and the professionals role is to help students clarify them o Pictures exist in priority for most, yet students have difficulty identifying their priorities • All we ever do from birth to death is behave and, with rare exceptions, everything we do is chosen • Every total behavior is our attempt to get what we want to satisfy our needs MOST Important Concepts • Choice Theory -‐ We Choose our own Destiny • Total Behavior: Our best attempt to get what we want (Fulfill needs and wants) o The student must have control over heir actions o Acting o Thinking o Feeling o Physiology § Every total behavior is our best attempt to get what we want § Change language (use a verb): Stan Feels Depressed, Angry & Anxious to Stan is depressing, Angering, Anxietying • 5 Basic Needs: o Survival o Love o Belonging o Power or Achievement o Freedom o Fun • Focus on the unsatisfying relationship, or the lack of relationship, which is often the cause of students’ problems • Do not listen long to complaining, blaming, and criticizing, for these area the most ineffective behaviors • Give little attention to self-‐defeating total behaviors • Emphasize Choice & Responsibility o If we choose all we do, we must be responsible for what we choose o As students begin to feel good about themselves, it is less necessary for them to continue to choose ineffective & self-‐destructive behaviors
2 Form A -‐ Critical Evaluation Counseling & Development Therapeutic Process: Most important Therapeutic Goals • To help students find better ways to meet their 5 basic needs • Changes in behavior = Satisfaction of basic needs o Personal Growth o Improvement o Enhanced Lifestyle o Better decision making Functions and Role of the Student Affairs Professional • Challenge students to examine what they are doing, thinking, and feeling to figure out if there is a better way for them to function • Use Reality (or Choice) Therapy with Behavior Therapy for a better result in student change • Teach students choice therapy so that they can identify unmet needs and try to satisfy them • Assist students in prioritizing their wants and uncovering what is most important to them • Don’t ever lose sight of the fact that students are responsible for what they do • Change the focus of responsibility to choice and choosing • Focus on areas where students have choice, for doing so gets them close to the people they need • Convey the idea that no matter how bad things are there is hope! • Instill a sense of hope in students, they will feel that they are no longer alone and that change is possible • Function as an advocate • Be gentle, but firmly confronting • Q: Is what your choosing to do brining you closer to the people you want to be closer to right now? • Q: Is what you are doing getting you closer to a new person if you are presently disconnected from everyone? • Self-‐evaluation is key! • Foster a supportive and understanding relationship The students’ role in the Therapeutic Process • Not expected to backtrack into the past or talk about symptoms • Talk about feelings related to acting and things as part of total behaviors that they have direct control of • Self-‐Talk: I can begin to use what we talked about today in my life • Self-‐Talk: I am able to bring my present experiences to therapy as my problems are in the present and my therapist will not let me escape from that fact Applications: Techniques and procedures of Reality Therapy-‐ -‐Techniques and Methods applicable to Reality Therapy practice in Student Affairs-‐ • WDEP -‐ Wants, Doing, Evaluation, Planning & Commitment o Q: What do I want? o Q: What am I doing to get what I want? § Q: How much effort am I putting into it? o Q: Is it working? o Wants: § Exploring wants, needs, and perceptions § Q: What is it that you want? § Q: What are you doing now to get what you want? § Q: How much effort are you devoting to get what you want? § Q: How do you perceive yourself & significant others in your life? § Q: Are you meeting your basic needs? o Doing: § Focusing on what the student is doing (behavior) and the direction this is taking them § How does the student spend heirs’ time? -‐ Explore this with them § Discuss core beliefs, ineffective, & effective self-‐talk § Explore the direction total behavior is moving the student § Q: What are you doing? § Q: What do you think to yourself? § Q: What do you ask of yourself? § Q: What are you currently doing & to what degree is it working?
3 Form A -‐ Critical Evaluation Counseling & Development § Q: Is your present behavior helping you to get what you want or hurting you and your significant others? § Q: Are your wants realistic and attainable? § Q: If you had in your life what you wanted at this point, what would that be like? o Evaluation: § Challenging students to make an evaluation of their total behavior § Behavior, what is the constant? Variable = Students’ Behavior § The “Cornerstone” of procedures § Q: How willing are you to make a searching self-‐evaluation? § Q: What would you want most to accomplish in your life in the next few years in these areas: Emotionally, Socially, Spiritually, Professionally, Physically, Family Relationships? § Q: What actions or thoughts would you like to change because they are not working for you? § Q: What are your assumptions? § Q: To what degree do you think you are getting what you want? o Planning & Commitment: § Help the student change the direction of their lives § Formulate realistic plans and make a commitment to carry them out • Choose a particular target area that the student decides is important • Plans should be simple, attainable, measurable, immediate, and controlled (by C. & student) § Q: Are you ready to make plans to more effectively meet your needs? § Q: Would you be willing to write down a plan for change? § Q: What will help you follow through with your plan and make a commitment to change? § Q: If you follow through on your plan how might your life be different? • Use a contract with students -‐ They help the student articulate that they plan to do to make change in their life o Pinning Down Technique: Helps the student to be specific in when and how they will follow through with their plan § Outlines the WHEN? • Positive-‐Addicting Behaviors -‐ Behavior that without doing the student feels a void (social media) o Socially appropriate ways that have meaning and fill voids in students lives: Exercising, Praying, Meditating, Helping others, Volunteering -‐Major strengths of Reality Therapy from a diversity perspective-‐ • Reality therapists respect the difference in worldview between themselves and their students • Counselors demonstrate their respect for the cultural values of their students by helping them explore how satisfying their current behavior is both to themselves and others • Help students formulate realistic plans that are consistent with their cultural values • Allow the student to select what behavior(s) need to be changed, not the counselor • Challenges students to arrive at their own answers • Focus on thinking and acting rather than on identifying and exploring feelings, many students are less likely to display resistance to this form of counseling -‐Evaluation of Reality Therapy as it relates to Student Affairs-‐ • Reality therapy consists of the cycle of counseling: The Counseling environment & Specific procedures that lead to behavior change • Reality therapist (SA Professional) acts as a teacher, a mentor, and a model, confronting students in ways that help them evaluate that they are doing and whether their behavior is fulfilling their basic needs without harming themselves of others • Teach students to learn how to make better and more effective choices and gain more effective control • Students must take charge of their lives rather than being victims of circumstances beyond their control • Focus on what students are able and willing to do in the present to change their behavior • Teach students how to make significant connections with others • Ask students to evaluate the effectiveness of what they are choosing to do to determine if better choices are possible • Weaves together the counseling environment and specific procedures that lead to changes in behavior • Enables students to move in the direction of getting what they want • The goal is for behavioral change, better decision making, improved significant relationships, enhanced living and more effective satisfaction of all the psychological needs
4 Form A -‐ Critical Evaluation Counseling & Development -‐The most significant contributions of Reality Therapy as it applies to Student Affairs -‐ • Provides students with tools to make changes they desire • Focus on positive steps that can be taken, not on what cannot be done • Students identify target problems and those become the targets of change • Short-‐term focus • Deals with conscious behavioral patterns • Students self-‐evaluation, a plan of action, and a commitment to following through are the core of this therapeutic process • Strongly encourages students to engage in self-‐evaluation, to decide if what they are doing is working or not, and to commit themselves to do what is required to make changes • -‐The most significant limitations of Reality Therapy -‐ • Reality therapy may not take into account some very real environmental forces that operate against them in their everyday lives • Discrimination and racism are unfortunate realities, and these forces do not limit many minority students in getting what they want from life • If counselors do not accept certain environmental restrictions, students may be likely to feel misunderstood • Because of oppression and discrimination, some students have fewer choices available to them, yet they do have choices • Some students are very reluctant to directly verbally express what they need • Reality therapy does not give adequate emphasis on the role of insight, the unconscious, the power of the past, and the effect of traumatic experiences in early childhood, the therapeutic value of dreams, and the place of transference • Focus is exclusively on the consciousness, it does not take into account factors such as repressed conflicts and the power of the unconscious in influencing how we think, feel, behave, and choose.