Is self-coordinated better? 13Brown, T. M., & Miller, C. E. (2000). Communication networks in task-performing groups: Effects of task complexity, time pressure, andinterpersonal domi- nance. Small Group Research, 31, 131–157.
Team building heuristics: True or false? In my team there is [something]... How do I solve it?What do I do whena team member does [X]? The product owner does not listen to the team: what can I do? 22
Team Cohesion • Belonging and Morale • Tendency to stick together • Trust and teamwork • Strong social forces to be a team • Belonging to something larger • Inclination to form social bonds 23Lott, A. J., & Lott, B. E. (1965). Group cohesiveness as interpersonal attraction: A review of relationships with antecedent and consequent variables.Psychological Bulletin, 64, 259–309.Nixon, H. L. (1979). The small group. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Thye, S. R., Yoon, J., & Lawler, E. J. (2002). The theory of relational cohesion: Review of a research pro- gram. In S. R. Thye & E. J. Lawler (Eds.),Group cohesion, trust and solidarity (pp. 139–166). New York: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.Festinger, L. (1950). Informal social communication. Psychological Review, 57, 271–282.Chan, J., To, H., & Chan, E. (2006). Reconsidering social cohesion: Developing a deﬁnition and analytical framework for empirical research. SocialIndicators Research, 75, 273–302.Casey-Campbell, M., & Martens, M. L. (2008). Sticking it all together: A critical assessment of the group cohesion-performance literature.International Journal of Management Reviews, 10, published online, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2008.00239.x.
Cohesion: Multi-Component Process • No “typical” cohesive group • No “core components” of cohesion • Components: • Social • Task • Emotional • Perceived 24Dion, K. L. (2000). Group cohesion: From “ﬁeld of forces” to multidimensional construct. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 7–26.Friedkin, N. E. (2004). Social cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 409–425.
Some ideas... • Smaller group => higher probability of cohesion • Stable teams => increase cohesiveness • Initiation to the group => investment in the group 25Many. For example:Henry, K. B., Arrow, H., & Carini, B. (1999). A tripartite model of group identiﬁcation: Theory and measurement. Small Group Research, 30, 558–581.
No conﬂicts in my team! Good or bad? 26Fisher, B. A. (1980). Small group decision making (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cohesive group... Good or bad? 27For example:Beal, D. J., Cohen, R. R., Burke, M. J., & McLendon, C. L. (2003). Cohesion and perfor- mance in groups: A meta-analytic clariﬁcation of constructrelations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 989–1004.Carron, A. V., Colman, M. M., Wheeler, J., & Stevens, D. (2002). Cohesion and performance in sport: A meta analysis. Journal of Sport and ExercisePsychology, 24, 168–188.Gully, S. M., Devine, D. J., & Whitney, D. J. (1995). A meta-analysis of cohesion and performance: Effects of level of analysis and taskinterdependence. Small Group Research, 26, 497–520.
Cohesive groups and performance What is the cause and what is the effect? 28Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integra- tion. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 210–227.
Experimental results • Faster delivery • Less creative solutions • Increasing time pressure later does not impact creativity 32http://sgr.sagepub.com/content/24/2/179.abstracthttp://sgr.sagepub.com/content/21/3/283.abstract