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•Phulkari is a rural tradition art of crafting embroidered odhni
(head drape or shawl) used by women in Punjab, literally meaning
" flower work ", linked integrally with events considered to be
milestones in a woman's life.
• “PHUL” means “flower “and “KARI” means work. Also known as
“Gulkari” a very intricate needle work, along with bright coloured
threads mainly red, orange, blue, green, etc.
•The Phulkari is more than just an item of clothing; it’s a part of an
ethos steeped in social and ritualistic traditions.
ORIGIN
•Phulkari is brought to the Indian Subcontinent by the migrant Jat
people of Central Asia in ancient times.
•Techniques and patterns of phulkari were not documented but
transmitted by word of mouth. Hence, each regional group was
identifiable by its unique embroidery work.
•The tradition of phulkari was often associated with the Sikh heritage
but as it was also shared with Hindus and Muslims, it happens to be
more geographically specific than religiously specific.
GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN
•Phulkari has been mentioned in the famous, Punjabi folklore of
Heer Ranjha (a love tale) by Waris Shah whose ancestors migrated
to India from Iran.
• Its present form and popularity goes back to 15th century, during
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Reign.
•The embroideries were a mere reflection of their life. Things that
they see, observe, vegetables that they eat, animals that they
owned, were embroidered. Every woman had her way of
embroidery, her way of representing.
HISTORY
PHOTOGRAPHS FROM HISTORY
Group of Punjabi Ladies, Circa 1905(Clifton and Co., Bombay)
•Embroidery work was invariably made on a plain cotton fabric
(khaddar) whose thread was manually spinned, loomed and dyed
with natural pigments.
•The actual embroidery was done with a Pat, the Punjabi word for
untwisted floss silk yarn. This yarn was sourced from China or
Afghanistan, and then dyed in Jammu and Amritsar.
MATERIALS
•Phulkari plays a very important role in a girl’s life. Birth of a girl marks
the beginning of the child’s grandmother of the task in creating the
future bride’s trousseau, which is worn by the bride when she walks
around the sacred fire during her wedding ceremony.
•When a woman gives birth to a boy she is given a Phulkari which is
worn by her when she goes out for the first time after delivery, and
during any religious festivals. Likewise when a lady dies her body is
covered with Phulkari.
•Phulkari was never fabricated for sale; it was embroidered by a family
for its own use.
IMPORTANCE OF PHULKARI
Khaddar could be of four colours,
White is given to mature women or widows
Red is associated with youth and is most widespread tone
Black and blue colours were kept for everyday worn shawls as they
prevented from revealing stains and dirt.
Importance of color threads,
Red symbolize passion,
White symbolize purity,
Golden or yellow symbolize desire and abundance,
Green symbolize nature and fertility,
Blue symbolize serenity,
Purple symbolize a symbiosis between red's energy and blue's calm,
Orange symbolize a mix of desire and divine energy.
IMPORTANCE OF COLOR
•Phulkari drapes had small amount of embroidery on them with floral
and geometrical motifs being predominant.
•The motifs in simple phulkari drapes as well as in elaborate bagh
pieces comprise of compositions that include not only flowers and
geometrical designs but also other symbols and items that are part of
the everyday life of the women who embroider these pieces.
•A name was given to a particular kind of embroidered bagh.
MOTIFS
Mirchi
Gulkerian
Velanian
Teen Patti
EXAMPLES OF MOTIFS
The motia- jasmine flower
The surajmukhi- sunflower
The genda- marigold
Lotus plant- kamal
Karela- bitter gourd
Gobhi- cauliflower
Dhania- coriander
Kanki- wheat
Mirchi- chilli
Lehriya bagh –wave
Mor -Peacock
Recently new motifs have been developed known as Parantha
(originally with eight colours), Kanchan Design, Butti Design etc.
POPULAR MOTIFS
EXAMPLES OF MOTIFS
EXAMPLES OF MOTIFS
•The embroidery is done for most part upon khaddar of irregular
thickness, generally with between 10-12 wrap threads per cm.
•Khaddar was woven in narrow strips and sewn together for the
required width.
•Designs and symmetries are created by embroidering from the back
face of the cloth. Hence, it was easier to embroider the fabric first and
then dye the base fabric(with such a preparation that the silk thread
does not get colored) so that the warps and wefts on the lighter color
are clearly visible.
TECHNIQUES
•Some times pattern to be embroidered were drawn on the fabric before
phulkari is done on khaddar.
•Most of the time, patterns to be embroidered were not drawn on the fabric
beforehand, the embroiderer had to count each thread of the khaddar with
meticulous care to build the designs.
•When a section of embroidery was completed, the fabric was rolled in a
clean white cloth to keep it from soiling while work continued on an
unembroidered part.
•As it was easier to count the threads of a light coloured khaddar than of a
dark one, it happened sometimes that the fabric was dyed only after the
embroidery work was achieved, by such techniques cotton is coloured but
not silk
TECHNIQUES
BLOCK PRINTED PATTERNS FOR PHULKARI
EMBROIDERY WITH STITCH COUNTING
DYING AFTER EMBROIDERY
A "chope" phulkari on beige khaddar,
probably before the embroidered piece got
dyed
A "chope" phulkari on red khaddar,
probably after the embroidered piece got
dyed
•Darning stitch was the most commonly used technique to make
phulkari and the quality of a piece could be measured according to
the width of this stitch. The narrowest was the stitch, the finest was
the piece.
•In order to create an unusual design or to border the khaddar, some
other stitches like the herringbone stitch, running stitch, Holbein
stitch or button hole stitch were occasionally used.
•To fill in the motif either satin stitch or a variation known as stop
stitch was preferred.
STITCHES
COMMON STITCHES OF PHULKARI
•There are mainly two types of phulkari
Bagh- Bagh literally means “garden of flowers”, and the term
distinguishes the flowered Phulkari is that the embroidery is so
profuse that the ground colour is no longer visible thus the
embroidery becomes the fabric itself.
Chope- Chope is usually embroidered on the borders. It is gifted
to the bride by her grandmother during some ceremony before
wedding.
•The “Chope” is embroidered straight with two sided line stitch which
appears same on both the side. Unlike Phulkari and Bagh where a variety
of colours are used, Chope is generally embroidered with one colour
(Golden or yellowish golden mostly).
TYPES OF PHULKARI
BAGH
CHOPE
•Shalimar and chaurasia baghs recall famous Mughal gardens.
•Ikka bagh- playing cards (diamond).
•Dhoop chhaon (sunlight and shade),
•Laharya (wave, patang (kite),
•Saru (Cypress),
•Suraj mukkhi (sunflower),
•Panchranga (five colours),
•Satranga (seven colours).
•The danga (river) bagh aptly depicts a row of blue wavy stripes on a
white ground.
TYPES OF BAGH
•Chand bagh recalls the play of moonlight with small white or beige
lozenges on a dark red field.
•The sheeshedar (mirror) phulkari is decorated with small circular
mirrors on a white ground.
•On many phulkaris, the form of a bird is embroidered over the whole
field, and the phulkaris are named accordingly, the most common
being the peacock (mor) and parrot (tota).
TYPES OF BAGH
GHUNGAT BAGH, WEST PUNJAB
SURAJMUKHI BAGH
VARI DA BAGH
•In west Punjab, following the birth of a boy, it was customary, to
begin a vari da bagh.
•The newborn's grandmother would place the first stitch on the
embroidery.
•This bagh would later be handed to the boy's bride on their wedding
day.
•Worked in yellow/gold yarn on a red ground, the colours symbolise
luck and fertility. The whole surface is covered with diamonds, each
enclosing a smaller diamond.
•In good pieces three sizes of concentric diamond are found, the
smallest again divided into quarters.
VARI DA BAGH
VARI DA BAGH
VARI DA BAGH
•The bawan bagh is very rare as only a few women were able to
fashion this type.
•Bawan means the number 52; in these pieces we usually find 52
different patterns.
•The field is subdivided into 42 or 48 rectangles, each containing a
different multicoloured motif. The remaining four or ten motifs are
placed in the side or end borders.
BAWAN BAGH
BAWAN BAGH
•Another more typical bagh is the darshan dwar bagh, meaning “the Gate
from which one sees the God”.
•From the eastern Punjab, this type always has a red ground; a series of
large peaked gates are drawn, from four to seven on either side
depending on their size and the dimensions of the cloth.
•The gates adjoin and open inwards; between them are images of
people, animals, flowers and plants, or even a railway.
•The roofs of the gates are worked in multicolored patterns of triangles
and diamonds. Often smaller gates are embroidered in the triangular
space between the selvedge and the gate roofs. but without figures.
• The gate motif was probably derived from the covered veranda which
surrounded the temple. These particular baghs were dedicated to the
temple after fulfillment of a wish.
DARSHAN DWAR BAGH
DARSHAN DWAR BAGH
•Among their patterns, these bagh include chains of small white
squares representing stylized cowries.
•From another point of view, the shape of these shells can remind of
female genitals and make them become symbols of fertility.
•Kaudi phulkari were often worn by women wanting to increase their
chance to become pregnant.
KAUDI BAGH
KAUDI BAGH
Meaning "Five colors", this bagh is decorated with chevrons of five
different colors. In The same way, similar pieces like satranga ("Seven
colors") bagh are also available.
PANCHRANGA BAGH
PANCHRANGA BAGH
This bagh, often made of gold and white coloured pat, is decorated
with small multicoloured lozenges referring to enamel work
(meenakari) or to "diamond" playing cards' suit.
MEENAKARI BAGH OR IKKA BAGH
MEENAKARI BAGH OR IKKA BAGH
Surajmujkhi, the sunflower, refers to the main pattern of this
phulkari.
From a technical point of view this type of phulkari is unique as it
is the only one that mixes in comparable proportions Holbein
stitch (used to make chope phulkari) and the regular darning
stitch.
SURAJMUKHI
SURAJMUKHI
•A rarer type of phulkari is the thirma, the name signifying a white
ground.
•Exclusively made by Hindus, they formed an important part of the
dowry of a woman from north-western Punjab.
•The floral patterns were embroidered in red, violet and green -
often so thickly that they give a velvety surface.
•The ends have characteristic diagonal rows in red satin stitch.
•The patterns of this type differ markedly from all other baghs and
phulkaris.
THIRMA
THIRMA
•Produced in east and southeast Punjab, sainchi phulkaris depict scenes of
everyday life in the motifs.
•The motifs were often marked on the cloth with ink and the sketch then
filled with darning stitch.
•Wool or cotton threads were often used instead of silk.
•Sainchis can be divided into two groups.
•The first have coloured representations on a red ground of human figures,
beasts, village scenes and so on, without symmetry and end borders.
•The second group, with black, dark brown or, very rarely, blue grounds, are
symmetrically drawn. Here we often see a pattern of five lotus flowers - a
large, vibrant blossom in the centre, the other four in the corners.
•Abstract peacocks often appear in the end borders, contributing to the
symmetry, while in between are yet more animals and objects, randomly
completing the design.
SANCHI
•Scenes of everyday life on sainchi include personal effects, such as
jewellery and combs, domestic animals, ox-carts and household
objects.
•We also see men playing dice games, spinning wheels, cooking or
other routine activities.
• Railway imagery is also used - a locomotive spewing thick smoke,
passengers looking out of carriage windows.
•Circus images with animals and acrobats are common. Especially
graphic are scenes featuring figures such as a begging yogi, or a
British official visiting a village.
SANCHI
SANCHI
SANCHI
SANCHI
There existed regional variations between phulkaris embroidered in
various areas of Punjab. These differences were visible in patterns,
motifs and colors as well as in the quality of the base cloth.
REGIONAL VARIATIONS
•The hindus and sikhs who practiced this art in western Punjab
(part of present day Pakistan) were organized and affluent. Thus,
the quality of the base cloth and of the floss silk yarn was finer
(and hence more expensive).
•The motifs drew there inspiration from Islam.
•The base cloth was either red or white and the silken floss was
usually in soft colors such as white, yellow, or pale orange.
•The designs were geometrical, never figurative, and the quality of
embroidery was exceptionally sophisticated.
WESTERN PUNJAB
•The khadi base and the floss were more vibrant and bold in terms of
colours and tones.
•Shades of red, and other colors of the pat were rich.
•The pallus of borders were heavily embroidered and the motifs
were dominantly inspired by the everyday life of the women:
jasmine flowers, gentle waves, household items and so on.
EASTERN PUNJAB
West Punjab East Punjab
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHULKARI BY REGION
•Today this vibrant folk art of Punjab is now embroidered not only on
shawls or dupattas but also on stolls, saris, bed covers, home
furnishings, etc in bright and vivid colours.
•Many people have started getting Phulkari personalised, where
some are using it as decorative piece, others are using them as
accessories like juttis (punjabi chappal), bags etc.
PRODUCTS
CONTEMPORARY PHULKARI PRODUCTS
•To obtain faster and cheaper production a coarser and looser style of
embroidery is being employed. With fast growing industries, schooling,
lack of interest for manual work, profitability, etc. the textile industry
today, is imitating this art with the help of machines.
•Phulkari today is not as detailed or time consuming.
•Today the woman does the embroidery from the top of the cloth
rather from the wrong side of the khaddar.
• Khaddar is being replaced by cotton, chiffon, georgette, crepe and
synthetic.
•Pat threads (self hand spun) by different range of fast coloured
synthetic threads and slowly people are being replaced by machines.
•Phulkari is getting a label of contemporary context.
PHULKARI TODAY
A WEDDING SHAWL FROM KOHISTAN (NORTH PAKISTAN) EMBROIDERED IN DARNING STITCH LIKE A PHULKARI
www.kunstpedia.com
www.craftrevival.com
www.dsource.in
www.indianheritage.biz
BIBLIOGRAPHY
phulkari

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phulkari

  • 1.
  • 2. •Phulkari is a rural tradition art of crafting embroidered odhni (head drape or shawl) used by women in Punjab, literally meaning " flower work ", linked integrally with events considered to be milestones in a woman's life. • “PHUL” means “flower “and “KARI” means work. Also known as “Gulkari” a very intricate needle work, along with bright coloured threads mainly red, orange, blue, green, etc. •The Phulkari is more than just an item of clothing; it’s a part of an ethos steeped in social and ritualistic traditions.
  • 3. ORIGIN •Phulkari is brought to the Indian Subcontinent by the migrant Jat people of Central Asia in ancient times. •Techniques and patterns of phulkari were not documented but transmitted by word of mouth. Hence, each regional group was identifiable by its unique embroidery work. •The tradition of phulkari was often associated with the Sikh heritage but as it was also shared with Hindus and Muslims, it happens to be more geographically specific than religiously specific.
  • 5. •Phulkari has been mentioned in the famous, Punjabi folklore of Heer Ranjha (a love tale) by Waris Shah whose ancestors migrated to India from Iran. • Its present form and popularity goes back to 15th century, during Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Reign. •The embroideries were a mere reflection of their life. Things that they see, observe, vegetables that they eat, animals that they owned, were embroidered. Every woman had her way of embroidery, her way of representing. HISTORY
  • 6. PHOTOGRAPHS FROM HISTORY Group of Punjabi Ladies, Circa 1905(Clifton and Co., Bombay)
  • 7. •Embroidery work was invariably made on a plain cotton fabric (khaddar) whose thread was manually spinned, loomed and dyed with natural pigments. •The actual embroidery was done with a Pat, the Punjabi word for untwisted floss silk yarn. This yarn was sourced from China or Afghanistan, and then dyed in Jammu and Amritsar. MATERIALS
  • 8. •Phulkari plays a very important role in a girl’s life. Birth of a girl marks the beginning of the child’s grandmother of the task in creating the future bride’s trousseau, which is worn by the bride when she walks around the sacred fire during her wedding ceremony. •When a woman gives birth to a boy she is given a Phulkari which is worn by her when she goes out for the first time after delivery, and during any religious festivals. Likewise when a lady dies her body is covered with Phulkari. •Phulkari was never fabricated for sale; it was embroidered by a family for its own use. IMPORTANCE OF PHULKARI
  • 9. Khaddar could be of four colours, White is given to mature women or widows Red is associated with youth and is most widespread tone Black and blue colours were kept for everyday worn shawls as they prevented from revealing stains and dirt. Importance of color threads, Red symbolize passion, White symbolize purity, Golden or yellow symbolize desire and abundance, Green symbolize nature and fertility, Blue symbolize serenity, Purple symbolize a symbiosis between red's energy and blue's calm, Orange symbolize a mix of desire and divine energy. IMPORTANCE OF COLOR
  • 10. •Phulkari drapes had small amount of embroidery on them with floral and geometrical motifs being predominant. •The motifs in simple phulkari drapes as well as in elaborate bagh pieces comprise of compositions that include not only flowers and geometrical designs but also other symbols and items that are part of the everyday life of the women who embroider these pieces. •A name was given to a particular kind of embroidered bagh. MOTIFS
  • 12. The motia- jasmine flower The surajmukhi- sunflower The genda- marigold Lotus plant- kamal Karela- bitter gourd Gobhi- cauliflower Dhania- coriander Kanki- wheat Mirchi- chilli Lehriya bagh –wave Mor -Peacock Recently new motifs have been developed known as Parantha (originally with eight colours), Kanchan Design, Butti Design etc. POPULAR MOTIFS
  • 15. •The embroidery is done for most part upon khaddar of irregular thickness, generally with between 10-12 wrap threads per cm. •Khaddar was woven in narrow strips and sewn together for the required width. •Designs and symmetries are created by embroidering from the back face of the cloth. Hence, it was easier to embroider the fabric first and then dye the base fabric(with such a preparation that the silk thread does not get colored) so that the warps and wefts on the lighter color are clearly visible. TECHNIQUES
  • 16. •Some times pattern to be embroidered were drawn on the fabric before phulkari is done on khaddar. •Most of the time, patterns to be embroidered were not drawn on the fabric beforehand, the embroiderer had to count each thread of the khaddar with meticulous care to build the designs. •When a section of embroidery was completed, the fabric was rolled in a clean white cloth to keep it from soiling while work continued on an unembroidered part. •As it was easier to count the threads of a light coloured khaddar than of a dark one, it happened sometimes that the fabric was dyed only after the embroidery work was achieved, by such techniques cotton is coloured but not silk TECHNIQUES
  • 17. BLOCK PRINTED PATTERNS FOR PHULKARI
  • 19. DYING AFTER EMBROIDERY A "chope" phulkari on beige khaddar, probably before the embroidered piece got dyed A "chope" phulkari on red khaddar, probably after the embroidered piece got dyed
  • 20. •Darning stitch was the most commonly used technique to make phulkari and the quality of a piece could be measured according to the width of this stitch. The narrowest was the stitch, the finest was the piece. •In order to create an unusual design or to border the khaddar, some other stitches like the herringbone stitch, running stitch, Holbein stitch or button hole stitch were occasionally used. •To fill in the motif either satin stitch or a variation known as stop stitch was preferred. STITCHES
  • 21. COMMON STITCHES OF PHULKARI
  • 22. •There are mainly two types of phulkari Bagh- Bagh literally means “garden of flowers”, and the term distinguishes the flowered Phulkari is that the embroidery is so profuse that the ground colour is no longer visible thus the embroidery becomes the fabric itself. Chope- Chope is usually embroidered on the borders. It is gifted to the bride by her grandmother during some ceremony before wedding. •The “Chope” is embroidered straight with two sided line stitch which appears same on both the side. Unlike Phulkari and Bagh where a variety of colours are used, Chope is generally embroidered with one colour (Golden or yellowish golden mostly). TYPES OF PHULKARI
  • 23. BAGH
  • 24. CHOPE
  • 25. •Shalimar and chaurasia baghs recall famous Mughal gardens. •Ikka bagh- playing cards (diamond). •Dhoop chhaon (sunlight and shade), •Laharya (wave, patang (kite), •Saru (Cypress), •Suraj mukkhi (sunflower), •Panchranga (five colours), •Satranga (seven colours). •The danga (river) bagh aptly depicts a row of blue wavy stripes on a white ground. TYPES OF BAGH
  • 26. •Chand bagh recalls the play of moonlight with small white or beige lozenges on a dark red field. •The sheeshedar (mirror) phulkari is decorated with small circular mirrors on a white ground. •On many phulkaris, the form of a bird is embroidered over the whole field, and the phulkaris are named accordingly, the most common being the peacock (mor) and parrot (tota). TYPES OF BAGH
  • 30. •In west Punjab, following the birth of a boy, it was customary, to begin a vari da bagh. •The newborn's grandmother would place the first stitch on the embroidery. •This bagh would later be handed to the boy's bride on their wedding day. •Worked in yellow/gold yarn on a red ground, the colours symbolise luck and fertility. The whole surface is covered with diamonds, each enclosing a smaller diamond. •In good pieces three sizes of concentric diamond are found, the smallest again divided into quarters. VARI DA BAGH
  • 33. •The bawan bagh is very rare as only a few women were able to fashion this type. •Bawan means the number 52; in these pieces we usually find 52 different patterns. •The field is subdivided into 42 or 48 rectangles, each containing a different multicoloured motif. The remaining four or ten motifs are placed in the side or end borders. BAWAN BAGH
  • 35. •Another more typical bagh is the darshan dwar bagh, meaning “the Gate from which one sees the God”. •From the eastern Punjab, this type always has a red ground; a series of large peaked gates are drawn, from four to seven on either side depending on their size and the dimensions of the cloth. •The gates adjoin and open inwards; between them are images of people, animals, flowers and plants, or even a railway. •The roofs of the gates are worked in multicolored patterns of triangles and diamonds. Often smaller gates are embroidered in the triangular space between the selvedge and the gate roofs. but without figures. • The gate motif was probably derived from the covered veranda which surrounded the temple. These particular baghs were dedicated to the temple after fulfillment of a wish. DARSHAN DWAR BAGH
  • 37. •Among their patterns, these bagh include chains of small white squares representing stylized cowries. •From another point of view, the shape of these shells can remind of female genitals and make them become symbols of fertility. •Kaudi phulkari were often worn by women wanting to increase their chance to become pregnant. KAUDI BAGH
  • 39. Meaning "Five colors", this bagh is decorated with chevrons of five different colors. In The same way, similar pieces like satranga ("Seven colors") bagh are also available. PANCHRANGA BAGH
  • 41. This bagh, often made of gold and white coloured pat, is decorated with small multicoloured lozenges referring to enamel work (meenakari) or to "diamond" playing cards' suit. MEENAKARI BAGH OR IKKA BAGH
  • 42. MEENAKARI BAGH OR IKKA BAGH
  • 43. Surajmujkhi, the sunflower, refers to the main pattern of this phulkari. From a technical point of view this type of phulkari is unique as it is the only one that mixes in comparable proportions Holbein stitch (used to make chope phulkari) and the regular darning stitch. SURAJMUKHI
  • 45. •A rarer type of phulkari is the thirma, the name signifying a white ground. •Exclusively made by Hindus, they formed an important part of the dowry of a woman from north-western Punjab. •The floral patterns were embroidered in red, violet and green - often so thickly that they give a velvety surface. •The ends have characteristic diagonal rows in red satin stitch. •The patterns of this type differ markedly from all other baghs and phulkaris. THIRMA
  • 47. •Produced in east and southeast Punjab, sainchi phulkaris depict scenes of everyday life in the motifs. •The motifs were often marked on the cloth with ink and the sketch then filled with darning stitch. •Wool or cotton threads were often used instead of silk. •Sainchis can be divided into two groups. •The first have coloured representations on a red ground of human figures, beasts, village scenes and so on, without symmetry and end borders. •The second group, with black, dark brown or, very rarely, blue grounds, are symmetrically drawn. Here we often see a pattern of five lotus flowers - a large, vibrant blossom in the centre, the other four in the corners. •Abstract peacocks often appear in the end borders, contributing to the symmetry, while in between are yet more animals and objects, randomly completing the design. SANCHI
  • 48. •Scenes of everyday life on sainchi include personal effects, such as jewellery and combs, domestic animals, ox-carts and household objects. •We also see men playing dice games, spinning wheels, cooking or other routine activities. • Railway imagery is also used - a locomotive spewing thick smoke, passengers looking out of carriage windows. •Circus images with animals and acrobats are common. Especially graphic are scenes featuring figures such as a begging yogi, or a British official visiting a village. SANCHI
  • 51.
  • 53.
  • 54. There existed regional variations between phulkaris embroidered in various areas of Punjab. These differences were visible in patterns, motifs and colors as well as in the quality of the base cloth. REGIONAL VARIATIONS
  • 55. •The hindus and sikhs who practiced this art in western Punjab (part of present day Pakistan) were organized and affluent. Thus, the quality of the base cloth and of the floss silk yarn was finer (and hence more expensive). •The motifs drew there inspiration from Islam. •The base cloth was either red or white and the silken floss was usually in soft colors such as white, yellow, or pale orange. •The designs were geometrical, never figurative, and the quality of embroidery was exceptionally sophisticated. WESTERN PUNJAB
  • 56. •The khadi base and the floss were more vibrant and bold in terms of colours and tones. •Shades of red, and other colors of the pat were rich. •The pallus of borders were heavily embroidered and the motifs were dominantly inspired by the everyday life of the women: jasmine flowers, gentle waves, household items and so on. EASTERN PUNJAB
  • 57. West Punjab East Punjab DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHULKARI BY REGION
  • 58. •Today this vibrant folk art of Punjab is now embroidered not only on shawls or dupattas but also on stolls, saris, bed covers, home furnishings, etc in bright and vivid colours. •Many people have started getting Phulkari personalised, where some are using it as decorative piece, others are using them as accessories like juttis (punjabi chappal), bags etc. PRODUCTS
  • 60. •To obtain faster and cheaper production a coarser and looser style of embroidery is being employed. With fast growing industries, schooling, lack of interest for manual work, profitability, etc. the textile industry today, is imitating this art with the help of machines. •Phulkari today is not as detailed or time consuming. •Today the woman does the embroidery from the top of the cloth rather from the wrong side of the khaddar. • Khaddar is being replaced by cotton, chiffon, georgette, crepe and synthetic. •Pat threads (self hand spun) by different range of fast coloured synthetic threads and slowly people are being replaced by machines. •Phulkari is getting a label of contemporary context. PHULKARI TODAY
  • 61. A WEDDING SHAWL FROM KOHISTAN (NORTH PAKISTAN) EMBROIDERED IN DARNING STITCH LIKE A PHULKARI