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ISTQB CTAL Test Manager (TM)
A Subject Overview of the
ISTQB CTAL TM Certification
Petro Porchuk
Lohika 2010
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
My Goal
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Present topics due to the Syllabus CTAL
 90% of the info have the ISTQB colour
 Give some references
 10% - Express my own Vision
http://istqb.org/download/attachments/2326555/CTAL_Syllabus_V_2007.pdf
My Main Source
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Software Testing Practice:
Test Management:
A Study Guide for the Certified
Tester Exam Istqb Advanced
Level
Andreas Spillner (Author)
http://www.amazon.com/Software-Testing-Practice-Management-Certified/dp/193395213X/ref=sr_1_6?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1275570124&sr=8-6
The ISTQB Framework, May 2010
http://istqb.org/display/ISTQB/Certification?atl_token=CrArtYjmmm
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
CTAL TM – Part 1
Part 1
1. Introduction
2. Test Process and Test Tools
3. Testing in the software Life Cycle
4. Test Policy and Test Handbook
5. The Test Plan
6. Test Control
7. Assessing and Improving the Development and Test Processes
Part 2
8. Deviation Management
9. Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing
10. Staff Qualification and Skills
11. Test Metrics
12. Selecting and Implementing Test Tools
13. Standards Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
(1) The Introduction
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
TL should be:
 Technically Skilled
 Communication and
Language Skilled
 Good Analyst
 Pro-Active
 Brave Organizer
http://www.lestnizza.com.ua/upload/image/it_range.jpg
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
(2)
(2) Test process and Test Tools
Test process and Test Tools
 The Fundamental Test Process
 Different Types of Test Tools
 Tools for Management and Test Control
 Tools for Test Data and Test Script Specific.
 Tools for Static Testing
 Tools for Dynamic Testing
2.1. The Fundamental Test Process
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
2.2. The Test Tools
 CASE Tools (Computer Aided Software Engineering)
 CAST Tools (Computer Aided Software Testing)
 Tools for Management and Test Control
(Planning, Defect Management, Requirement Management, Test Spec. Management)
 Tools for Test Data and Test Script Specific
(Test Data Generators, Test Generators)
 Tools for Static Testing
(Static analizers, model analize spesifications, reviews tools)
 Tools for Dynamic Testing
(Debugger, drivers, stubs, test robots, L/P test tools, monitors)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
”A Fool with a Tool is still a Fool!”
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
http://www.sungsblog.com/labels/world.php
2.3. Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ Testing must be divided into individual process steps
✔ For each phase of the Test Process Tools are available
✔ The use of the Test Tools is only of advantage if a Test
Process is controlled and defined process
✔ ”A Fool with a Tool is still a Fool”
We All Do Work Process Oriented
We All Do Work Process Oriented
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
(3)
(3) Testing in the Software Life Cycle
Testing in the Software Life Cycle
 Test and Development Process
 The General V-Model
 The W-Model
 Rational Unified Process (RUP)
 V-Model XT
 Extreme Programming
 Rapid Application Development (RAD)
 Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM)
3.1. Test and Development Process
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
QA Process should have strong interaction with the
Development Process
 Reaction to the Requirement Change
 Configuration Management
 Project Management
 The General Test Process should be adjusted to the
specific activities applied Development Processes
3.2. The General V-Model
http://www.testingexcellence.com/v-model/
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
3.3. The V-Model for QA
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Emphasizes Test
Levels
 Verification
 Validation
Cons:
 Preparatory Test
Activities are missing
3.4. The W-Model
http://www.testingthefuture.net/2009/09/the-w-model/
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
3.5. The W-Model for QA
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Preparatory Test
Activities are here
 Concurrency of Test
and Dev. Processes
 PREviews
 Debugging
Cons:
 Needs several Test
Managers for large
projects
 Refers only to a
System Development,
not Process Oriented
3.6. The Rational Unified Process
http://www.wittmannclan.de/ptr/cs/slcycles.html
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
3.7. QA in RUP
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Test Activities begin
early and accompany
other processes
Cons:
 Which Test Activities
to be eprformed when
is not made clear
3.8. V-Model XT (eXtreme Tailoring)
https://sosa.ucsd.edu/teaching/cse294/fall2004/pres/vmxt.htm
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 The current version of the V-Model is
the V-Model 97. Since 1997, no
changes or improvements were made.
In 2002, a project was initiated to
redesign and improve the existing
process model. The resulting V-Model
XT should reflect new standards and
technologies; it also should expose
significantly enhanced quality
properties such as usability,
adaptability, changeability and
scalability.
 Available since 2005.
3.9. QA in V-Model XT
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Tailoring
 Particular attention to
Customer-Supplier
communication
 Quality Management
Cons:
 No Test Manager
role, but Quality
Manager
3.10. The Extreme Programming
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
http://www.extremeprogramming.org/map/project.html
3.11. QA in XP
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Testing is at the
center of the
development effort
(Test First)
 Advanced Unit
Testing
Cons:
 Missing systematic
Test Specification
creation
 QA misses
Aceptance Testing,
it's been put on a
customer
3.12. Rapid Application Development
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
http://www.antrix.com/services/service_list/11_validation_computer_systems.htm
3.13. QA in RAD
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Extensive use of
Tools
 Invloving Customer to
evaluate
Cons:
 Roles of Testing or
Test Management are
not defined, there is
”SWAT Team”
instead.
”SWAT” = Skilled Workers and Advanced Tools
3.14. Dynamic System Develpment Method
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 DSDM = SCRUM
 SCRUM = RAD + (precise process steps and roles)
 Focus on Teamwork
 Close Cooperation with a Customer
 Iterative System Development
 Time Boxing
 ”MoSCoW” Principle
3.15. QA in SCRUM
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Pros:
 Team driven
evolutionary process
Cons:
 Test Manager role is
not here.
 Tester is responsible
for component tests
mostly.
(3) Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔TM should adopt Test Process to the chosen
Development Model
✔TM should make sure the docs are available to
have enough time for the test preparation
✔TM should make sure Test Activities start early
in the Process
✔TM should make sure the needed Test Levels
are planned and executed
(4)
(4) Test Policy and Test Handbook
Test Policy and Test Handbook
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Quality Policy and Test Policy
 Bring the Test Policy to Life
 Test Handbook
4.1. Quality Policy and Test Policy
4.1. Quality Policy and Test Policy
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Quality Policy
Expresses the particular importance that an organization
attaches to ”quality” and the demands it makes on the quality of
it's products, services and processes.
 Test Policy
A high level document describing the principles, approach and
major objectives of the organization regarding testing.
 Test Handbook
A concretization of the Test Policy
http://istqb.org/download/attachments/2326555/ISTQB+Glossary+of+Testing+Terms+2+1.pdf
4.3. Bring the Test Policy to Life
4.3. Bring the Test Policy to Life
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Relevance to Business Objective
 Be Realistic
 Adequate Maturity
 Measurability
 Liveliness
(4)
(4) Summary
Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
A Question
A Question
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
What is the most Common Question for the QA
interview
?
http://profiles.friendster.com/98111238
A Question
A Question
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
What is the most Common Question for the QA
interview
?
What is the Test Plan and
what does it consist of?
http://profiles.friendster.com/98111238
(5)
(5) The Test Plan
The Test Plan
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 General Test Plan Structure
 Defining a Test Strategy
 Test Effort Estimation
 Flat Models
 Detailed Models baced on Test Activities
 Models baced on Functional Volume
 Organization of Test Teams and Test Levels
5.1. The General Test Plan Structure
5.1. The General Test Plan Structure
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Chapter According to IEEE 829
1. Test plan identifier
2. Introduction
3. Test items
4. Features to be tested
5. Features not to be tested
6. Approach
7. Item pass/fail criteria (test exit criteria)
8. Suspension criteria and resumption requirements
9. Test deliverables
10. Testing tasks
11. Environmental needs
12. Responsibilities
13. Staffing and training needs
14. Schedule
15. Risk and contingencies
16. Approvals
5.2. Defining the Test Strategy
5.2. Defining the Test Strategy
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
5.3. Test Effort Estimation – Flat Models
5.3. Test Effort Estimation – Flat Models
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Adding a percentage flat rate to the
development effort
QA Effort = 0.5*(DEV Effort)
 Assuming development estimation is accurate
 Take into an account experience from similar
projects
 It makes sence to use several sources
 But:
Cannot be used for big projects
5.4. Test Effort Estimation – Detailed Models
5.4. Test Effort Estimation – Detailed Models
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Concatenation of individual activities and
different estimation methods must be used for
each activity. Consider:
 Manpower
 Time
 HW and SW for the Test Environment
 Testware (test automation tools, etc)
 Different influencing factors
 Keep estimated tasks small
 Involve the team in estimation
 Use experience
5.5.1. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based
5.5.1. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Estimation of the Scope or Functionality of the
test objects and establishing a mathematical
model
 FPA (Function Point Analysis)
 Count the number of functions to be developed
 Add the non-functional values
(14*(1..5)+0.65 * func)
 Transform to man*hours
The Test Effort is a result of estimates from function
points.
 But: Used only for simply numbers (of test cases)
5.5.2. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based
5.5.2. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Test Point Analysis Uses Quality Atributes (ISO 9126)
 Dynamic Test Points (FP; Quality Attributes; Function priority,
compexity, influence etc) Are multiplied with each other per
function and summed up. This reflects the dynamic test efforts.
 Static Test Points (flexibility, testability, tracebility) The total
number of FP is multiplied by a factor and added up. Static test
efforts
 Dynamic and Static test points are summed up and subsequently
weighted with environment factors (docs, testware, tools,
organization culture etc)
 The result – is the number of test hours required
(5) Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ The Test Plan is the concrete application of the Test
Handbook, mapping the strategic requirement of the
Test Policy into the Project
✔ Essential Test Plan components are:
Test Strategy
Test Effort Estimation
Test Organisation
✔ For Test Effort Estimation may be applied:
Intuition, experience, detailed itemization, formulas
✔ The WORSE estimation is NO ESTIMATION
(6)
(6) Test Control
Test Control
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔Initializing the Test Tasks
✔Monitoring the Test Process
✔Reacting to Test Results
✔Reacting to Changed Circumstances
✔Evaluating the Test Completion
✔Test Report
Standish Group Chaos Report 2009
Standish Group Chaos Report 2009
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Successful Projects
32%
Late, Overbudget, Miss features
44%
Failed Projects
24%
http://www.standishgroup.com/newsroom/chaos_2009.php
"These numbers represent a downtick in the success rates from the previous study, as
well as a significant increase in the number of failures", says Jim Crear, Standish Group
CIO, "They are low point in the last five study periods. This year's results represent the
highest failure rate in over a decade"
How to Fix This?
How to Fix This?
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
?
How to Fix This?
How to Fix This?
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
?
 Total Quality Management (TQM)
 Test and Development Processes Improvement
(7)
(7) Assessing and Improving the
Assessing and Improving the
Development and Test Processes
Development and Test Processes
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 General Techniques and Approaches
 Total Quality Management
 Kaizen
 Six Sigma
 Improving the Software Development Processes
 Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
 SPICE
 Evaluating the Test Processes
 Testing Maturity Model (TMM)
 Test Process Improvement (TPI)
7.1 Total Quality Management (TQM)
7.1 Total Quality Management (TQM)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
QUALITY is in the center. No instructions – it's an attitude.
http://www.edrawsoft.com/TQM-Diagrams.php
7.2 Kaizen
7.2 Kaizen
(Japanese for
(Japanese for Kai "
Kai "improvement" or
improvement" or Zen
Zen "change for the better")
"change for the better")
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Intensive use of the employee suggestion system
 Appreciation and regard for employees' striving for improvement
 Established small group discussion circles addressing defects and improvement
suggestions
 ”Just in time” production to eliminate wasted effort
 5 Ss process for the improvement of workspaces:
 Seiri – tidiness; old and useless items have no place at the workspace
 Seiton – orderliness; ”everything” has its place for quick retrieval and storage
 Seiso – cleanliness; keep the workspace clean and tidy at all times
 Seiketsu – standartization of all practices and processes
 Shitsuke – discipline; all activities are performed in a discipline way
 ”Total Productive Maintenance” for maintenance and servicing of all means of
production
 BUT: difficult to apply in european culture such strong Jananese rules
7.3 Six Sigma
7.3 Six Sigma
(by Motorola, USA in 1981)
(by Motorola, USA in 1981)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs
by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors)
and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business
processes.
 The term six sigma originated from terminology associated
with manufacturing, specifically terms associated with
statistical modelling of manufacturing processes.
 The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described
by a sigma rating indicating its yield, or the percentage of
defect-free products it creates.
 A six-sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the
products manufactured are free of defects (), compared to a
one-sigma process in which only 31% are free of defects.
 BUT: Requires a lot of statistics from the Test Manager
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Sigma
7.4 CMMI
7.4 CMMI
(Software Engineering Institute (SEI, 2002))
(Software Engineering Institute (SEI, 2002))
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model_Integration
7.5 SPICE
7.5 SPICE ("Software Process Improvement and Capability Evaluation")
("Software Process Improvement and Capability Evaluation")
(ISO/IEC 15504 standard)
(ISO/IEC 15504 standard)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
http://www.kuglermaagusa.com/tools_spice15504_com.html
0 ”Incomplete process” | General Failure to perform the bace practices in the Process
7.6 Testing Maturity Model (TMM)
7.6 Testing Maturity Model (TMM)
(1996 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago)
(1996 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Based on CMM:
Levels Process Areas
1 – Initial No process identified
2 – Phase Definition Test Policy and Goals
Test Planning
Test Techniques and Methods
Test Environment
3 - Integration Test Organization
Test Training Program
Test Life Cycle and Integration
Control and Monitor
4 – Management and Measurement Peer Reviews
Test Measurement
Software Quality Evaluation
5 – Optimization Defect Prevention
Quality Control
Test Process Optimization
7.7 Test Process Improvement (TPI)
7.7 Test Process Improvement (TPI)
(Sogeti, Netherlands. http://www.sogeti.com)
(Sogeti, Netherlands. http://www.sogeti.com)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Key / Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 Test strategy A B C D
2 Life-cycle model A B
3 Moment of involvement A B C D
4 Estimating and planning A B
5 Test Specification techniques A B
6 Static test techniques A B
7 Metrics A B C D
8 Test tools A B C
9 Test environment A B C
10 Office environment A
11 Commitment and motivation A B C
12 Test functions and training A B C
13 Scope of methodology A B C
14 Communication A B C
15 Reporting A B C D
16 Defect management A B C
17 Testware management A B C D
18 Test process management A B C
19 Evaluation A B
20 Low-level testing A B C
7.8 TPI Assessment
7.8 TPI Assessment
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Key / Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 Test strategy A B C D
2 Life-cycle model A B
3 Moment of involvement A B C D
4 Estimating and planning A B
5 Test Specification techniques A B
6 Static test techniques A B
...
Key / Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 Test strategy A B C D
2 Life-cycle model A B
3 Moment of involvement A B C D
4 Estimating and planning A B
5 Test Specification techniques A B
6 Static test techniques A B
...
Current..
Required..
(7) Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ It is up to the individual company to decide how well a
particular model is suited toi it's own specific
circumstances.
CTAL TM – Part 2
Part 1
1. Introduction
2. Test Process and Test Tools
3. Testing in the software Life Cycle
4. Test Policy and Test Handbook
5. The Test Plan
6. Test Control
7. Assessing and Improving the Development and Test Processes
Part 2
8. Deviation Management
9. Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing
10. Staff Qualification and Skills
11. Test Metrics
12. Selecting and Implementing Test Tools
13. Standards Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Deviation Terminology
Deviation Terminology
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Error (Human Action)
Bug, Fault (Wrong Code)
Failure (Wrong Behavior)
http://estonovaamisa.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/human-error1.jpg
(8)
(8) Deviation Management
Deviation Management
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔Terminology
✔ Error
✔ Fault
✔ Failure
✔Documenting Incidents
✔Incident Handling (Bug Tracking Systems
Workflow)
✔IEEE 1044/1044.1 Standard (Chapter 13)
What is Risk?
What is Risk?
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
?
What is Risk?
What is Risk?
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
?
IT Project = Risk = Probability * Damage
(9)
(9) Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing
Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Risk Management
 Identification of the risk context
 Risk identification
 Risk analysis and risk evaluation
 Risk control
 Risk verification and monitoring
 Risk-Oriented Test Plan Creation and Test Prioritization
 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
9.1.1 Identification of the Risk Context
9.1.1 Identification of the Risk Context
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
9.1.2 Risk Identification. Risk Categories
9.1.2 Risk Identification. Risk Categories
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Risk Category Influence Prediction Example
External risk
Cannot be influenced Difficult to predict •Lightning Damage
•Out of Power
Strategic risk
Difficult to influence Easy to predict •Changing a Corporate
standard etc
Project risk
Easy to influence Easy to predict •Sales Problems
•Technical Risks
•Servers unavailability
•Defect Correction
Risks
Product risk
Can be influenced Easy to predict •Customer suffering
from product failures
•Poor Quality affects
reputation
9.1.3 Risk Identification Techniques
9.1.3 Risk Identification Techniques
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Expert Interviews and Questionnaires
 Independent Estimations
 Risk Workshops
 Risk Brainstorming (Worst Case Scenarios)
 Use of risk templates and checklists
 Experiences from completed projects
9.1.4 Risk Evaluation
9.1.4 Risk Evaluation
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 F – the frequency of execution of use (a function)
 C – criticality. Represents the worst possible effects of a function not working well (at all)
 Rp – The Project risks
 Rt – Technical Product risks
 Rb – The Commercial Product risks
Risk Factor:
RF=
RtRbRp
3
F∗RbC∗Rt
9.2 Risk Oriented Test Plan Creation
9.2 Risk Oriented Test Plan Creation
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Target-oriented test plan creation:
applying appropriately different test techniques and test
intensities to cover system functions with different risks
 Prioritized testing:
giving areas with higher risks higher priority and testing them
earlier
 Residual risk awareness:
identifying the residual risks that remain in the delivered
software and are due to reductions in test or nonperformance of
planned tests
9.3.1 Risk Based Testing.
9.3.1 Risk Based Testing.
Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 FMEA is a Method used to identify potential error
types and their effect on a system.
FMEA Procedure:
1. Generate a list of all the risk factors.
2. Specify the type and probability of falures for each factor.
3. Investigate the effect of failures on other factors, applying, e.g., simulations.
4. Investigate the effect on Project Planning.
5. Identify possibilities for detecting the failure.
6. Identify possibilities for compensating the failure.
7. Identify possibilities for preventing the failure.
8. Define measures to avoid defects.
9. Evaluate the effect of the proposed measures.
10. Document the results.
9.3.2 Risk Priority Number.
9.3.2 Risk Priority Number.
Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 FMEA defined the Risk Priority Number (RPN).
O – Probability of Occurrence
E – Expected Damage
D – Probability of Detection
RPN =O∗E∗D
(9)
(9) Summary
Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ Risk = Rrobability * Damage
✔ Testing is a preventive measure, reducing risks
✔ Based on the most important risks, suitable test
techniques are to be selected, and tests are to
prioritized to allow tests covering high risks to be
executed early and with the appropriate effort
✔ Prioritization and risk estimation criteria, defined in the
Test Plan, can be applied to test objects and test
cases
Skilled people as the key success factor
Skilled people as the key success factor
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
TOYAKO, JAPAN - JULY 08: (L-R) German Chancellor Angela Merkel, U.S. President George W. Bush, Japanese Prime Minister
Yasuo Fukuda, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev plant the memorial tree after a working
session at the Windsor Hotel Toya on July 8, 2008 in Toyako, Hokkaido, Japan.
http://www.life.com/image/81853290
(10)
(10) Staff Qualification and Skills
Staff Qualification and Skills
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Individual Skills
 Functional Team Roles
 Social Team Roles
 The Communication Factor
 The Motivation Factor
10.1 Individual Skills
10.1 Individual Skills
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 The ”perfect” test team member has exellent technical knowledge and high social competency.
 There is NO PERFECT Individual from the scratch. Need to develop.
 IT Expert as QA:
 Great technical competency
 DANGER: In love with technology → loses focus
 Application Expert as QA:
 Great domain expert. Knows non-func. requirements
 DANGER: Blinkered atitude → doesn't seek for improvements
 Social Competence
 The ability to familiarize quickly with complex domains
 The ability to detect defects. (”professional ressimism”)
 The ability to cope with criticism adequately. Diplomacy
 Courage to leave some gaps
 Discipline, exactitude, patience, tolerance
 The ability to work in a team and to communicate
10.2 Functional Team Roles
10.2 Functional Team Roles
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Test Manager
 Leads the Test Team
 Test Planning and Control, Test Reporting
 Human Resource Management and Test Process Improvement
 Test Designer (QA Analyst)
 Creation and Maintenance of Test Specification. Prioritizing
 Defining and Apply Test Design Techniques
 Test Automator
 The Test Team's Programmer
 Developing Automation Tests, Test frameworks and Tools
 Test Administrator
 Installation, Administration and Maintenance of the Test Environment
 Installing and set up of the System Software (Operating Systems, Databases, Application Servers)
 Tester
 Execution the tests and documenting the test results
 Accuracy and Creativity
 Expert
 Supporting L/P testing, database or network testing etc
10.3 Social Team Roles
10.3 Social Team Roles
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Type Descriptors Strengths Weakness
Monitor Evaluator Strategic Power of judgment Lacks drive and the ability to
inspire others
Shaper Dynamic, open-minded,
result oriented
Lot's of drive, fight
inefficiency, experts pressure
Prone to irritate and to hurt
others
Planter Individualistic Creative. Lot's of intellectual
power
Ignores practical details and
instructions
Completer Straight, anxiuos Ability to complete things,
perfectionism
Inclined to worry undully,
reluctant to delegate
Team Worker Cooperative, mild, sensitive Ability to cope with different
situation and people,
promotes team spirit
Can be easily influenced
Implementer Conservative, dutiful Hard-working, disciplined Inflexible. Rejects unproved
ideas
Co-ordinator Self-confident, mature Recognizes individual
talents. Good at clarifying
goals
Has limited creativity
Resource Investigator Extrovert, enthusiastic,
communicative
Likes to develop contacts,
picks up new ideas, reacts to
challenges
Too optimistic, tend to lose
interest after initial
enthusiasm
Specialist Single-minded, self-starting,
dedicated
Provides knowledge and
skills in rare supply
Contributes only a narrow
front, overlooks the ”big
picture”
10.4 The Communication Factor
10.4 The Communication Factor
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Communicate problems accurately
 Test Team External Communication
 Tester → Developer
 Developer → Tester
 Test Manager → Projects Manager
 Project Manager → Test Manager
 Tester → User
 Test Team Internal Communication
 Regular Team Meetings
 Knowledge Transition
10.5.1 The Motivation Factor
10.5.1 The Motivation Factor
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
http://media.photobucket.com/image/funny workers/geet_kunal/happy-best-wishes-monday/rg272945.jpg
10.5.2 The Motivation Checklist
10.5.2 The Motivation Checklist
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 The schedule is a motivating factor
 The resources provided are a motivating factor
 The test process is a motivating factor
 The task is a motivating factor
 The team will feel valued, recognised and
motivated
http://www.imbus.de/fileadmin/imbus_repository/Downloads/imbus_Allgemein/Dokumente/Checkliste-Motivation_E.zip
(10)
(10) Summary
Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ A member of the test team should be IT professional, have
knowledge from the application domain and have social competence
✔ The different tasks in the test process are reflected in the different
roles within the test team
✔ Becides professional role, each team member should play a social
role in the team
✔ Detected problems should be communicated to the external parties
with relevan communication style
✔ Test Manager should organize regular internal meetings
✔ The Test Manager should provide a healthy motivation environment
and professional working condition for the team. Part of this task is to
adequately represent the role and contribution of the test team within
the organization
Why do the People change job?
Why do the People change job?
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Stupid Manager
Far from Home
Low Salary
Not Allowed to use Facebook
(11)
(11) Test Metrics
Test Metrics
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Why do we need Metrics?
 Presenting Measurements
 Test Metrics Types
 Residual Defect Estimations and Reliability
11.1 Why do we need Metrics?
11.1 Why do we need Metrics?
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 The Test Metrics is the Tool for Control
Tom DeMarco on Measurement:
„You can not control what you can not measure.
Measurement is the prerequisite to management
control.“
from Tom DeMarco
American Consultant, 1982
11.2 Presenting Measurements
11.2 Presenting Measurements
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Diagrams help you to visualize measurement values and their progression
11.3.1 Test Metrics Types
11.3.1 Test Metrics Types
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Test Case Based Metrics
 Number of Planned, Specified Test Cases
 Number of Created Test Procedures
 Number of Changed, Deleted Test Cases
 Number of Run, Passed, Failed, Blocked TC
 Test Object Based Metrics
 Number of tested functions / Total number of functions
 Number of executed TC / Number od specified TC epr function
 Percentage of all requirements covered by Test Cases
 Number of platforms covered by test
 Percentage of interfaces tested
 Number of lines of codes or executable instructions (kilo lines of code – KLOC)
 Number of the covered paths in the control flows graph
 Percentage of branches in the control flow graph that were covered
11.3.2 Test Metrics Types
11.3.2 Test Metrics Types
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Defect - Baced Metrics
 Bug Detection Percentage
 Number of defects relative to criticality (defect severity)
 Number of defects per status (defect correction progress)
 Defect report status
 Cost and Effort-Based Metrics
 Number of person-days for test planning or specification
 Number of person-days for the creation of test procedures
 Evaluating Test Effectiveness
 Degree of Defect Detection
 Confidence Level
 Test Effectiveness
DDD=
numberof weighted defects during test
total numberof defects found
CL=1−
numberof weighted defects
number of executed test cases
∗degree of test coverage
TE=DDD∗CL
11.4 Residual Defect Estimations and Reliability
11.4 Residual Defect Estimations and Reliability
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Three options to evaluate Test Process based on defects found
 Estimate number of defects inherent in the system prior to test and estimate the number of
defects to be found
 Monitor the Defect Detection Percentage
 Inject bugs into the program code and monitor the proportion to be found during testing
 Reliability Growth Model
Target numberof Defects=
residual numberof defects
effectiveness percentage
(11)
(11) Summary
Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ For each Test Level suitable Test Metric should be
applied
✔ Ensure compliance, if necessary through audits
(12)
(12) Standards
Standards
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 General Understanding of Standards
 Standards related to Software Testing
 Standards in the phases of the Test Process
12.1 General Understanding
12.1 General Understanding
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
 Standards are developed and maintained by national and
international organizations
 ISO – International Organization od Standardization
 ANSI – American National Standard Institute
 BSI – British Standard Institution
 IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
 Standard Types
 Corporate Standards
 Best Practices and Technical specifications
 Domain Specific
 Generally Applicable Standards
12.2 Main Standards related to Software Testing
12.2 Main Standards related to Software Testing
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Standard Description
BS 7925-1 British Standard: Software Testing, Part 1: Vocabulary, 1998
BS 7925-2 British Standard: Software Testing, Part 1: Software Component Testing, 1998
ISO 9000 A family of standards for quality management systems
IEEE 610.12 1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology
ISO 90003 Software Engineering Quality Management Standard
IEEE 730 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, 2002
IEEE 1008 ANSI/IEEE 1008-1987 IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing
IEEE 1012 IEEE Std 1012-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation
ISO 9126-x IEEE Std 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies
ISO 9241 ISO 9241-11:1998. Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals
IEEE 1044 IEEE Std 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies
IEEE 829 IEEE 829-1998, Standard for Software Test Documentation
IEEE 1059 IEEE Std 1059-1993 IEEE Guide for Software Verification and Validation Plans
12.3 Standards in the phases of the Test Process
12.3 Standards in the phases of the Test Process
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
Type of
Standard
Test Phase
Terminology
and contracts
Processes Products Documentation Methods and
techniques
Test Planning
Test Control
BS 7925-1
ISO 2382
ISO 9000
ISO 12207-0
IEEE 610.12
ISO 12207-0
ISO 9000-3
IEEE 730
IEEE 1008
IEEE 1012
IEEE 1061
ISO 9126-x
ISO 12119
ISO 12207-1
ISO 15026
IEEE 982.1
IEEE 1228
IEEE 730
IEEE 829
IEEE 1012
IEEE 1228
ISO 12207-2
ISO 16085
IEEE 730.1
IEEE 982.2
IEEE 1059
Test analysis
Test design
ISO 14598-4
ISO 15408
IEEE 1062
IEEE 1228
IEEE 1008
IEEE 1012
ISO 15939
ISO 9241
ISO 12119
IEEE 1044
IEEE 982.2
IEEE 829
IEEE 1063
BS 7925-2
IEEE 1028
ISO 60812
EN 61508-3
EN 50128
IEC 61025
ISO 5806
Test realization
Test execution
IEEE 1008 ISO 9241
IEEE 828
IEEE 1209
IEEE 1348
IEEE 829
IEEE 1209
IEEE 1348
IEEE 1028
ETSI 201-873
IEEE 1042
IEEE 1209
IEEE 1348
Test evaluation
Reporting
IEEE 1008 IEEE 982.2
IEEE 1044
IEEE 829 IEEE 1044.1
ISO 12119
(13)
(13) Summary
Summary
Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
✔ Test Manager shouldn't reinvent the wheel, use
standards for Testing
✔ Ensure compliance, if necessary through audits

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Istqb ctal tm

  • 1. ISTQB CTAL Test Manager (TM) A Subject Overview of the ISTQB CTAL TM Certification Petro Porchuk Lohika 2010 Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 2. My Goal Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Present topics due to the Syllabus CTAL  90% of the info have the ISTQB colour  Give some references  10% - Express my own Vision http://istqb.org/download/attachments/2326555/CTAL_Syllabus_V_2007.pdf
  • 3. My Main Source Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Software Testing Practice: Test Management: A Study Guide for the Certified Tester Exam Istqb Advanced Level Andreas Spillner (Author) http://www.amazon.com/Software-Testing-Practice-Management-Certified/dp/193395213X/ref=sr_1_6?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1275570124&sr=8-6
  • 4. The ISTQB Framework, May 2010 http://istqb.org/display/ISTQB/Certification?atl_token=CrArtYjmmm Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 5. CTAL TM – Part 1 Part 1 1. Introduction 2. Test Process and Test Tools 3. Testing in the software Life Cycle 4. Test Policy and Test Handbook 5. The Test Plan 6. Test Control 7. Assessing and Improving the Development and Test Processes Part 2 8. Deviation Management 9. Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing 10. Staff Qualification and Skills 11. Test Metrics 12. Selecting and Implementing Test Tools 13. Standards Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 6. (1) The Introduction Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika TL should be:  Technically Skilled  Communication and Language Skilled  Good Analyst  Pro-Active  Brave Organizer http://www.lestnizza.com.ua/upload/image/it_range.jpg
  • 7. Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika (2) (2) Test process and Test Tools Test process and Test Tools  The Fundamental Test Process  Different Types of Test Tools  Tools for Management and Test Control  Tools for Test Data and Test Script Specific.  Tools for Static Testing  Tools for Dynamic Testing
  • 8. 2.1. The Fundamental Test Process Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 9. 2.2. The Test Tools  CASE Tools (Computer Aided Software Engineering)  CAST Tools (Computer Aided Software Testing)  Tools for Management and Test Control (Planning, Defect Management, Requirement Management, Test Spec. Management)  Tools for Test Data and Test Script Specific (Test Data Generators, Test Generators)  Tools for Static Testing (Static analizers, model analize spesifications, reviews tools)  Tools for Dynamic Testing (Debugger, drivers, stubs, test robots, L/P test tools, monitors) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 10. ”A Fool with a Tool is still a Fool!” Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika http://www.sungsblog.com/labels/world.php
  • 11. 2.3. Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ Testing must be divided into individual process steps ✔ For each phase of the Test Process Tools are available ✔ The use of the Test Tools is only of advantage if a Test Process is controlled and defined process ✔ ”A Fool with a Tool is still a Fool”
  • 12. We All Do Work Process Oriented We All Do Work Process Oriented Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 13. Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika (3) (3) Testing in the Software Life Cycle Testing in the Software Life Cycle  Test and Development Process  The General V-Model  The W-Model  Rational Unified Process (RUP)  V-Model XT  Extreme Programming  Rapid Application Development (RAD)  Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM)
  • 14. 3.1. Test and Development Process Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika QA Process should have strong interaction with the Development Process  Reaction to the Requirement Change  Configuration Management  Project Management  The General Test Process should be adjusted to the specific activities applied Development Processes
  • 15. 3.2. The General V-Model http://www.testingexcellence.com/v-model/ Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 16. 3.3. The V-Model for QA Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Emphasizes Test Levels  Verification  Validation Cons:  Preparatory Test Activities are missing
  • 18. 3.5. The W-Model for QA Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Preparatory Test Activities are here  Concurrency of Test and Dev. Processes  PREviews  Debugging Cons:  Needs several Test Managers for large projects  Refers only to a System Development, not Process Oriented
  • 19. 3.6. The Rational Unified Process http://www.wittmannclan.de/ptr/cs/slcycles.html Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 20. 3.7. QA in RUP Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Test Activities begin early and accompany other processes Cons:  Which Test Activities to be eprformed when is not made clear
  • 21. 3.8. V-Model XT (eXtreme Tailoring) https://sosa.ucsd.edu/teaching/cse294/fall2004/pres/vmxt.htm Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  The current version of the V-Model is the V-Model 97. Since 1997, no changes or improvements were made. In 2002, a project was initiated to redesign and improve the existing process model. The resulting V-Model XT should reflect new standards and technologies; it also should expose significantly enhanced quality properties such as usability, adaptability, changeability and scalability.  Available since 2005.
  • 22. 3.9. QA in V-Model XT Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Tailoring  Particular attention to Customer-Supplier communication  Quality Management Cons:  No Test Manager role, but Quality Manager
  • 23. 3.10. The Extreme Programming Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika http://www.extremeprogramming.org/map/project.html
  • 24. 3.11. QA in XP Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Testing is at the center of the development effort (Test First)  Advanced Unit Testing Cons:  Missing systematic Test Specification creation  QA misses Aceptance Testing, it's been put on a customer
  • 25. 3.12. Rapid Application Development Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika http://www.antrix.com/services/service_list/11_validation_computer_systems.htm
  • 26. 3.13. QA in RAD Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Extensive use of Tools  Invloving Customer to evaluate Cons:  Roles of Testing or Test Management are not defined, there is ”SWAT Team” instead. ”SWAT” = Skilled Workers and Advanced Tools
  • 27. 3.14. Dynamic System Develpment Method Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  DSDM = SCRUM  SCRUM = RAD + (precise process steps and roles)  Focus on Teamwork  Close Cooperation with a Customer  Iterative System Development  Time Boxing  ”MoSCoW” Principle
  • 28. 3.15. QA in SCRUM Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Pros:  Team driven evolutionary process Cons:  Test Manager role is not here.  Tester is responsible for component tests mostly.
  • 29. (3) Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔TM should adopt Test Process to the chosen Development Model ✔TM should make sure the docs are available to have enough time for the test preparation ✔TM should make sure Test Activities start early in the Process ✔TM should make sure the needed Test Levels are planned and executed
  • 30. (4) (4) Test Policy and Test Handbook Test Policy and Test Handbook Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Quality Policy and Test Policy  Bring the Test Policy to Life  Test Handbook
  • 31. 4.1. Quality Policy and Test Policy 4.1. Quality Policy and Test Policy Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Quality Policy Expresses the particular importance that an organization attaches to ”quality” and the demands it makes on the quality of it's products, services and processes.  Test Policy A high level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.  Test Handbook A concretization of the Test Policy http://istqb.org/download/attachments/2326555/ISTQB+Glossary+of+Testing+Terms+2+1.pdf
  • 32. 4.3. Bring the Test Policy to Life 4.3. Bring the Test Policy to Life Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Relevance to Business Objective  Be Realistic  Adequate Maturity  Measurability  Liveliness
  • 34. A Question A Question Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika What is the most Common Question for the QA interview ? http://profiles.friendster.com/98111238
  • 35. A Question A Question Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika What is the most Common Question for the QA interview ? What is the Test Plan and what does it consist of? http://profiles.friendster.com/98111238
  • 36. (5) (5) The Test Plan The Test Plan Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  General Test Plan Structure  Defining a Test Strategy  Test Effort Estimation  Flat Models  Detailed Models baced on Test Activities  Models baced on Functional Volume  Organization of Test Teams and Test Levels
  • 37. 5.1. The General Test Plan Structure 5.1. The General Test Plan Structure Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Chapter According to IEEE 829 1. Test plan identifier 2. Introduction 3. Test items 4. Features to be tested 5. Features not to be tested 6. Approach 7. Item pass/fail criteria (test exit criteria) 8. Suspension criteria and resumption requirements 9. Test deliverables 10. Testing tasks 11. Environmental needs 12. Responsibilities 13. Staffing and training needs 14. Schedule 15. Risk and contingencies 16. Approvals
  • 38. 5.2. Defining the Test Strategy 5.2. Defining the Test Strategy Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 39. 5.3. Test Effort Estimation – Flat Models 5.3. Test Effort Estimation – Flat Models Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Adding a percentage flat rate to the development effort QA Effort = 0.5*(DEV Effort)  Assuming development estimation is accurate  Take into an account experience from similar projects  It makes sence to use several sources  But: Cannot be used for big projects
  • 40. 5.4. Test Effort Estimation – Detailed Models 5.4. Test Effort Estimation – Detailed Models Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Concatenation of individual activities and different estimation methods must be used for each activity. Consider:  Manpower  Time  HW and SW for the Test Environment  Testware (test automation tools, etc)  Different influencing factors  Keep estimated tasks small  Involve the team in estimation  Use experience
  • 41. 5.5.1. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based 5.5.1. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Estimation of the Scope or Functionality of the test objects and establishing a mathematical model  FPA (Function Point Analysis)  Count the number of functions to be developed  Add the non-functional values (14*(1..5)+0.65 * func)  Transform to man*hours The Test Effort is a result of estimates from function points.  But: Used only for simply numbers (of test cases)
  • 42. 5.5.2. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based 5.5.2. Test Effort Estimation – Model Based Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Test Point Analysis Uses Quality Atributes (ISO 9126)  Dynamic Test Points (FP; Quality Attributes; Function priority, compexity, influence etc) Are multiplied with each other per function and summed up. This reflects the dynamic test efforts.  Static Test Points (flexibility, testability, tracebility) The total number of FP is multiplied by a factor and added up. Static test efforts  Dynamic and Static test points are summed up and subsequently weighted with environment factors (docs, testware, tools, organization culture etc)  The result – is the number of test hours required
  • 43. (5) Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ The Test Plan is the concrete application of the Test Handbook, mapping the strategic requirement of the Test Policy into the Project ✔ Essential Test Plan components are: Test Strategy Test Effort Estimation Test Organisation ✔ For Test Effort Estimation may be applied: Intuition, experience, detailed itemization, formulas ✔ The WORSE estimation is NO ESTIMATION
  • 44. (6) (6) Test Control Test Control Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔Initializing the Test Tasks ✔Monitoring the Test Process ✔Reacting to Test Results ✔Reacting to Changed Circumstances ✔Evaluating the Test Completion ✔Test Report
  • 45. Standish Group Chaos Report 2009 Standish Group Chaos Report 2009 Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Successful Projects 32% Late, Overbudget, Miss features 44% Failed Projects 24% http://www.standishgroup.com/newsroom/chaos_2009.php "These numbers represent a downtick in the success rates from the previous study, as well as a significant increase in the number of failures", says Jim Crear, Standish Group CIO, "They are low point in the last five study periods. This year's results represent the highest failure rate in over a decade"
  • 46. How to Fix This? How to Fix This? Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ?
  • 47. How to Fix This? How to Fix This? Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ?  Total Quality Management (TQM)  Test and Development Processes Improvement
  • 48. (7) (7) Assessing and Improving the Assessing and Improving the Development and Test Processes Development and Test Processes Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  General Techniques and Approaches  Total Quality Management  Kaizen  Six Sigma  Improving the Software Development Processes  Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)  SPICE  Evaluating the Test Processes  Testing Maturity Model (TMM)  Test Process Improvement (TPI)
  • 49. 7.1 Total Quality Management (TQM) 7.1 Total Quality Management (TQM) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika QUALITY is in the center. No instructions – it's an attitude. http://www.edrawsoft.com/TQM-Diagrams.php
  • 50. 7.2 Kaizen 7.2 Kaizen (Japanese for (Japanese for Kai " Kai "improvement" or improvement" or Zen Zen "change for the better") "change for the better") Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Intensive use of the employee suggestion system  Appreciation and regard for employees' striving for improvement  Established small group discussion circles addressing defects and improvement suggestions  ”Just in time” production to eliminate wasted effort  5 Ss process for the improvement of workspaces:  Seiri – tidiness; old and useless items have no place at the workspace  Seiton – orderliness; ”everything” has its place for quick retrieval and storage  Seiso – cleanliness; keep the workspace clean and tidy at all times  Seiketsu – standartization of all practices and processes  Shitsuke – discipline; all activities are performed in a discipline way  ”Total Productive Maintenance” for maintenance and servicing of all means of production  BUT: difficult to apply in european culture such strong Jananese rules
  • 51. 7.3 Six Sigma 7.3 Six Sigma (by Motorola, USA in 1981) (by Motorola, USA in 1981) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.  The term six sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing, specifically terms associated with statistical modelling of manufacturing processes.  The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield, or the percentage of defect-free products it creates.  A six-sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the products manufactured are free of defects (), compared to a one-sigma process in which only 31% are free of defects.  BUT: Requires a lot of statistics from the Test Manager http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Sigma
  • 52. 7.4 CMMI 7.4 CMMI (Software Engineering Institute (SEI, 2002)) (Software Engineering Institute (SEI, 2002)) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model_Integration
  • 53. 7.5 SPICE 7.5 SPICE ("Software Process Improvement and Capability Evaluation") ("Software Process Improvement and Capability Evaluation") (ISO/IEC 15504 standard) (ISO/IEC 15504 standard) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika http://www.kuglermaagusa.com/tools_spice15504_com.html 0 ”Incomplete process” | General Failure to perform the bace practices in the Process
  • 54. 7.6 Testing Maturity Model (TMM) 7.6 Testing Maturity Model (TMM) (1996 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago) (1996 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Based on CMM: Levels Process Areas 1 – Initial No process identified 2 – Phase Definition Test Policy and Goals Test Planning Test Techniques and Methods Test Environment 3 - Integration Test Organization Test Training Program Test Life Cycle and Integration Control and Monitor 4 – Management and Measurement Peer Reviews Test Measurement Software Quality Evaluation 5 – Optimization Defect Prevention Quality Control Test Process Optimization
  • 55. 7.7 Test Process Improvement (TPI) 7.7 Test Process Improvement (TPI) (Sogeti, Netherlands. http://www.sogeti.com) (Sogeti, Netherlands. http://www.sogeti.com) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Key / Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 Test strategy A B C D 2 Life-cycle model A B 3 Moment of involvement A B C D 4 Estimating and planning A B 5 Test Specification techniques A B 6 Static test techniques A B 7 Metrics A B C D 8 Test tools A B C 9 Test environment A B C 10 Office environment A 11 Commitment and motivation A B C 12 Test functions and training A B C 13 Scope of methodology A B C 14 Communication A B C 15 Reporting A B C D 16 Defect management A B C 17 Testware management A B C D 18 Test process management A B C 19 Evaluation A B 20 Low-level testing A B C
  • 56. 7.8 TPI Assessment 7.8 TPI Assessment Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Key / Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 Test strategy A B C D 2 Life-cycle model A B 3 Moment of involvement A B C D 4 Estimating and planning A B 5 Test Specification techniques A B 6 Static test techniques A B ... Key / Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 Test strategy A B C D 2 Life-cycle model A B 3 Moment of involvement A B C D 4 Estimating and planning A B 5 Test Specification techniques A B 6 Static test techniques A B ... Current.. Required..
  • 57. (7) Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ It is up to the individual company to decide how well a particular model is suited toi it's own specific circumstances.
  • 58. CTAL TM – Part 2 Part 1 1. Introduction 2. Test Process and Test Tools 3. Testing in the software Life Cycle 4. Test Policy and Test Handbook 5. The Test Plan 6. Test Control 7. Assessing and Improving the Development and Test Processes Part 2 8. Deviation Management 9. Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing 10. Staff Qualification and Skills 11. Test Metrics 12. Selecting and Implementing Test Tools 13. Standards Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 59. Deviation Terminology Deviation Terminology Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Error (Human Action) Bug, Fault (Wrong Code) Failure (Wrong Behavior) http://estonovaamisa.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/human-error1.jpg
  • 60. (8) (8) Deviation Management Deviation Management Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔Terminology ✔ Error ✔ Fault ✔ Failure ✔Documenting Incidents ✔Incident Handling (Bug Tracking Systems Workflow) ✔IEEE 1044/1044.1 Standard (Chapter 13)
  • 61. What is Risk? What is Risk? Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ?
  • 62. What is Risk? What is Risk? Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ? IT Project = Risk = Probability * Damage
  • 63. (9) (9) Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing Risk Management and Risk-Oriented Testing Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Risk Management  Identification of the risk context  Risk identification  Risk analysis and risk evaluation  Risk control  Risk verification and monitoring  Risk-Oriented Test Plan Creation and Test Prioritization  Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
  • 64. 9.1.1 Identification of the Risk Context 9.1.1 Identification of the Risk Context Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika
  • 65. 9.1.2 Risk Identification. Risk Categories 9.1.2 Risk Identification. Risk Categories Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Risk Category Influence Prediction Example External risk Cannot be influenced Difficult to predict •Lightning Damage •Out of Power Strategic risk Difficult to influence Easy to predict •Changing a Corporate standard etc Project risk Easy to influence Easy to predict •Sales Problems •Technical Risks •Servers unavailability •Defect Correction Risks Product risk Can be influenced Easy to predict •Customer suffering from product failures •Poor Quality affects reputation
  • 66. 9.1.3 Risk Identification Techniques 9.1.3 Risk Identification Techniques Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Expert Interviews and Questionnaires  Independent Estimations  Risk Workshops  Risk Brainstorming (Worst Case Scenarios)  Use of risk templates and checklists  Experiences from completed projects
  • 67. 9.1.4 Risk Evaluation 9.1.4 Risk Evaluation Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  F – the frequency of execution of use (a function)  C – criticality. Represents the worst possible effects of a function not working well (at all)  Rp – The Project risks  Rt – Technical Product risks  Rb – The Commercial Product risks Risk Factor: RF= RtRbRp 3 F∗RbC∗Rt
  • 68. 9.2 Risk Oriented Test Plan Creation 9.2 Risk Oriented Test Plan Creation Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Target-oriented test plan creation: applying appropriately different test techniques and test intensities to cover system functions with different risks  Prioritized testing: giving areas with higher risks higher priority and testing them earlier  Residual risk awareness: identifying the residual risks that remain in the delivered software and are due to reductions in test or nonperformance of planned tests
  • 69. 9.3.1 Risk Based Testing. 9.3.1 Risk Based Testing. Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  FMEA is a Method used to identify potential error types and their effect on a system. FMEA Procedure: 1. Generate a list of all the risk factors. 2. Specify the type and probability of falures for each factor. 3. Investigate the effect of failures on other factors, applying, e.g., simulations. 4. Investigate the effect on Project Planning. 5. Identify possibilities for detecting the failure. 6. Identify possibilities for compensating the failure. 7. Identify possibilities for preventing the failure. 8. Define measures to avoid defects. 9. Evaluate the effect of the proposed measures. 10. Document the results.
  • 70. 9.3.2 Risk Priority Number. 9.3.2 Risk Priority Number. Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  FMEA defined the Risk Priority Number (RPN). O – Probability of Occurrence E – Expected Damage D – Probability of Detection RPN =O∗E∗D
  • 71. (9) (9) Summary Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ Risk = Rrobability * Damage ✔ Testing is a preventive measure, reducing risks ✔ Based on the most important risks, suitable test techniques are to be selected, and tests are to prioritized to allow tests covering high risks to be executed early and with the appropriate effort ✔ Prioritization and risk estimation criteria, defined in the Test Plan, can be applied to test objects and test cases
  • 72. Skilled people as the key success factor Skilled people as the key success factor Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika TOYAKO, JAPAN - JULY 08: (L-R) German Chancellor Angela Merkel, U.S. President George W. Bush, Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev plant the memorial tree after a working session at the Windsor Hotel Toya on July 8, 2008 in Toyako, Hokkaido, Japan. http://www.life.com/image/81853290
  • 73. (10) (10) Staff Qualification and Skills Staff Qualification and Skills Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Individual Skills  Functional Team Roles  Social Team Roles  The Communication Factor  The Motivation Factor
  • 74. 10.1 Individual Skills 10.1 Individual Skills Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  The ”perfect” test team member has exellent technical knowledge and high social competency.  There is NO PERFECT Individual from the scratch. Need to develop.  IT Expert as QA:  Great technical competency  DANGER: In love with technology → loses focus  Application Expert as QA:  Great domain expert. Knows non-func. requirements  DANGER: Blinkered atitude → doesn't seek for improvements  Social Competence  The ability to familiarize quickly with complex domains  The ability to detect defects. (”professional ressimism”)  The ability to cope with criticism adequately. Diplomacy  Courage to leave some gaps  Discipline, exactitude, patience, tolerance  The ability to work in a team and to communicate
  • 75. 10.2 Functional Team Roles 10.2 Functional Team Roles Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Test Manager  Leads the Test Team  Test Planning and Control, Test Reporting  Human Resource Management and Test Process Improvement  Test Designer (QA Analyst)  Creation and Maintenance of Test Specification. Prioritizing  Defining and Apply Test Design Techniques  Test Automator  The Test Team's Programmer  Developing Automation Tests, Test frameworks and Tools  Test Administrator  Installation, Administration and Maintenance of the Test Environment  Installing and set up of the System Software (Operating Systems, Databases, Application Servers)  Tester  Execution the tests and documenting the test results  Accuracy and Creativity  Expert  Supporting L/P testing, database or network testing etc
  • 76. 10.3 Social Team Roles 10.3 Social Team Roles Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Type Descriptors Strengths Weakness Monitor Evaluator Strategic Power of judgment Lacks drive and the ability to inspire others Shaper Dynamic, open-minded, result oriented Lot's of drive, fight inefficiency, experts pressure Prone to irritate and to hurt others Planter Individualistic Creative. Lot's of intellectual power Ignores practical details and instructions Completer Straight, anxiuos Ability to complete things, perfectionism Inclined to worry undully, reluctant to delegate Team Worker Cooperative, mild, sensitive Ability to cope with different situation and people, promotes team spirit Can be easily influenced Implementer Conservative, dutiful Hard-working, disciplined Inflexible. Rejects unproved ideas Co-ordinator Self-confident, mature Recognizes individual talents. Good at clarifying goals Has limited creativity Resource Investigator Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative Likes to develop contacts, picks up new ideas, reacts to challenges Too optimistic, tend to lose interest after initial enthusiasm Specialist Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply Contributes only a narrow front, overlooks the ”big picture”
  • 77. 10.4 The Communication Factor 10.4 The Communication Factor Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Communicate problems accurately  Test Team External Communication  Tester → Developer  Developer → Tester  Test Manager → Projects Manager  Project Manager → Test Manager  Tester → User  Test Team Internal Communication  Regular Team Meetings  Knowledge Transition
  • 78. 10.5.1 The Motivation Factor 10.5.1 The Motivation Factor Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika http://media.photobucket.com/image/funny workers/geet_kunal/happy-best-wishes-monday/rg272945.jpg
  • 79. 10.5.2 The Motivation Checklist 10.5.2 The Motivation Checklist Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  The schedule is a motivating factor  The resources provided are a motivating factor  The test process is a motivating factor  The task is a motivating factor  The team will feel valued, recognised and motivated http://www.imbus.de/fileadmin/imbus_repository/Downloads/imbus_Allgemein/Dokumente/Checkliste-Motivation_E.zip
  • 80. (10) (10) Summary Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ A member of the test team should be IT professional, have knowledge from the application domain and have social competence ✔ The different tasks in the test process are reflected in the different roles within the test team ✔ Becides professional role, each team member should play a social role in the team ✔ Detected problems should be communicated to the external parties with relevan communication style ✔ Test Manager should organize regular internal meetings ✔ The Test Manager should provide a healthy motivation environment and professional working condition for the team. Part of this task is to adequately represent the role and contribution of the test team within the organization
  • 81. Why do the People change job? Why do the People change job? Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Stupid Manager Far from Home Low Salary Not Allowed to use Facebook
  • 82. (11) (11) Test Metrics Test Metrics Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Why do we need Metrics?  Presenting Measurements  Test Metrics Types  Residual Defect Estimations and Reliability
  • 83. 11.1 Why do we need Metrics? 11.1 Why do we need Metrics? Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  The Test Metrics is the Tool for Control Tom DeMarco on Measurement: „You can not control what you can not measure. Measurement is the prerequisite to management control.“ from Tom DeMarco American Consultant, 1982
  • 84. 11.2 Presenting Measurements 11.2 Presenting Measurements Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Diagrams help you to visualize measurement values and their progression
  • 85. 11.3.1 Test Metrics Types 11.3.1 Test Metrics Types Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Test Case Based Metrics  Number of Planned, Specified Test Cases  Number of Created Test Procedures  Number of Changed, Deleted Test Cases  Number of Run, Passed, Failed, Blocked TC  Test Object Based Metrics  Number of tested functions / Total number of functions  Number of executed TC / Number od specified TC epr function  Percentage of all requirements covered by Test Cases  Number of platforms covered by test  Percentage of interfaces tested  Number of lines of codes or executable instructions (kilo lines of code – KLOC)  Number of the covered paths in the control flows graph  Percentage of branches in the control flow graph that were covered
  • 86. 11.3.2 Test Metrics Types 11.3.2 Test Metrics Types Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Defect - Baced Metrics  Bug Detection Percentage  Number of defects relative to criticality (defect severity)  Number of defects per status (defect correction progress)  Defect report status  Cost and Effort-Based Metrics  Number of person-days for test planning or specification  Number of person-days for the creation of test procedures  Evaluating Test Effectiveness  Degree of Defect Detection  Confidence Level  Test Effectiveness DDD= numberof weighted defects during test total numberof defects found CL=1− numberof weighted defects number of executed test cases ∗degree of test coverage TE=DDD∗CL
  • 87. 11.4 Residual Defect Estimations and Reliability 11.4 Residual Defect Estimations and Reliability Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Three options to evaluate Test Process based on defects found  Estimate number of defects inherent in the system prior to test and estimate the number of defects to be found  Monitor the Defect Detection Percentage  Inject bugs into the program code and monitor the proportion to be found during testing  Reliability Growth Model Target numberof Defects= residual numberof defects effectiveness percentage
  • 88. (11) (11) Summary Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ For each Test Level suitable Test Metric should be applied ✔ Ensure compliance, if necessary through audits
  • 89. (12) (12) Standards Standards Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  General Understanding of Standards  Standards related to Software Testing  Standards in the phases of the Test Process
  • 90. 12.1 General Understanding 12.1 General Understanding Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika  Standards are developed and maintained by national and international organizations  ISO – International Organization od Standardization  ANSI – American National Standard Institute  BSI – British Standard Institution  IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Standard Types  Corporate Standards  Best Practices and Technical specifications  Domain Specific  Generally Applicable Standards
  • 91. 12.2 Main Standards related to Software Testing 12.2 Main Standards related to Software Testing Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Standard Description BS 7925-1 British Standard: Software Testing, Part 1: Vocabulary, 1998 BS 7925-2 British Standard: Software Testing, Part 1: Software Component Testing, 1998 ISO 9000 A family of standards for quality management systems IEEE 610.12 1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology ISO 90003 Software Engineering Quality Management Standard IEEE 730 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, 2002 IEEE 1008 ANSI/IEEE 1008-1987 IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing IEEE 1012 IEEE Std 1012-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation ISO 9126-x IEEE Std 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies ISO 9241 ISO 9241-11:1998. Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals IEEE 1044 IEEE Std 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies IEEE 829 IEEE 829-1998, Standard for Software Test Documentation IEEE 1059 IEEE Std 1059-1993 IEEE Guide for Software Verification and Validation Plans
  • 92. 12.3 Standards in the phases of the Test Process 12.3 Standards in the phases of the Test Process Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika Type of Standard Test Phase Terminology and contracts Processes Products Documentation Methods and techniques Test Planning Test Control BS 7925-1 ISO 2382 ISO 9000 ISO 12207-0 IEEE 610.12 ISO 12207-0 ISO 9000-3 IEEE 730 IEEE 1008 IEEE 1012 IEEE 1061 ISO 9126-x ISO 12119 ISO 12207-1 ISO 15026 IEEE 982.1 IEEE 1228 IEEE 730 IEEE 829 IEEE 1012 IEEE 1228 ISO 12207-2 ISO 16085 IEEE 730.1 IEEE 982.2 IEEE 1059 Test analysis Test design ISO 14598-4 ISO 15408 IEEE 1062 IEEE 1228 IEEE 1008 IEEE 1012 ISO 15939 ISO 9241 ISO 12119 IEEE 1044 IEEE 982.2 IEEE 829 IEEE 1063 BS 7925-2 IEEE 1028 ISO 60812 EN 61508-3 EN 50128 IEC 61025 ISO 5806 Test realization Test execution IEEE 1008 ISO 9241 IEEE 828 IEEE 1209 IEEE 1348 IEEE 829 IEEE 1209 IEEE 1348 IEEE 1028 ETSI 201-873 IEEE 1042 IEEE 1209 IEEE 1348 Test evaluation Reporting IEEE 1008 IEEE 982.2 IEEE 1044 IEEE 829 IEEE 1044.1 ISO 12119
  • 93. (13) (13) Summary Summary Copyright Petro Porchuk 2010. Lohika ✔ Test Manager shouldn't reinvent the wheel, use standards for Testing ✔ Ensure compliance, if necessary through audits