Philip polstra


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DEFCON XX presentation on how to use a simple microcontroller device to make your USB mass storage device look like one that is authorized to be mounted. Also provides the ability to write block the drive to prevent deletion of security tools during use.

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Philip polstra

  1. 1. Bypassing EndpointSecurity for $20 orLess Philip A. Polstra, Sr. @ppolstra
  2. 2. Roadmap• Why this talk?• Who is this dude talking at me?• Brief history of USB• How does USB work?• It’s all descriptors and endpoints• Bulk-only mass storage devices• Bypassing endpoint security• Microcontrollers are fun (and cheap)• Food for thought
  3. 3. Why this talk?• Many organizations have begun to use endpoint security programs to restrict use of portable media• Many software tools do the USB equivalent of MAC filtering – only allow authorized VID/PID• For $18-30 can easily construct device to allow any mass storage device to impersonate authorized device• Allows injection/extraction
  4. 4. Who am I anyway?• Teach computer security at a private university• Like to hack hardware• Have been known to fly and build airplanes• Been known to play with USB devices
  5. 5. Brief History or USB• Non-universal serial, PS/2 ports, & LPT• 1996 USB 1.0 (1.5 or 12 Mbps)• 1998 USB 1.1• 2000 USB 2.0 (1.5, 12, or 480 Mbps)• Long pause• 2008 USB 3.0 (up to 5 Gbps)
  6. 6. How does USB Work?
  7. 7. Hardware• Simple 4-wire connection (power, ground, 2 data wires)• Cabling prevents improper connections• Hot pluggable• Differential voltages provide greater immunity to noise• Cable lengths up to 16 feet are possible Pin Name Cable color Description1 VBUS Red +5 V2 D− White Data −3 D+ Green Data +4 GND Black Ground
  8. 8. Software• Automatic configuration• No settable jumpers• Enumeration• Standard device classes with corresponding drivers – HID – Printer – Audio – Mass Storage
  9. 9. Connecting a Device• Device is connected• Hub detects• Host (PC) is informed of new device• Hub determines device speed capability as indicated by location of pull-up resistors• Hub resets the device• Host determines if device is capable of high speed (using chirps)• Hub establishes a signal path• Host requests descriptor from device to determine max packet size• Host assigns an address• Host learns devices capabilities• Host assigns and loads an appropriate device driver (INF file)• Device driver selects a configuration
  10. 10. It’s all descriptors andendpoints
  11. 11. Endpoints• The virtual wire for USB communications• All endpoints are one way (direction relative to host)• Packet fragmentation, handshaking, etc. done by hardware (usually)• High bit of address tells direction 1=in 0=out• Types of endpoints – Control – Bulk transport – Interrupt – Isochronous
  12. 12. Control Endpoints• Primary mechanism for most devices to communicate with host• Every device must have at least one in and out control endpoint EP0• Device must respond to standard requests – Get/set address, descriptors, power, and status• Device may respond to class specific requests• Device may respond to vendor specific requests
  13. 13. Control Endpoints (continued)• May have up to 3 transport stages: Setup, Data, Status• Setup stage – Host sends Setup token then data packet containing setup request – If device receives a valid setup packet, an ACK is returned – Setup request is 8 bytes – 1st byte is bitmap telling type of request & recipient (device, interface, endpoint) – Remaining bytes are parameters for request and response• Data stage (optional) – requested info transmitted• Status stage – zero length data packet sent as ACK on success
  14. 14. Interrupt & Isochronous Endpoints• Interrupt endpoints – Used to avoid polling and busy waits – Keyboards are a good example – Usually low speed (allows for longer cables, etc.)• Isochronous endpoints – Guaranteed bandwidth – Used primarily for time-critical apps such as streaming media
  15. 15. Bulk Endpoints• No latency guarantees• Good performance on an idle bus• Superseded by all other transport types• Full (8-64 byte packets) & high speed (512 byte packets) only• Used extensively in USB flash drives (and external hard drives)• Transactions consist of a token packet, 0 or more data packets, and an ACK handshake packet (if successful)
  16. 16. Descriptors• They describe things (duh!)• Have a standard format – 1st byte is the length in bytes (so you known when you’re done) – 2nd byte determines type of descriptor – Remaining bytes are the descriptor itself• Common types – Device: tells you basic info about the device – Configuration: how much power needed, number of interfaces, etc. – Interface: How do I talk to the device – Endpoint: Direction, type, number, etc. – String: Describe something in unicode text
  17. 17. Device DescriptorOffset Field Size Value Description0 bLength 1 Number 18 bytes1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant Device Descriptor (0x01)2 bcdUSB 2 BCD 0x2004 bDeviceClass 1 Class Class Code5 bDeviceSubClass 1 SubClass Subclass Code6 bDeviceProtocol 1 Protocol Protocol Code7 bMaxPacketSize 1 Number Maxi Packet Size EP08 idVendor 2 ID Vendor ID10 idProduct 2 ID Product ID12 bcdDevice 2 BCD Device Release Number14 iManufacturer 1 Index Index of Manu Descriptor15 iProduct 1 Index Index of Prod Descriptor16 iSerialNumber 1 Index Index of SN Descriptor17 bNumConfigurations 1 Integer Num Configurations
  18. 18. Configuration Descriptor (header)Offset Field Size Value Description0 bLength 1 Number Size in Bytes1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant 0x022 wTotalLength 2 Number Total data returned4 bNumInterfaces 1 Number Num Interfaces5 bConfigurationValue 1 Number Con number6 iConfiguration 1 Index String Descriptor7 bmAttributes 1 Bitmap b7 Reserved, set to 1. b6 Self Powered b5 Remote Wakeup b4..0 Reserved 0.8 bMaxPower 1 mA Max Power in mA/2
  19. 19. Interface DescriptorOffset Field Size Value Description0 bLength 1 Number 9 Bytes1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant 0x042 bInterfaceNumber 1 Number Number of Interface3 bAlternateSetting 1 Number Alternative setting4 bNumEndpoints 1 Number Number of Endpoints used5 bInterfaceClass 1 Class Class Code6 bInterfaceSubClass 1 SubClass Subclass Code7 bInterfaceProtocol 1 Protocol Protocol Code8 iInterface 1 Index Index of String Descriptor
  20. 20. Endpoint DescriptorOffset Field Size Value Description0 bLength 1 Number Size of Descriptor (7 bytes)1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant Endpoint Descriptor (0x05)2 bEndpointAddress 1 Endpoint b0..3 Endpoint Number. b4..6 Reserved. Set to Zero b7 Direction 0 = Out, 1 = In3 bmAttributes 1 Bitmap b0..1 Transfer Type 10 = Bulk b2..7 are reserved. I4 wMaxPacketSize 2 Number Maximum Packet Size6 bInterval 1 Number Interval for polling endpoint data
  21. 21. String DescriptorsOffset Field Size Value Description0 bLength 1 Number Size of Descriptor in Bytes1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant String Descriptor (0x03)2 bString n Unicode Unicode Encoded StringNote:String0is
  22. 22. Now that we have learned a little about general devices, withoutfurther delay…Bulk-only mass storageDevices
  23. 23. USB Flash Drives• Hardware• Software• Filesystems• Talk to a flash drive
  24. 24. Hardware
  25. 25. Hardware (continued)• Typically utilize NAND flash memory• Memory degrades after 10,000 write cycles• Most chips not even close to high-speed USB speed (480 Mbps)• Can only be written in blocks (usually 512, 2048, or 4096 bytes)• Chips are somewhat easily removed from damaged drives for forensic recovery• Some controllers have JTAG capability which can be used for memory access• Some controller chips steal some flash memory for themselves
  26. 26. Hardware (continued)• Nearly all flash drives present themselves as SCSI hard drives• “Hard drive” sectors are typically 512, 2048, or 4096 bytes• SCSI transparent command set is used• Most drives are formatted as one partition or logical unit – Additional logical units can hide info from Windows machines• Reported size may not match actual media size – Info can be hidden in higher sectors – Some cheap drives are out there that grossly over report size – A typical 512 byte sector needs 16 bytes for error correction
  27. 27. Software• Usually implemented in firmware within specialized controller chips• Must: – Detect communication directed at drive – Respond to standard requests – Check for errors – Manage power – Exchange data
  28. 28. Filesystems• Most preformatted with FAT or FAT32• NTFS• TrueFFS• ExtremeFFS• JFFS• YAFFS• Various UNIX/Linux file systems
  29. 29. Talking to a Flash Drive• Bulk-Only Mass Storage (aka BBB) protocol used – All communications use bulk endpoints – Three phases: CBW, data-transport (optional), CSW – Commands sent to drive using a Command Block Wrapper (CBW) – CBW contains Command Block (CB) with actual command – Nearly all drives use a (reduced) SCSI command set – Commands requiring data transport will send/receive on bulk endpoints – All transactions are terminated by a Command Status Wrapper (CSW)
  30. 30. Command Block Wrappertypedef struct _USB_MSI_CBW { unsigned long dCBWSignature; //0x43425355 “USBC” unsigned long dCBWTag; // associates CBW with CSW response unsigned long dCBWDataTransferLength; // bytes to send or receive unsigned char bCBWFlags; // bit 7 0=OUT, 1=IN all others zero unsigned char bCBWLUN; // logical unit number (usually zero) unsigned char bCBWCBLength; // 3 hi bits zero, rest bytes in CB unsigned char bCBWCB[16]; // the actual command block (>= 6bytes)} USB_MSI_CBW;
  31. 31. Command Block• 6-16 bytes depending on command• Command is first byte• Format Unit Example:typedef struct _CB_FORMAT_UNIT { unsigned char OperationCode; //must be 0x04 unsigned char LUN:3; // logical unit number (usually zero) unsigned char FmtData:1; // if 1, extra parameters follow command unsigned char CmpLst:1; // if 0, partial list of defects, 1, complete unsigned char DefectListFormat:3; //000 = 32-bit LBAs unsigned char VendorSpecific; //vendor specific code unsigned short Interleave; //0x0000 = use vendor default unsigned char Control;} CB_FORMAT_UNIT;
  32. 32. Command Block (continued)• Read (10) Example:typedef struct _CB_READ10 { unsigned char OperationCode; //must be 0x28 unsigned char RelativeAddress:1; // normally 0 unsigned char Resv:2; unsigned char FUA:1; // 1=force unit access, dont use cache unsigned char DPO:1; // 1=disable page out unsigned char LUN:3; //logical unit number unsigned long LBA; //logical block address (sector number) unsigned char Reserved; unsigned short TransferLength; unsigned char Control;} CB_READ10;
  33. 33. Command Block (continued)• Some Common SCSI Commands: FORMAT_UNIT=0x4, //required INQUIRY=0x12, //required MODE_SELECT6=0x15, MODE_SELECT10=0x55, MODE_SENSE6=0x1A, MODE_SENSE10=0x5A, READ6=0x08, //required READ10=0x28, //required READ12=0xA8, READ_CAPACITY10=0x25, //required READ_FORMAT_CAPACITIES=0x23, REPORT_LUNS=0xA0, //required REQUEST_SENSE=0x03, //required SEND_DIAGNOSTIC=0x1D, //required START_STOP_UNIT=0x1B, SYNCHRONIZE_CACHE10=0x35, TEST_UNIT_READ=0x00, //required VERIFY10=0x2F, WRITE6=0x0A, //required WRITE10=0x2A, WRITE12=0xAA
  34. 34. Command Status Wrapper• Read Sense command can be used for details on failed operationstypedef struct _USB_MSI_CSW { unsigned long dCSWSignature; //0x53425355 “USBS” unsigned long dCSWTag; // associate CBW with CSW response unsigned long dCSWDataResidue; // difference between requesteddata and actual unsigned char bCSWStatus; //00=pass, 01=fail, 02=phase error,reset} USB_MSI_CSW;
  35. 35. Now that we know how bulk-only mass storage devices work…How do I bypass endpointsecurity?
  36. 36. Impersonating another device• Social engineering USB style• Providing an authorized VID/PID allows device connection – Backdoors and other useful items can be injected – Information can be extracted to portable media• Device design allows optional write blocking
  37. 37. Enough background. Let the fun begin…Microcontrollers are fun (andcheap)
  38. 38. Fun with Microcontrollers• Chip Choice• A Microcontroller-Based Impersonator
  39. 39. Chip Choice Options• AVR (as found in Arduino family) – Cheap – Well understood – Loads of code out there – Too underpowered to do USB without external components (<20MHz)• PIC family – Relatively cheap – Programming somewhat more involved than AVR – Newer chips SMD only, not easy DIP package – Some USB device code, but not host code out there
  40. 40. Chip Choice Winner• None of the above• FTDI Vinculum II – Relatively new chip – A little faster than AVRs (48 MHz) – Real-time multi-threaded OS – Libraries for several standard USB classes – BOMS is one – but we can’t use it for this project, unfortunately – Unlike AVR, different pin packages differ only with GPIO lines available – Same flash memory – Same RAM
  41. 41. Chip Choice• FTDI Vinculum II dual USB host/slave controller – 2 full-speed USB 2.0 interfaces (host or slave capable) – 256 KB E-flash memory – 16 KB RAM – 2 SPI slave and 1 SPI master interfaces – Easy-to-use IDE – Simultaneous multiple file access on BOMS devices• Several development modules available – Convenient for prototyping (only SMD chips available) – Cheap enough to embed in final device – One format is Arduino clone (Vinco)
  42. 42. Chip Choice (continued)
  43. 43. Chip Choice (continued)
  44. 44. Chip Choice (continued) l
  45. 45. Chip Choice (continued)
  46. 46. Package A - Small & only 4 Pins to Solder**Ifyoua
  47. 47. Package B – Slightly Larger-No Soldering**Se
  48. 48. Microcontroller-Based Impersonator• Enumerate an attached mass storage drive• When PC attempts to connect drive try to provide an authorized VID/PID• If unsuccessful try another VID/PID till it works
  49. 49. Impersonator High-Level Design• One thread associated with slave port to appear as a BOMS device – One thread watches control endpoint and services requests from host• One thread associated with the host port for talking to flash drive – Thread enumerates the device and gets endpoints. Then periodically checks to see if the drive is still there• Main thread bridges slave and host – Non-CBW packets (data packets) are passed through to host port – Whitelisted CBWs are also passed on to host port (if write blocking)• Timer thread – When enumeration starts timer is set – If drive is not connected another VID/PID is tried• Button thread – Reads buttons and adjusts status accordingly
  50. 50. The Main Thread• Waits for CBW packets to arrive on Bulk Out endpoint• Calls appropriate handler function based on command – Whitelisted commands: – Forward CBW to drive – Perform Data phase (if any) with drive and forward to PC – Received CSW from device and forward to PC – Non-whitelisted commands (when write blocking): – ACK CBW – Fake Data phase (if any) – Return CSW to PC • Some commands return success because Windows is unhappy with failures
  51. 51. Main LoopusbSlaveBoms_readCbw(cbw, slaveBomsCtx);switch (cbw->cb.formated.command){ case BOMS_INQUIRY: handle_inquiry(cbw); break; …}
  52. 52. Example Handlervoid handle_inquiry(boms_cbw_t *cbw){ unsigned char buffer[64]; unsigned short responseSize; boms_csw_t csw; if (forward_cbw_to_device(cbw)) { if (responseSize = receive_data_from_device(&buffer[0], 36)) { forward_data_to_slave(&buffer[0], responseSize); if (receive_csw_from_device(&csw)) { forward_csw_to_slave(&csw); } } }}
  53. 53. Timer Thread• When device descriptor requested start 1 second timer• When the enumeration complete reset timer• If timer expires try the next VID/PID from list• At end of list could resort to brute force
  54. 54. Complications• Windows & Linux treat drives differently – Windows will try to look for and autoplay media – Windows doesn’t appear to see other than first LUN – Early prototype experience (with writeblocker this is based on) – Worked fine under Linux – Caused BSoD on Windows (exploit?) – Linux seems to pull in a lot of data up front – Windows misbehaves if you correctly fail some commands such as Write
  55. 55. Endpoint security on Linux• Can use udev rules to emulate Windows endpoint security software on Linux• Open source provides a great value – Better value – Equally ineffective, but at a better price
  56. 56. And now what you really wanted to see…It’s demo time!
  57. 57. Demo Video
  58. 58. Food for thought• Speed up process by searching registry for previously mounted devices – USBDevView or something similar might be helpful• Use larger device to divine authorized device then use a collection of smaller devices preprogrammed to appropriate VID/PID• Like all devices this may be thwarted – Device operates at full speed only – Endpoint software could use proprietary drivers – Security through obscurity?
  59. 59. References• USB Complete: The Developers Guide (4th ed.) by Jan Axelson• USB Mass Storage: Designing and Programming Devices and Embedded Hosts by Jan Axelson•• for more on VNC2• for SCSI references• Embedded USB Design by Example by John Hyde• My 44Con USB Flash Drive Forensics Video• Schematics and source code are available – Git hub usb-impersonator – Email – Twitter @ppolstra
  60. 60. Questions?