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Week 1 Lecture Slides


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These lecture slides contain introductory material, along with information pertaining to measurement and notation.

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Week 1 Lecture Slides

  1. 1. Psychology 259: Week 1 Introduction to StatisticsNOTE: You can skip information pertaining to:5) Real limits (pg.21)
  2. 2. What is the purpose of statistics? Organize/summarize information (Descriptive Statistics) Infer information about larger group (Inferential Statistics)
  3. 3. Population entire group of individuals of interest to researcher  Parameter: value describing population
  4. 4. Sample subset of individuals representing population  Statistic: value describing sample
  5. 5. Sampling error Amount of error that exists between sample statistic and corresponding population parameter.
  6. 6. Important terms: DATA: information about group of individuals VARIABLES: characteristic of individual CONSTANT: same characteristic for every individual
  7. 7. Who? What? Why? WHO are our individuals? WHAT are we measuring? WHY are we measuring these variables? (hypothesis?)
  8. 8. Study Design:Correlational Method two variables observed for relationships less control no cause/effect concluded  
  9. 9. Study Design:Experimental Method More control Random assignment of individuals  Experimental condition  Control condition  placebo
  10. 10. Independent and DependentVariables Independent Variable:  Manipulated by researcher Dependent Variable:  Observed variable  outcome
  11. 11. Types of Variables Discrete Variables:  separate categories Continuous Variables:  infinite number of possible values falling between two values
  12. 12. Scales of Measurement Nominal: categories Ordinal: relative rankings Interval: ordered categories with intervals of same width Ratio: interval scale with absolute zero point
  13. 13. Statistical NotationX = score for a variableY = score for another variableN = number of scores in populationn = number of scores in sampleΣ     = summationΣX = summation of X values or sum of the scores