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11 5-12-rel142


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11 5-12-rel142

  1. 1. Native Roots of American Identity US Culture and the Iroquois
  2. 2. Founding Fathers: Choosing to be Romans• Regular ongoing contact between Haudenosaunee and Colonists (Grinde) – Protecting Private Property was Founding Father’s big concern• Two antithetical strands of American culture (Venables): – 1)Emphasis on private, rather than communal, property – 2)Liberty became identified with the noble image of the Indian
  3. 3. Concept of Liberty • Covenant Chain – Agreement between Iroquois and Colonist • “We the People” not a hierarchical concept • American Revolution destroyed connection
  4. 4. Americans as Indians• Benjamin Franklin wrote extensively about the Haudenosaunee Longhouse system• Mohawk “Kings” in England• “Sons of Liberty” dumped tea in Boston Harbor dressed as Mohawks
  5. 5. Cultural Conflict• ”Given the conflicting impulses of life and liberty on the one hand and property on the other, it is not surprising that at one moment the Founding Fathers could extol the virtues of the savage state--life and liberty--and at the next moment move to establish an executive branch; checks; balances; and separations of powers which would insure the survival of property--prosperity.”(93)• Quotes pp 98-99
  6. 6. Freedom • Indian woman on top of the capital • Boston Tea Party – Dressing as Mohawks
  7. 7. Freedom at the US Capitol
  8. 8. Museum of the American Indian
  9. 9. Columbus Landing
  10. 10. DeSoto Discovers Florida
  11. 11. Baptism of Pocahontas
  12. 12. Pilgrims Embarking to America
  13. 13. /frieze/index.cfm
  14. 14. Old Supreme Court
  15. 15. Women as the Center of Community LifeIroquois influence on the Women’s movement in the US
  16. 16. Iroquois Influence on Women’s Movement in the US• Matilda Joslyn Gage (1826-1898) – With Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, Gage forms the “triumvirate” of leaders – Author with Anthony of History of Woman Suffrage – Forgotten by the end of the 19th century • Why?
  17. 17. Women and Property • First Women’s Convention in Seneca Falls, NY 1848 – Iroquois territory • Women, African Americans and Indians as Property – Women’s suffering tied to property – Blackstone’s Code
  18. 18. Gage’s Activism• Wrote on Iroquois, matrilineal clan, misdeeds of white, etc.• Women’s liberty based in liberty of all people• Mother-in-law of L. Frank Baum
  19. 19. Sally Roesch Wagner• "It comes as no surprise then, that when reformers like Matilda Joslyn Gage looked outside of their culture for a model upon which to base their vision of an egalitarian world, they quickly found their well- known Indian neighbors."[121]• Gage Foundation in Fayetteville, NY – – New vision of feminism – Sisters In Spirit
  20. 20. Women Providers• Haudenosaunee women were farmers – Scandalous for Europeans – Tilled all crops in “slash & burn” fields – Extensive knowledge of plants, wild and domestic
  21. 21. Three Sisters • Corn, Beans and Squash • Hilled agriculture (Mesoamerican) • Nitrogen exchange between corn and beans • Deep hoe techniques came with Europeans
  22. 22. Communal Property • Longhouse originally a clan residence – Overseen (“owned”) by Clan Mother – Fields tended by clan women
  23. 23. Mary Jemison • 1750’s “abducted” by the Seneca • Lived with them for the rest of her life • Died a clan mother • “Captivity Narratives”
  24. 24. Balance of Life• Women responsible for life “in” the earth (agriculture)• Men responsible for life “on” the earth (hunting)• Connected to sexual roles• Allotment Act (1870’s) shifted balance to women in the home and men in the fields
  25. 25. Succotash• Corn Soup• Mixture of corn, beans and venison (now “salt pork”)• Washed corn, white corn, flint corn, Indian corn – Cooked several days in wood ash
  26. 26. Haudenosaunee Women and Politics• Clan Mothers choose male clan “chiefs” – Iroquois word is “good mind” – Chiefs are “horned” given deer antler “gustoweh,” head-dress – If they misbehave they can be “dehorned” by the clan mother
  27. 27. Role of Haudenosaunee Women• Direct the men from behind• Chiefs council with clan mothers• All decisions are made only by consensus• Women make the decision to go to war – They are responsible for children who will suffer
  28. 28. Clan Chiefs & MothersOversee ceremoniesIn Longhouse no distinction between “religious” “political” “economic” “familial”Make certain the cycles of life continue to the Seventh Generation Decisions made now effect people long into the future
  29. 29. European Fiction of Control• Men in control of their homes used force (rape and violence) – Legacy of a patrilineal system of inheritance and property rights• Men in clan house had to behave, used force in hunting and diplomacy – Legacy of matrilineal system of communal property• Distinctive “religious” views of Mother
  30. 30. What is Haudenousaunee “religion?”• Connection and exchanges with a living earth• Duties and responsibilities of women and men to Creation• Continuing the ceremonial cycle of Thanksgivings
  31. 31. Haudenosaunee and the US Sullivan-Clinton Campaign
  32. 32. Washington to Major General John Sullivan, 31 May 1779“The expedition you are appointed tocommand is to be directed against the hostiletribes of the Six Nations of Indians [i.e., theHaudenosaunee] with their associates andadherents. The immediate objects are totaldestruction and devastation of theirsettlements and the capture of as manyprisoners of every sex and age as possible. Itwill be essential to ruin their crops in theground and prevent their planting more.”
  33. 33. U.S. Attack of Iroquois
  34. 34. Consequences of the Sullivan Campaign• Land laid to waste• 160,000 bushels of corn destroyed• 43 Haudenosaunee towns burned• Winter of 1779-80 was very hard – Starvation and homelessness• Honnahdahguyuss – ”Destroyer of Villages”
  35. 35. Onondaga Return Home• Hear a voice in the woods• 17 year locust – First appearance – Gift of Creator• Onondaga the only people of the Haudenosaunee to eat Locust – Tell story of the Sullivan Campaign to their children
  36. 36. 17 Year Locust
  37. 37. 13th Hierophany of Locust
  38. 38. Contentious Views of Creation• Haudenosaunee • Americans – Immanence of the – Transcendence of the Sacred Sacred (otiosus) – Earth as an animate – Earth as an inanimate being thing – People co-habit with – People alone are above other beings other beings – Emphasis on Creation – Emphasis on the End of Time
  39. 39. GEORGE WASHINGTON’SWAMPUM BELT AND THE CANANDAIGUA TREATY 11 November 1794Commemorated every year on November 11
  40. 40. George Washington Wampum Belt
  41. 41. Haudenosaunee in Washington D.C. 28 February 2012