10 8-12-rel142

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10 8-12-rel142

  1. 1. Making a Vision RealSurviving Lakota Assimilation
  2. 2. History of Lakota/US relations• 1890 “Battle” or “Slaughter” at Wounded Knee – Beginning of “Reservation” Period – Dawes Act 1887 – Assimilation movement • Boarding schools • Col. Pratt, “Kill the Indian and save the man.”
  3. 3. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)• 1920s and 30s John Collier, Director• 1924 Citizenship Act• 1934 Indian Reorganization Act – Formation of Tribal Governments by BIA• Tie to Neihardt
  4. 4. Assimilation or Extermination?• 1950’s Termination Era – Abolish reservations/treaties • California hard hit • Land grab • Resettlement in cities
  5. 5. American Indian Movement (AIM)• 1960s and 70s – Urban Indian movement – Occupation of symbolic sites • Alcatraz • BIA offices in DC • Mt. Rushmore • Wounded Knee
  6. 6. Black Elk and Catholicism• Early 1904 BE converted to Catholicism – Know on Pine Ridge as a catecist – Steltenkamp, Black Elk: Holy Man of the Oglala – Two Roads Map – Instruction in Lakota language – Black Elk’s death
  7. 7. What is BE’s religion?• Wikasa wakan, holy man (shaman) – Visionary?• Catholic catecist• Native American/Lakota or Christian?
  8. 8. Why perform the Great Vision?• What is the significance of BE’s vision? – Tied to seeing?• Horse Dance – Performance of the vision
  9. 9. Other Ceremonies• Dog Vision – Lakota people are dying – Visiting the land of the dead• Heyoka Ceremony – Clown of the Thunder Beings – Creation connected to laughter
  10. 10. Black Elk the Healer• The First Cure – Asked by a friend to cure his boy – Does not believe he can heal – Vision enables him to cure in spite of his belief• Reputation as a healer spreads throughout the Lakota nation

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