Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

10 1-12-rel142


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

10 1-12-rel142

  1. 1. Black Elk Speaks A Vision of Place
  2. 2. What is Indigenous?• Centrality of place – Locative • Primacy of place • Crisis of contact with utopian traditions – Mircea Eliade--the hierophany • Manifestation of the sacred • Distinctive qualities and presence of the sacred
  3. 3. Native American Religions• Religion as Habitation – Centrality of habitation – Centrality of the body – Centrality of exchange• Materiality of Religion – Engagement with material world – Distinctive from “belief” emphasis
  4. 4. Phenomenon of Black Elk Speaks• World famous book – Presents a true picture of Native American Religion• Framed between the first scuffle between European Americans (wasichu) and Lakota along the Bozeman Trail (Thieves Road), and the slaughter at Wounded Knee – 1860s to December 1890
  5. 5. Creation of BES• R. DeMallie, The Sixth Grandfather• John Neihardt was an epic poet of American West – Ghost Dance and The Song of the Messiah in The Twilight of the Sioux – Wovoka (Jack Wilson) Paiute in Nevada was prophet of Ghost Dance • changed character as it moved into the Plains context• JN found BE through contacts w/ BIA – Instant connection between the two men
  6. 6. Telling the Story• Meeting in 1931 – Big Ceremonial occasion – Dancing in traditional ceremonial clothing, feast, and smoking the pipe • Significance of pipe – Many Old Men turned out for the occasion
  7. 7. Writing the Story• BE didn’t know English, JN didn’t know Lakota – Ben Black Elk (Nicolas’ son) would translate into English; JN would reiterate in English; Enid Neihardt would write it down• Whose speaking in BES?
  8. 8. John Neihardt’s vision• ”Always I felt it a sacred obligation to be true to the old man’s meaning and manner of expression.”• Hated Anthropological writing• How does one remain true to BE’s vision? – Creation of literature involved in finding truth
  9. 9. Problems with JN’s vision• Different from Black Elk’s vision• Work of tragedy, slaughter of the Lakota – Fit into epic saga• Appeared in 1932 and flopped – Re-discovered by Jung in 1950’s – Re-published in 1961
  10. 10. Reactions to BES• Many Native scholars hate it• Deloria calls it a “North American bible of all tribes.”• Had a profound impact on JN and his family – Sky Rim Farm, Columbia MO
  11. 11. Offering the Pipe • Must be done before talking • White Buffalo Calf Woman • Directions of the offering – Orientation to past, land, and cosmos
  12. 12. Early Boyhood• Ogalala Band of Lakota• wasichus (whites) were coming and going to take the land because of the yellow metal which made them crazy• 2 August 1867; Wagon Box Fight• 1868 ...”in the Moon of Falling Leaves (November) they made a treaty with Red Cloud that said our country would be ours as long as grass should grow and water flow.”[15]
  13. 13. The Great Vision• Bison herd was cut-off by RR• At 9 his legs hurt and body swelled• Had his vision while sick – Visits the 6 Grandfathers, connected with directions
  14. 14. Bison Hunt• Recovered 12 days later – Sick or dead? – Cured by Whirlwind Chaser• ”I did not have to remember these things; they have remembered themselves all these years.”[41]• World changed – Didn’t tell anyone; couldn’t hunt – Connection with Thunder Clouds