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This is a small description of the Geosynthetics.

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  1. 1. A Seminar On Geo-synthetics Presented By : Padarabinda Parida Regd No : 0501106324 7 th Semester
  2. 2. What is geo-synthetic? A geo-synthetic has been defined by the “American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D35 on Geo-synthetics” as “ A planar product manufactured from polymeric material used with soil, rock, earth, or other geotechnical engineering related material as an integral part of a man-made project, structure, or system.”
  3. 3. Geo synthetics are classified as follows : <ul><li>Geotextiles </li></ul><ul><li>Geogrids </li></ul><ul><li>Geonets </li></ul><ul><li>Geomembranes </li></ul><ul><li>Geosynthetic clay liners </li></ul><ul><li>Geocells/geo web members </li></ul><ul><li>Geofoam </li></ul><ul><li>Geocomposites </li></ul>
  4. 4. Geotextiles Geotextiles are defined as “any permeable textile used with foundation soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering-related material as an integral part of a human-made project, structure, or system”. <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Porous and allow flow of water through it. </li></ul><ul><li>Most used geosynthetics. </li></ul><ul><li>They may be either woven or non woven </li></ul><ul><li>Available in rolls of 5.6m wide and 50-150m long. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of polymers like polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyster. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Separation, Reinforcement, Filtration, Drainage. </li></ul>
  5. 6. WOVEN GEOTEXTILE <ul><li>Uniform and regular interweaving of threads or yarns in two directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Visible Construction Pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Soil Separation, Reinforcement, Load distribution, Filtration, Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Have high tensile strength and relatively low strain. </li></ul>
  6. 7. NON WOVEN GEOTEXTILE <ul><li>Formed by heat bonding, resin bonding or needle punching. </li></ul><ul><li>No visible thread pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Soil separation, stabilization, load distribution, but not used for reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>They have high strain and stretch considerably under load. </li></ul>
  7. 8. GEOGRIDS <ul><li>They have open grid like configuration i.e. they have large aperture between individual ribs. </li></ul><ul><li>They have Low strain and stretch about 2% under load. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength is more that other common geotextiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Used exclusively for reinforcement </li></ul>
  8. 9. GEONETS (Geospacers) <ul><li>Formed by continuous extrusion of parallel sets of polymeric ribs(LDPE & HDPE) at preset angles to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Their design function is completely within the in-plane drainage area where they are used to convey all types of liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>Though they are used for the drainage function but they have high tensile strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally used along with one or two geotextile matter one at the top and other at the bottom to prevent soil intrusion . </li></ul>
  9. 10. GEOMEMBRANES <ul><li>Materials are relatively thin impervious sheets . </li></ul><ul><li>Generally made from butyl rubber. </li></ul><ul><li>The sell of geomembrane are greater than geotextiles. </li></ul>
  10. 11. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS <ul><li>This is the juxta position of polymeric materials and natural soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Factroy fabricated and betonite clay is sandwitched between 2 geotextile. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural integrety is obtained by needle punching. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Containment,As Hydraulic barrier. </li></ul>
  11. 12. GEO CELLS/GEO WEB MEMBERS <ul><li>Similar to geotextiles or geogrids but have depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by High Density Polyethylene sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>When opened form honey comb like structure and that contain soil,gravel. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow water through it. </li></ul><ul><li>USE: In slopes with soft sub-grade </li></ul><ul><li>erosion control in channels </li></ul>
  12. 13. GEO FOAM: <ul><li>Large but but extreamly light materials with gas filled cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Made from expanded poly styrene and extruded poly styrene by polymeric expansion process. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: separation, lightweight fill, compressible inclusions, thermal insulation, </li></ul>
  13. 14. GEOCOMPOSITES: <ul><li>This is a factory fabricated unit with two or more geosynthetic components. </li></ul><ul><li>This is prepared to extract all the major properties of the geosynthetics into a single unit with minimum cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with geosynthetic materials sometimes some non geosynthetic materials are also used. </li></ul>The various types of Geocomposites are :- Geotextile-Geonet Composites Geotextile –Geomembrane Composiets Geotextile –Geogrid Composiets Geomembrane –Geogrid Composite Geotextile-Polymer Core Composite
  14. 15. FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIALS: A Comparative Review. Types Of Geosynthetics Separation Reinforcement Filteration Drainage Containment Geotextile YES YES YES YES Geogrid YES Geonet YES Geomembrane YES GCL YES Geofoam YES Geocomposites YES YES YES YES YES
  15. 16. TESTS ON GEOSYNTHETICS: <ul><li>Grab test </li></ul><ul><li>Seam testing </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture test </li></ul><ul><li>CBR push through test </li></ul><ul><li>Tear test </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm bursting strength test </li></ul><ul><li>Cone drop test </li></ul><ul><li>Dry sieve test </li></ul><ul><li>Gradient test </li></ul>
  16. 17. CONCLUSION The rapid growth in the geosynthetic market the world over has lent confidence to the civil engineer in their use. One should not be tempted to imagine geosynthetics are magical materials to yield excellent results, without due consideration of the problem or soil geosynthetic interaction. Such a blind approach could lead to disaster. The future appears to be more promising with stronger & more durable geosynthetics emerging into the market along with fibrous system to be mixed with soil for giving more hope as well as challenge to the Geotechnical engineer in the years to come