Constitutional Convention          • The Big Issues                 1. Articles of Confederation are not working          ...
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
The Origins of the Constitution          • The English Heritage: The Power of            Ideas                 • Natural R...
The Government That Failed: 1776–1787          • The Articles of Confederation                 • The first document to gov...
The Government That Failed: 1776–1787          • Changes in the States                 • Voting laws increased political p...
Making a Constitution:           The Philadelphia Convention           • Gentlemen in Philadelphia           • Philosophy ...
LO 2.3           Making a Constitution:           The Philadelphia Convention           • Gentlemen in Philadelphia       ...
LO 2.3           Making a Constitution:           The Philadelphia Convention           • Philosophy into Action          ...
LO 2.3           Making a Constitution:           The Philadelphia Convention          • Philosophy into Action (cont.)   ...
Critical Issues at the Convention           • The Equality Issues           • The Economic Issues                         ...
LO 2.4           Critical Issues at the Convention          • The Equality Issues                 • Equality and Represent...
LO 2.4                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
LO 2.4                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
Critical Issues at the Convention           • The Economic Issues                   • States had tariffs on products from ...
LO 2.4                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
The Madisonian System          • Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority                                                        ...
LO 2.5           The Madisonian System          • Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority                 • Limiting Majority Co...
LO 2.5                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
LO 2.5           The Madisonian System          • Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority (cont.)                 • Creating Che...
LO 2.5                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
LO 2.5           The Madisonian System          • The Constitutional Republic                 • Republic is a form of gove...
Changing the Constitution• The Formal Amending Process• The Informal Process of  Constitutional Change• The Importance of ...
LO 2.7           Changing the Constitution          • The Formal Amending Process                 • Proposal – An amendmen...
LO 2.7           Changing the Constitution          • The Formal Amending Process (cont.)                 • Ratification –...
LO 2.7                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
LO 2.7           Changing the Constitution          • The Importance of Flexibility                 • The Constitution cre...
Understanding the Constitution           • The Constitution and Democracy           • The Constitution and the Scope of   ...
LO 2.8           Understanding the Constitution          • The Constitution and Democracy                 • The Constituti...
LO 2.8           Understanding the Constitution          • The Constitution and the Scope of            Government        ...
Ratifying the Constitution           • Federalists and Anti-Federalists           • Ratification                          ...
LO 2.6           Ratifying the Constitution          • Federalists and Anti-Federalists                 • Federalists supp...
LO 2.6                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
LO 2.6                                                                 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Educ...
LO 2.6           Ratifying the Constitution          • Federalists specified that the            Constitution be ratified ...
Summary           • The Government That Failed: 1776–             1787                   • The Articles of Confederation e...
Summary          • The Origins of the Constitution                 • Ideas behind American Revolution and the             ...
Summary           • Making a Constitution: The             Philadelphia Convention                   • The Framers were mo...
• Critical Issues at the Convention                   • The Framers intended to make the                     national gove...
LO 2.5          • The Madisonian System                 • The Founders reconciled majority rule with                   min...
• Changing the Constitution                   • The formal amendment process requires                     supermajorities ...
• Understanding the Constitution                   • The Constitution did not create a majoritarian                     de...
• Understanding the Constitution (cont.)                   • By protecting individual rights and limiting                 ...
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Constitutional Convention

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Constitutional Convention

  1. 1. Constitutional Convention • The Big Issues 1. Articles of Confederation are not working 2. How can we stay true to our ideals? 3. How will people be represented? How will states be represented? 4. How will we deal with slavery? 5. How will we elect a leader? 6. How we will fix the economy?Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  2. 2. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  3. 3. The Origins of the Constitution • The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas • Natural Rights – Rights inherent in humans being, not dependent on government. • Consent of the Governed – The government derives its authority by sanction of the people. • Limited Government – Put certain restrictions on government to protect natural rights. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  4. 4. The Government That Failed: 1776–1787 • The Articles of Confederation • The first document to govern the United States, ratified in 1781. • It created a confederation among 13 states and former colonies. • Congress had few powers; there was no president or national court system. • Most government power rested in the states. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  5. 5. The Government That Failed: 1776–1787 • Changes in the States • Voting laws increased political power among a new middle class. • Middle class of farmers and craft workers counterbalanced the power of professionals and wealthy merchants. • Ideas of equality spread and democracy took hold. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  6. 6. Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention • Gentlemen in Philadelphia • Philosophy into ActionCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  7. 7. LO 2.3 Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention • Gentlemen in Philadelphia • 55 men from 12 of the 13 states. • Mostly wealthy planters and merchants. • Most were college graduates with some political experience. • Many were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas. • State constitutions influenced their thinkingCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  8. 8. LO 2.3 Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention • Philosophy into Action • Human Nature – People were self- interested; government should check and contain the natural self-interest of people. • Political Conflict – Wealth (property) distribution is the source of political conflict; factions arise from the unequal distribution of wealth. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  9. 9. LO 2.3 Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention • Philosophy into Action (cont.) • Objects of Government – Property must be protected against the tyranny of faction. • Nature of Government – Secret of good government is “balanced government” because as long as no faction could seize complete control of government, tyranny could be avoided. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  10. 10. Critical Issues at the Convention • The Equality Issues • The Economic Issues To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  11. 11. LO 2.4 Critical Issues at the Convention • The Equality Issues • Equality and Representation of the States – The New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan led to the Connecticut Compromise. • Slavery – The question of how to count slaves was solved with the Three-Fifths Compromise. • Equality in Voting – Delegates decided to leave voting qualifications to the states. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  12. 12. LO 2.4 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  13. 13. LO 2.4 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  14. 14. Critical Issues at the Convention • The Economic Issues • States had tariffs on products from other states. • Paper money was basically worthless. • Congress could not raise money. • Key actions taken – Powers of Congress were strengthened and powers of states were limited. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  15. 15. LO 2.4 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  16. 16. The Madisonian System • Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  17. 17. LO 2.5 The Madisonian System • Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority • Limiting Majority Control – To keep most of the government beyond the control of the masses. • Separating Powers – Branches are relatively independent of the others so no single branch could control the others. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  18. 18. LO 2.5 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  19. 19. LO 2.5 The Madisonian System • Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority (cont.) • Creating Checks and Balances – Each branch needs the consent of the others for many actions. • Establishing a Federal System – Federalism divides power between national and state governments. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  20. 20. LO 2.5 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  21. 21. LO 2.5 The Madisonian System • The Constitutional Republic • Republic is a form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws. • Tends to favor the status quo and limit political change. • The End of the Beginning • The document was approved and now it had to be ratified. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  22. 22. Changing the Constitution• The Formal Amending Process• The Informal Process of Constitutional Change• The Importance of Flexibility To Learning Objectives
  23. 23. LO 2.7 Changing the Constitution • The Formal Amending Process • Proposal – An amendment may be proposed either by a two-thirds vote in each house or chamber of Congress, or by a national convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  24. 24. LO 2.7 Changing the Constitution • The Formal Amending Process (cont.) • Ratification – An amendment may be ratified either by the legislatures of three- fourths of the states, or by special state conventions called in three-fourths of the states. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  25. 25. LO 2.7 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  26. 26. LO 2.7 Changing the Constitution • The Importance of Flexibility • The Constitution created a flexible government that could adapt to the needs of the times without sacrificing personal freedom. • The Constitution is a short document (27 amendments and less than 8,000 words) that does not prescribe the structure and functioning of the national government in detail. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  27. 27. Understanding the Constitution • The Constitution and Democracy • The Constitution and the Scope of Government To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  28. 28. LO 2.8 Understanding the Constitution • The Constitution and Democracy • The Constitution created a republic (representative democracy based on limited government). • Historically, there has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution away from the elitist model of democracy and toward the pluralist one. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  29. 29. LO 2.8 Understanding the Constitution • The Constitution and the Scope of Government • Separation of powers and checks and balances promote demands for public policy to be heard. • Separation of powers and checks and balances promote bargaining, compromise, playing one institution against another, and an increase of hyperpluralism. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  30. 30. Ratifying the Constitution • Federalists and Anti-Federalists • Ratification To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  31. 31. LO 2.6 Ratifying the Constitution • Federalists and Anti-Federalists • Federalists supported the new Constitution and wrote the Federalist Papers to defend it. • Anti-Federalists opposed the new Constitution and believed it was an enemy of freedom. • The compromise between the two groups was the Bill of Rights. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  32. 32. LO 2.6 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  33. 33. LO 2.6 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  34. 34. LO 2.6 Ratifying the Constitution • Federalists specified that the Constitution be ratified by special conventions, not state legislatures • 9 states had to ratify the Constitution • Delaware was the 1st (Dec 1787), New Hampshire was the 9th (Jun 1788) To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  35. 35. Summary • The Government That Failed: 1776– 1787 • The Articles of Confederation established a government dominated by the states, without a permanent executive or national judiciary. • A weak central government could not raise sufficient funds, regulate trade, protect property rights, or take action without unanimous consent of the states. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  36. 36. Summary • The Origins of the Constitution • Ideas behind American Revolution and the Constitution were belief in natural rights, consent of the governed, limited government, responsibility of government to protect property, and equality of citizens. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  37. 37. Summary • Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention • The Framers were more educated, wealthy, and urban than most. • Core ideas they shared were that people were self-interested, wealth distribution was a source of political conflict, the object of government was protecting private property, and balanced government is best government. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  38. 38. • Critical Issues at the Convention • The Framers intended to make the national government an economic stabilizer. • The economic powers assigned to Congress left no doubt it was to forge national economic policy. • The Framers did include some specific individual rights. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  39. 39. LO 2.5 • The Madisonian System • The Founders reconciled majority rule with minority interests by constraining both the majority and the minority. • The Madisonian system dispersed power among separate branches of government, and gave them shared powers so that each branch had a check on the others. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  40. 40. • Changing the Constitution • The formal amendment process requires supermajorities in both houses of Congress and among the states. • The informal process includes judicial interpretation, changing political practices, technology, and the increasing demands on policymakers. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  41. 41. • Understanding the Constitution • The Constitution did not create a majoritarian democracy so majorities did not always rule. • Gradual democratization of the Constitution – Right to vote has expanded, senators are elected, and president electors are now agents of political parties. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  42. 42. • Understanding the Constitution (cont.) • By protecting individual rights and limiting government power to restrict them, the Constitution limits the scope of government. • By dispersing power among institutions, the Constitution increases access of interests to government but also allows these interests to check each other and produce stalemate. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

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