RI Educator Autonomy Research Compilation

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  • There is a large body of research on autonomy in education – we included in your folder on the left hand side a hard copy of a list of resources with short summaries – it is also posted on the website. There are many more resources available than included on the list, but the list will give you a starting point. We are only going to touch on a few of the most recent and significant findings.As well, as we mentioned we have been conducting a round of external interviews from a wide range of both practitioners and researchers. I will be adding information from these interviews throughoutWe have conducted 13 of the 25 we have requested - so far the interview themes resonate quite well with the research findings
  • Hong Kong is about 30% biggerSingapore is now making more movement toward more local decision-making through their Thinking Schools, Learning Nation initiatives 5 ½ million in population Has about 510K studentsHong Kong7 million about 800K students
  • NZ enrollment of about 750,000 students, 2700 schoolsTIMSS is every 4 years and tests 4th and 8th gradeTIMSS – Trends in International Mathematics and Science StudyStarted in 1995 –
  • So now we know from an international perspective that autonomy seems to work in the presence of certain conditions – but education systems can be successful without high degrees of autonomy.Now lets look closer to home - through our interviews, we have spoken to several practitioners about their experience with autonomy.In Los Angeles, they believe that autonomy should be an option for those who are performing well and request the autonomy – a sort of “earned autonomy”, in Houston, they have some widespread autonomy (for example each school can establish its own start and end time) and some related to the performance of the school –they have a district curriculum – but the school only has to use it if it is in the bottom third in terms of performance.Now lets look at Massachusetts
  • As we know, Massachusetts is a top performing state according to many measures. Massachusetts has ranked first on the National Education Assessment Program – the only assessment that allows for state to state comparisons - in math and reading in each of the last three assessments – with the exception of 4th grade math in 2013 on which they ranked secondAs one piece of their education strategy, Massachusetts has been exploring the affect of autonomy on performance in a variety of ways.They currently have 4 different types of schools with increased autonomy:The first three - Pilot , Innovation and Horace Mann Charter schools (Mission Hill is a Pilot School) are developed in collaboration with the local teachers and school committee and one type – a Commonwealth charter school reports directly to the state board of education.In total all autonomous schools together serve less than Approximately 5% of the total student population
  • And their results are promising – In fact, if you look at the student populations often hardest to serve – those in high poverty areas,Approximately 75% of the top performing high poverty schools are schools with increased autonomy.This is only looking at high poverty schools not similar to Barrington or East Greenwich.From what we can see here – it seems that schools with higher levels of autonomy are particularly well suited to serve students in high poverty areas within a system that is operating at a high level.
  • I want to share one more important piece of research from McKinsey & Co.
  • McKinsey & Co. does not specialize in education – but they are extremely well-regarded as researchers.They conducted a study to answer the following question – what drives significant, sustained and equitable improvement in education systems…Their report studied 20 school systems world wide and identified 5 stages of system development – and focused on what systems did to move from one stage to the next.While there are many interesting findings and I encourage you to read the entire report, there were two particulalaryintereing findings with regard to autonomy – there was a strong correlation between autonomy and the stage of system development…in fact if you look at the % of systems that decentralized – the number grows with each transition – Additionally they noted that within each system, there were many examples of systems that gave more autonomy to higher performing schools within their system.ingaporeHong KongSouth KorieaOntarioSaxony GermanyEnglandLatviaLithuaniaSloveniaPolandAspire Public SchoolsLong BeachBostonChileGhanaJordan
  • While I could have closed with what I believe the findings are telling us – I would rather hear from you what your thoughts are?If you think of any further questions – please write it in on your exit form so that we can follow-up.
  • RI Educator Autonomy Research Compilation

    1. 1. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring Autonomy in Education Educator Autonomy Working Group February 11, 2014 1
    2. 2. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education  International benchmarking  PISA Results  Singapore and Hong Kong  New Zealand  Massachusetts’ efforts to increase autonomy  Autonomy as it relates to stage of system development  Next Steps 2
    3. 3. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): Results on autonomy • DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL The PISA is administered every three years by the The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to a sample of 15 year-olds in approximately 65 – 70 countries • Consists of a two hour assessment in math, reading and science and an indepth survey for students and principals on students' backgrounds, schools and learning experiences and the broader school system and learning environment • Two areas of autonomy are studied as they correlate with academic performance: • Curriculum and assessment (student assessment policies, courses offered, content of those courses and textbooks or # 8 on previous list) • Allocation of resources (selecting teachers for hire, dismissing teachers, establishing teachers’ starting salaries, determining teacher salary increases, formulating the school budget, and deciding on budget allocations within the school – inclusive of #1 - #4 and #7) Source: OECD.org, Interviews. 3
    4. 4. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL PISA 2012 Findings Involved 510,000 15 year-olds representing 28 million students in 65 economies Autonomy-related Findings • • Positive correlation between academic results and increasing levels of autonomy over curriculum and assessment No relationship between results and level of autonomy over resources overall, however • Positive correlation exists in the presence of: • increasing levels of teacher/principal collaboration • public posting of student achievement Caveats • • • Correlations are not strong Degree of variability within countries is higher than expected and may reflect differences in how much autonomy principals perceive they have or how much autonomy they actually use Difficult to ensure consistency of understanding of questions between countries Source: OECD.org, Interviews. 4
    5. 5. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education  International benchmarking  PISA Results  Singapore and Hong Kong  New Zealand  Massachusetts’ efforts to increase autonomy  Autonomy as it relates to stage of system development  Next Steps 5
    6. 6. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Autonomy alone does not drive academic achievement: Singapore and Hong Kong comparison Singapore Hong Kong Both strong academic performers 2012 - #2 in math and #3 in reading 2009 - # 2 in math and #5 in reading 2012 - #3 in math and #2 in reading 2009 - # 3 in math and #4 in reading Staffing Central office hires, trains, evaluates and places teachers Schools hire, train and evaluate their own teachers Curriculum Developed by central office until recently; now based on central office curriculum Developed by school based on highlevel standards Financial resources Spend lower per student but higher salaries as a percentage of GDP for teachers than US Spend lower per student but higher salaries as a percentage of GDP for teachers than US Additional policies Often used, clear system to remove underperforming teachers or address school failure 92% of students are in privatelyoperated, yet government funded schools High level of school choice High level of school choice At least 10% of schools are designated “autonomous” and are exempt from many rules and regulations Source: OECD.org, Lessons Learned: How Good Policies Produce Better Schools, Whelan, Fenton, 2009. 6
    7. 7. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education  International benchmarking  PISA Results  Singapore and Hong Kong  New Zealand  Massachusetts’ efforts to increase autonomy  Autonomy as it relates to stage of system development  Next Steps 7
    8. 8. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL New Zealand’s Tomorrow’s Schools Prior to 1989 Tomorrow’s Schools Highly centralized and controlled from national department of education Overnight the national department of education ceased to exist and was replaced by a much smaller entity with a focus only on school review and standards Pressure from parents and ethnic groups that curriculum did not meet their needs Each school accountable to its own local board Costly central office Schools now had full autonomy over budget and staffing Performance was stagnant to declining Results were mixed for first decade Many were not prepared for new responsibility After significant efforts in retraining, especially in budget management, performance increased Consistently in top tier of PISA results since 2000 Source: OECD.org, Interviews. 8
    9. 9. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education  International benchmarking  PISA Results  Singapore and Hong Kong  New Zealand  Massachusetts’ efforts to increase autonomy  Autonomy as it relates to stage of system development  Next Steps 9
    10. 10. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Massachusetts's Autonomous Schools - Overview Pilot Innovation Horace Mann Charter Commonwealth Charter # Location 21 Boston 27 MA 10 MA 71 MA Reports to: Boston School Committee District School Committee Independent Board Independent Board Authorized by: Superintendent and School Committee Superintendent, School Committee and Teacher’s Union State Board of Ed., School Committee and Teacher’s Union State Board of Ed. Authority over: Staffing, budget, curriculum and assessment, governance and policies, school calendar – subject to local union contract Can apply for specific autonomy over curriculum, budget, schedule, staffing. professional development district policies Staffing, budget, curriculum and assessment, schedule –subject to local union contract Staffing, budgeting, curriculum and assessment, governance and policies, schedule Source: http://www.doe.mass.edu, bostonpublicschools.org. 10
    11. 11. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL The majority of high performing, high poverty schools have increased autonomy 454 35 100% 35 90% 9 Traditional Public Schools 2 Innovation Schools 3 Pilot Schools 3 Horace Mann Charter Schools 454 80% 70% 60% 50% 419 40% 30% 18 Commonwealth Charter Schools Autonomous Schools ~ 75% 20% 10% 0% Total High Poverty Schools High Performing High Poverty Schools High poverty defined as those schools with => 60% of students qualifying for free or reduced lunch High performing defined as => 90% reading MCAS in high schools and => 70% for all other schools Source: doe.mass.edu. 11
    12. 12. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education  International benchmarking  PISA Results  Singapore and Hong Kong  New Zealand  Massachusetts’ efforts to increase autonomy  Autonomy as it relates to stage of system development  Next Steps 12
    13. 13. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL In improving education systems, local autonomy increases as the system improves Background: McKinsey & Co. studied 20 school systems that have registered significant, sustained and widespread student gains from different parts of the world to determine what drove their improvement Four performance stages of education system development: • poor to fair - achieving basics in literacy and numeracy • fair to good - getting the foundations in place • good to great - shaping the professional • great to excellent - improving through peers and innovation Findings on autonomy: “Striking correlation between a system’s performance level and the tightness of the central control exerted on schools” “There are examples in our sample in which the school system has given more attention to scripting its lo-performing schools while providing more flexibility to the higher performing ones.” Pedagogical rights % of systems in reform phase that decentralized 70 pedagogical rights to middle layer or schools 60 60 50 40 33 30 20 14 10 0 0 Poor to Fair Fair to Good Source: How the World’s Most Improved School Systems Keep Getting Better, McKinsey & Co., 2010. Good to Great Great to Excellent 13
    14. 14. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education - summary • International assessments show that autonomy over curriculum and assessment correlates positively with higher academic results and under certain conditions, autonomy over resources can also correlate positively with higher academic results • However, the correlation is not strong and there are examples of both highly centralized and highly decentralized countries that are high performers • New Zealand’s experience indicates that higher levels of autonomy are better granted after sufficient training and preparation • States and districts across the nation are experimenting with types of autonomy and in Massachusetts, the majority of high performing schools serving high poverty students are schools with higher levels of autonomy than traditional district schools • Looking at improving systems internationally, there is a shift toward more local autonomy as the system improves and improving systems often vary levels of local autonomy within the system based on performance 14
    15. 15. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Exploring autonomy in education  International benchmarking  PISA Results  Singapore and Hong Kong  New Zealand  Massachusetts’ efforts to increase autonomy  Autonomy as it relates to stage of system development  Next Steps 15
    16. 16. DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL Next steps… What do these findings tell us? What additional questions do these findings raise? 16

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