2009 Infant Death Rates (From MDCH website)Michigan Infant Death Rate: 7.5 per 1,000 babies - 881 deaths.Ingham County: 6.3 per 1,000 babies – 21 deaths.Eaton County: 5 deaths (number too small to calculate rate)Clinton County: 2 deaths (number too small to calculate rate)Shiawassee County: 2 deaths (number too small to calculate rate)Michigan Rates: White babies: 5.4 per 1,000 births. This has remained about the same for the past six years. Black babies: 15.5 per 1,000 births. The range has been 17.3 to 15.5 in the last six years – showing some improvement.Other Races: 6.6 per 1,000 births. This rate has decreased the most over the last six years going from as high as 11.4 down to 6.6 in 2009.
Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID)Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths are defined as deaths in infants less than 1 year of age that occur suddenly and unexpectedly, and whose cause of death are not immediately obvious prior to investigation. Half of these Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID) are due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of SUID and of all deaths among infants aged 1–12 months. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS)Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined as the sudden death of an infant less than 1 year of age that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation is conducted, including a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. The overall rate of SIDS in the United States has declined by more than 50% since 1990. Even when a thorough investigation is conducted, it may be difficult to separate SIDS from other types of sudden unexpected infant deaths, especially accidental suffocation in bed. However, after a thorough case investigation, many of these sudden unexpected infant deaths may be explained. Poisoning, metabolic disorders, hyper or hypothermia, neglect and homicide, and suffocation are all explainable causes of SUID.Source: CDC Website
There are a lot of things we can do to prevent babies from dying. Most of these things require only little changes or actions that can make a big difference.
PrematurityA baby’s brain at 35 weeks weighs only two-thirds of what it will weigh at 40 weeks. In the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, baby’s brain adds connections needed for balance, coordination, learning and social functioning. During this time, the size of baby’s brain almost doubles.Babies born early:Have more learning and behavior problems in childhood than babies born at 40 weeks.Are more likely to have feeding problems because they can’t coordinate sucking, swallowing and breathing as well as full-term babies.Are likely to have breathing problems, like apnea. Apnea is when a baby stops breathing.Are more likely to die of SIDS.Know the signs of preterm labor (before 37 weeks) and what to do should they occur.Change or increase in vaginal discharge Pelvic or lower abdominal pressureConstant, low, dull backacheMild abdominal crampsMore than 4 contractions in 1 hour (may feel painless or just like tightening)Water breaks in a trickle or gushHandouts: “9 Things To Do Before Getting Pregnant” and “Signs of Preterm Labor” from MOD.Source: March of Dimes
Remember, secondhand smoke is harmful too! Secondhand smoke can…Increase the risk of dying from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).Cause a baby to be born too small.Cause illnesses like pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections in infants and children.Resources to Quit Smoking:Call the free Michigan Tobacco QuitLine at 1-800-480-7848 – they can give you the support you need to quit!Michigan Department of Community Health, Smoke-Free for Baby & Me – 517-335-9750March of Dimes, Michigan Chapter 248-359-1550
Discuss challenges. Parents and others continue to believe that babies will choke if placed on back for sleep. Bedsharing with infants is increasing and remains controversial. Influence of family members. Breastfeeding. Bonding, fussy baby, won’t go to sleep on back.Handouts: “Safe Sleep for Your Baby” and Safe Sleep Door Knocker from Tomorrow’s Child
Michigan law requires:Children younger than age 4 to ride in a car seat in the rear seat if the vehicle has a rear seat. If all available rear seats are occupied by children under 4, then a child under 4 may ride in a car seat in the front seat. A child in a rear-facing car seat may only ride in the front seat if the airbag is turned off. Children younger than age 8 or shorter than 4 feet 9 inches to be properly buckled in a child safety seat or booster seat.
Many households where small children are present have been “child-proofed” and are relatively safe. However, a great number of accidents occur when the child is at the home of a grandparent, babysitter or friend. Do not assume that these homes are as safe as your own. Never leave your child unattended when visiting others. If your child will be left in someone else’s care, be sure they are as aware of potential dangers as you are.FallsNever leave a baby alone on a bed, couch or changing table. A baby who cannot roll over yet can still wiggle.Never leave a baby alone in a stroller, high chair or infant seat. Always use the seat belts and safety straps on high chairs, infant seats and jumpers.Keep stairs free of objects so you do not trip while carrying the baby. Block stairs with a baby gate or guardrail.Do not leave any toys in the crib. They could be used as a step for climbing.Begin to lower the crib mattress before the baby can sit. Be sure it is at its lowest point before he can pull himself up to stand. Fire and BurnsNo one should smoke around children, either in the house where they live or in the car when they are passengers. Second-hand smoke significantly increases the incidence of asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and ear infections in infants and children. In addition, ashes can burn and cigarette butts can be swallowed.Use screens on fireplaces. Never leave a baby alone in a room where a fire is going.To prevent burns from hot foods or liquids, never use tablecloths that hang over the table’s edge.Turn pot handles to the back of the stove when cooking.Replace electrical cords as soon as they show signs of wear.Keep irons, steam vaporizers and portable heaters out of your child’s reach.Use safety covers on exposed electrical outlets.Keep your child from getting sunburned. Use a sunscreen lotion recommended by baby’s health care provider. WaterNever leave a child under age three alone in the tub, even for a moment. Never leave water in the bathtub. Use a mat in the tub to prevent slipping.Keep bathroom doors closed to prevent accidents while your child is exploring the house. Children have actually drowned in toilets. Keep toilet lids down.Watch your child every moment that he is near a wading pool, swimming pool or lake.Never leave water in a bucket where a child may find it and fall in. PoisonsThe average household is full of poisonous items that must be kept out of the reach of children. To prevent accidents, take precautions:Follow the directions exactly when giving medicine to your child. Dosages must be appropriate for age and weight.Never give medicine in the dark. Check the label to be sure it is what you intended to give.Never refer to medicine as candy or imply that it is a treat.Throw away or dispose of outdated medicines.Never use food containers to store non-food items.Keep all medicines, cleansers and painting items in locked cabinets.Keep plants on high shelves until your child is old enough not to try tasting them.Make sure all toys and furniture are painted with lead-free paint.
Have available the “don’t shake us, you might break us” brochure.Depending on group, talk about ways to calm a crying baby.Also talk about how you (meaning your current audience) can help. For example, relieve a new mom or dad for an hour to give them a break from a colicky baby.Handout: “Don’t Shake Us… You Might Break Us!” from Children’s Trust Fund
Have available the MDPH brochures on “After Newborn Screening” and “Michigan Newborn Screening saves Babies.”Michigan law requires all babies to be screened. This ensures that babies who need treatment are found early. The NBS should be done between 24 and 36 hours after birth.In Michigan, NBS looks for 49 conditions that may affect: Blood cells Brain development Hearing How the body breaks down nutrients from food. Lungs and breathing. Hormones.You can get a complete list of the diseases at www.michigan.gov/newbornscreening. Michigan Bio Trust: A program that oversees stored blood spots from NBS. With parent’s permission, MI BioTrust can use stored blood spots for medical and public health research.Handouts: “Michigan Newborn Screening saves Babies” and “After Newborn Screening” from MDCH
AAP Policy Benefits of BreastfeedingThe AAP recommends that babies be exclusively breastfed for about the first 6 months of life. This means baby needs no additional foods (except Vitamin D) or fluids unless medically indicated. Babies should continue to breastfeed for a year and for as long as is mutually desired by the mother and baby. The AAP continues to support the unequivocal evidence that breastfeeding protects against a variety of diseases and conditions in infants including: bacterial meningitis respiratory tract infection urinary tract infection type 1 and type 2 diabetes childhood overweight and obesity ear infections diarrhea lymphoma, leukemia, and Hodgkins disease There are also maternal health benefits to breastfeeding such as:decreased postpartum bleeding and more rapid uterine involutiondecreased menstrual blood loss and increased child spacing (lactational amenorrhea)earlier return to pre-pregnancy weightdecreased risk of breast and ovarian cancers
Handout: “Protect Babies and Toddlers from Serious Diseases” from MDCH
At this point have available brochures on topics included in presentation.Invite anyone interested in learning more, or participating in the IM/SS Coalition to contact you or another coalition member.
Infant Mortality Safe Sleep Presentation 2011
Giving Babies a Future
Presented by:Capital Area Infant Mortality& Infant Safe Sleep Coalition A Coalition of Mid-Michigan agencies working together to: Increase awareness of Michigan’s high infant mortality rate and its causes, and To promote infant safe sleep.The Coalition serves families in the Mid-Michigan community.
What Is Infant Mortality? Refers to infants born live that die before their first birthday. Infant Mortality Rate: Number of infants that die for every 1000 live born infants.
The Problem: Too many babies inMichigan are dyingunnecessarily. More Black babies aredying than whitebabies.
Michigan 2009Leading Causes of 62% of infant deaths were caused by: Infant Deaths Prematurity/low birth weight babies (183 deaths) In Michigan Birth defects (181 deaths) Accidents (74 deaths) Maternal complications of pregnancy (62 deaths) SIDS (45 deaths) ______________ All other causes (336 deaths) Total infant deaths - 881
What We KnowAbout PreventingBabies From Dying Prematurity Car Seat Safety Infant Safe Sleep Safety at home Infant CPR Breastfeeding Abusive Head Trauma Immunizations Newborn Screening
If a Pregnancy is healthy, it is best if the baby is born at 40 weeks.
For Mom…QUIT SMOKING FOR YOU Women who smoke may have a and FOR BABY harder time becoming pregnant, and may have health problems during pregnancy. For Baby… If you smoke when you’re pregnant… Less oxygen gets to the baby’s brain, and can cause poor growth. Your baby’s lung growth and function may be slowed during pregnancy and childhood. It can poorly affect your child’s intelligence, and behavior.
Infant Safe Sleep Baby’s face Baby sleeps in crib.4 uncovered. 1 Baby sleeps on back. No smoking 25 around baby. Nothing in 3 sleep area. Do not 6 overheat or overdress. Firm 7 mattress, tight- fitting sheet.
Baby Will Not Choke If He VomitsAspirationLying on His Back While and Supine Positioning Continuing Education Program on SIDS Risk Reduction, U.S. Department of Continuing Education Program on SIDS Risk Reduction, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, December 2006. Health and Human Services, December 2006. 64
Car Seat Safety Restrain your child on everytrip, every time. Keep your child in the backseat. Use the best safety restraint foryour child’s size. Car Seat Check Resources Use the child safety seats andbelts correctly. Sparrow Trauma Services Never leave children or animals Free seat checks by appointmentunattended in a vehicle for any 517-364-3760length of time, no matter howbrief. SeatCheck.org Find a location near you www.seatcheck.org
Crib Safety Crib Safety RegulationsNew safety standardsin effect as of June2011• Prohibit manufacture or sale of drop-side rail cribs.• Strengthen crib slats and mattress supports.• Improve the quality of hardware.• Require more rigorous testing.
Keep Baby SafeTake an infant and from falls, fire & burns,child CPR and first water, poisonsaid class.
It’s normal to feel frustrated by baby’s crying. Abusive Head TraumaAbusive Head Trauma is the term used to describe what may happen whenyou shake, drop, throw, or hit a baby. The long-term effects can be extremelyserious and include: Brain damage Blindness Deafness Vegetative state Paralysis 25-30% of shaken babies die
What is Newborn Screening? A program that screens all babies for many serious medical conditions. Involves pricking baby’s heel to obtain a few drops of blood. Tests for diseases that don’t Newborn Screening show outward symptoms, but need In Michigan, NBS looks for 49 immediate treatment. conditions and diseases. Is performed before baby leaves the hospital and sent to the State Public Health Laboratory for testing.
For Baby… Boosts immune system Breastfeeding Enhances brain development Promotes bonding May reduce risk of SIDSFor Mom… Reduces risk of some cancers Increases metabolism Produces relaxing endorphins
FluHepatitis ARotavirusDiphtheriaTetanusPertussisHaemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib)ChickenpoxHepatitis BMeasles Every Child NeedsMumps Vaccines toRubellaPneumococcal Conjugate Prevent DiseasePolioOther vaccines
We need your help to give all babies a future!Do your part.Share this information with others.Tell everyone you know how they can help.Prepared by Carol Buzzitta, BSN, RNExpectant Parents Organization