Technology & innovation human ingenuity teacher guided visit pre or post-visit slideshow
Technology & Innovation: Human ingenuity Teacher-guided visit years 5 & 6Pre- or Post-visit slideshow
A teacher-guided visit of:-• Boulton and Watt engine• The steam revolution• EcoLogic: creating a sustainable futureInvestigating the historical, social and environmental impact oftechnology and innovation at the Powerhouse Museum.This slideshow can be used for either pre- or post-visit purpose. Itfeatures:• physical layout• key objects• Audiovisuals and interactivesin the relevant sections of the three exhibitions.Curriculum links:-Stage 3 Science and Technology units:• Environment matters,• The best place to live,• Switched on.Stage 3 COGs unit:• Living Land
What is technology?Technology is … Technology• all around us• more than tools and gadgets• applying knowledge to meet needs and wants Problem What is innovation?Innovation is …• improving on something that already exists• coming up with something new that makes our lives easier What is ingenuity?Ingenuity is …• being creative• about applying ideas to solve problems
Boulton and Watt engineThis is the oldest surviving rotative steam engine in the world• The engine was made by engineer James Watt and entrepreneur Matthew Boulton of Birmingham, England for Whitbread’s London brewery in 1785.• It was donated to the Museum and arrived Sydney aboard the sailing ship ‘Patriarch’ in 1888.• This massive engine played a key role in he development of the modern world.
Boulton and Watt engine beam/rocking arm piston rod connecting rodcylinder planet gear drive wheel condenser sun gear (in tank) fly wheel
1. Innovations that Watt and Boulton a) the separate introduced condenser - reducing fuel use by 85% b) the parallel motion b mechanism - c allowing the piston to push the beam up as well as pulling it down c) the governor - automatically d controlling the speed of the enginea d) the sun and planet gears - turning the up-and-down motion of the beam into rotative motion
James Watt improved the steamengine dramatically to becomean efficient and reliable source ofpower for industry around theworld. James Watt wasBoulton and Watt engines were also the first toprime movers in the Industrial surround theRevolution, the engine cylinder with woodrepresents not just innovation to keep it hotand entrepreneurship, but alsogreat changes to people’s lifeand the environment.DO YOU KNOW?Despite the engine’s size (9.14 mtall and 33 tonnes in weight), itproduces less power than anaverage family car (11 kW or 15horsepower).
3. What’s behind the Boulton and Watt engine? Visit the galleries behind the engine.
Gallery 1: The engine makersa) Find out more about the lives of Boulton and Watt here.
James Watt: the Matthew Boulton: theScottish instrument entrepreneur who saw themaker who was the potential of the engine andcreative genius behind supplied the finance andthe engine manufacturing know-how.
Gallery 2: Watt’s inventionsb) Here find out how the ‘governor’ works.DO YOU KNOW?Boulton saw a governor in a grain mill andasked Watt to apply the idea to the steamengine to control the speed.
Gallery 3: The Lunar SocietyBoulton and Watt were members of a group of scientists and manufacturers known as the Lunar Society.c) Find out why the group was called the Lunar Society.d) What did they do at their regular meetings?
Jasperware jewellery made by Matthew Boulton and Josiah Wedgwood (right) Coffee pot This belonged to Joseph Banks, the botanist who sailed to Australia with Captain Cook. Banks met Boulton and Watt at meetings of the Lunar Society. (left)
The Soho Soho SohoManufactory Foundry Insurance Co
Union Birminghamcertificate riot 1792 Birmingham
Gallery 4: More of Watt’s inventions and life in the 1700se) Find out how the ‘parallel motion’ and ‘sun-and-planet’ gear work. The sun-and- planet gear interactive The parallel motion mechanism interactive
From single acting to double acting interactiveSee how the parallel motion mechanism (right) allows the topof the cylinder to be sealed while letting the piston push theend of the beam up as well as pulling it down (double acting).
From up anddown to roundand roundinteractiveSee how the planetgear drive the sun gearand the flywheel as youmove the beam up anddown.To move the beam, youwill need to give theflywheel a little push ifone of the gears isdirectly above theother.Count the number ofturns the sun gear andflywheel make forevery stroke of thebeam.
The steam revolution, level 2The steamrevolution
The steam revolutionThis exhibition traces the development of steam technology and itsimpact on society. Explore how the power of steam inspired amazinginventions and technologies that made work easier and faster.
Original engine roomThis gallery was the original engine room of the Ultimo PowerHouse, which generated power for Sydney’s electric trams. Theengine room was completed in 1899 and remained in use till 1963.
To the left of the exhibition entrance4. See how human and animal power was replaced by machine power with the arrival of steam power. Section 8: Section 7: Roll up! All work … Roll up! no play Section 9: Section 10: Designed The city for speed electric Section 1: Section 11: Introduction The Earl Spencer’s cargo
To the left of the exhibition entrance4. See how human and animal power was replaced by machine power with the arrival of steam power. Section 6: Steam on Section 7: the move All work … no play Section 5: Section 3: Designed for power Section 4: Turn on Steam goes the tap bush Section 1: Introduction Section 2: Steps towards steam
Steps towards steamThis section covers the scientific discoveries about airpressure and the nature of steam that led to theinvention of the Boulton and Watt rotative steam engine Interactive: Boulton and Watt engine model Video: Boulton and Watt – how Scientific their engines discoveries work (2 min) 1 about air pressure and Interactive: the nature of Feel the steam weight of air
Interactive: Feel the weight of air Scientific discoveries from air pressure to invention of5. Find out what makes the piston lift the steam engines weight.6. Newcomen steam engine modela) What motivated Newcomen to take on the challenge of building his steam engine?b) What was his engine designed to do?c) Compare Newcomen’s and Watt’s steam engine.
Turning on the tapFollow the development of Sydney’s water supply and look at the hugecylinder from Botany Pumping Station. Compare it with the cylinder ofthe engine behind you and imagine how big the Botany engine was. Cylinder with timber insulation
Until the 1850s, few people in Sydney had taps in their houses. Most had topump water by hand from public pumps and wells and then carry it home,walking up to half a kilometre each way. Audio: ‘Not a drop fit to drink’ Hear what people thoughtInteractive: Pump some water about Sydney’s water supply in the 1800s (3 min)7. Get an idea of the effort involved in using a hand pump.a) Which part of the pump works as a simple machine?b) What type of simple machine is it?
Steam on the move8. On display are two ‘portable engines’ that could be moved from place to place to do their work. These were compact and light enough for horses to pull.a) Choose one of the two engines. Collect as much information on it as possible. Write a short story on it after your visit to the Museum. AV: … making steam move (3 min) Horse-drawn fire engine AV: Fire! Fire! (4 min) Portable [behind the engine] steam engine
Hard work before steamHand tools like these were used on farms in Australia and Britain beforemechanisation. Great skill and strength were needed to get results. Shearers with hand shears
Steam on the farmFarm workers saw mechanisation as a mixed blessing. It made some jobseasier, but people struggled to keep up with the relentless pace of machines.Many people had to move to cities because there were fewer jobs on farms.
The first fire brigadesIn the days before governments employed fire-fighters, fire brigades wereowned by insurance companies. These brigades would only put out fire inbuildings insured by their own company.
The Fire KingMerryweather, the maker of our horse-drawn steam fire pump, was sosuccessful that he was nicknamed the Fire King. The engine was made atGreenwich in England.
All work … no playOn display are large steam engines that drove factory machinery all around theworld before World War II. The relentless pace of the machines made workmonotonous as well as noisy, dangerous and dirty. Pulleys to transmit energy from engine to machinery Printing Weaving press loom Marshall steam engine9. The Marshall enginea) Find the technology or innovation that allows the steam engine to drive hundreds of small machines in a factory.b) Imagine you are a factory worker, working in such a factory. Describe your typical working day.
The city electricThis section looks at the spread of electricityand the turbines that generated it. AV: Metropolis (2 min) Interactive: Light up Sydney Parsons turbines
Interactive: Light up Sydney10.Turn the handle of the interactive as fast as you can. See whether you can light up the whole Imperial Arcade.a) Find the machine that change the turning motion into electricity. What is it called?b) What is the most commonly used fuel in Australia’s power stations?c) What are the impacts of these power stations on our environment?
Steam Aircraft turbineFantasies and failures model reaction engine model11.Steam power inspired many inventors in the 1800s. See some of the interesting ideas people had. Put down any immediate ideas then make a sketch of your own fantasy steam powered engine after the visit.
Discover the science behind global warming andlearn how our precious natural resources such asfresh water are managed. Be inspired by howpeople and companies are changing the way theydo things to secure a more sustainable future.
Into the unknownThe calm climatic conditions of the last 10,000years have allowed agriculture and civilisationto flourish. But life will be less predictable if welet global warming continue. DO YOU KNOW? The average Australian’s lifestyle emits about 20 tonnes of greenhouseCARBON GALLERY gases per year.
NSW town of Bundanoon Clean Building energy new citiesREDESIGNING OUR WORLDCreativity, innovation, awareness of systems and personalbehaviour change will all be essential in helping us adapt tonew conditions and prevent the extremes of global warming.Social and economic structures that make our communitiesmore resilient will help us all to deal with change.
Clean energy 1. Find out more about technologies that capture energy from renewable sources such as wind and sunlight.Building new cities2. On display are some building models. Point out the sustainable features and environmental benefits of each.REDESIGNING OUR WORLD
3. NSW town of Bundanoona) Find out who were involved in making the initiative of not selling giveaway bottled water such a success in Bundanoon.b) Find out the alternatives the town provide. DO YOU KNOW? Bottling water gives off 1,000 times more greenhouse gases than pumping water to yourREDESIGN YOUR WORLD tap.
4. Towards a sustainable housea) See how our choices of fittings and furnishings in various family areas can make a difference.b) List three eco-friendly appliances, technologies or products you have at your home.CITY LIVING
5. Eco-design: reduce, recycle, reusea) Here choose one product from each group, find out what makes each sustainable.CITY LIVING
Online resources1. Boulton and Watt engine exhibition page, including a 11 min illustrated talk on the engine by curator, Debbie Rudder.2. Boulton and Watt engine animation (1:11 min)3. Inside the collection blog: search the blog to find out more about Boulton and Watt4. The steam revolution exhibition page, including exhibition teachers notes.5. Marshall steam engine working (1:44 min)6. EcoLogic: creating a sustainable future exhibition page, including exhibition teachers notes.7. PotBiz: the innovation game8. Australia Innovates, an online guide to innovation in Australia’s industries
Relevant education programs1. Technology & Innovation: Design and Make workshop for years 5 & 62. Sustainable solutions workshop for yrs 5-10Image credit: All images used are from the Powerhouse Museum -: Powerhouse Museum Learning :-