Female Apostles In History


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Profile of important women who served in the function of an apostle (whether knowingly or not) throughout history. Outlines why it is important we study such women and celebrating their history, as it is a part of the history of all Christian women.

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Female Apostles In History

  1. 1. Female apostles in history<br />By Apostle Dr. Lee Ann B. Marino, Ph.D., D.D.<br />Apostle in Office<br />Apostolic Fellowship International Ministries<br />© 2010 Dr. Lee Ann B. Marino. All rights reserved.<br />
  2. 2. Why understand female apostles in history?<br />Women in ministry is not a new happening, but a continuing revelation of God’s work all throughout salvation history<br />It is essential for Christian women to recognize their spiritual heritage and history (Hebrews 12:1); women have a “cloud of witnesses” who have gone on before them in faith and power and set forth the course to where women in ministry are today<br />Women have been called into positions of leadership and authority by God, even if they were not recognized for their specific accomplishments by name <br />
  3. 3. The Apostle Photini and her five apostle sisters<br /><ul><li> The Samaritan woman with whom Jesus had His longest discourse in Scripture in John 4; often regarded as the first to proclaim the Gospel of Christ
  4. 4. Hailed as “the enlightened one” and an “Equal to the Apostles,” she is also believed to have become a martyr, beheaded at the hands of an emperor
  5. 5. She successfully converted her five sisters (Anatole, Photo, Photis, Paraskeve, and Kyriake) and two sons (Victor and Joses) to follow Christ
  6. 6. She and her five sisters were baptized by the apostles, and worked in Carthage to proclaim the Gospel after working and assisting the Apostles Peter and Paul
  7. 7. Revered as a saint in several Christian traditions, and unnamed in many modern Biblical congregations
  8. 8. Identity distorted; the Samaritan woman is vilified as a harlot or sinner, rather than her work in Christ; misunderstood and powerfully distorted; do not view her redeemed, but permanently sinful</li></li></ul><li>The Apostle Mary Magdalene<br /><ul><li> Mentioned in numerous places throughout the New Testament (Matthew 27:56, Matthew 27:61, Matthew 28:1, Mark 15:40, Mark 15:47, Mark 16:1, Mark 16:9, Luke 8:2, Luke 24:10, John 19:25, John 20:1, John 20:10, John 20:18), Mary Magdalene was hailed as the “apostle to the apostles” as the first to see the resurrected Christ and herald the news of His resurrection from the dead
  9. 9. The apocryphal Gospel of Mary Magdalene chronicles Mary’s appointment and establishment as an apostle over a large portion of the early Christian church; The Gospel of Thomas cites Mary as an equal of Peter, who saw her as a rival
  10. 10. Little is known about her life; the fact that she is known by the city of her origin (Magdala) rather than her patriarchal lineage establishes her as unique and special
  11. 11. Revered as a saint in several Christian traditions, and as a model of Christian perseverance and faith among modern Christian denominations
  12. 12. Identity distorted as a prostitute or woman of ill-refute; some modern theories suppose she was the wife of Christ and mother of Christ’s offspring/bloodline, but this lie equally suppresses her reality as a church apostle</li></li></ul><li>The Apostle Junia<br /><ul><li> Commended by the Apostle Paul in Romans 16:7 as being of outstanding note among the apostles and one who was an apostle prior to Paul’s apostolic call
  13. 13. Considered to be an apostle counted among the seventy in Luke 10:1-10
  14. 14. Co-worker with Andronicus, a male relative (many believe to be her husband)
  15. 15. Revered as a saint in several Christian traditions, and as a model of Christian perseverance and faith among modern Christian denominations
  16. 16. Identity suppressed as male (Junias), first by the Roman Catholic Church and subsequent traditions for over 1,000 years as church traditions fought the idea of a female apostle </li></li></ul><li>The Apostle Apphia<br /><ul><li> Mentioned by the Apostle Paul in Philemon 1:2 as “our dear sister” and one to whom the letter was specifically addressed
  17. 17. Considered to be an apostle counted among the seventy in Luke 10:1-10
  18. 18. Co-worker with her husband, the Apostle Philemon; held prayer in her home during a pagan feast
  19. 19. Revered as a saint in several Christian traditions, and as a model of Christian perseverance and faith; she is believed to have been a martyr, killed by pagans in Colossae
  20. 20. Virtually unknown and ignored in identity by the majority of Christians, both traditional, and modern</li></li></ul><li>The Apostle Thelca<br /><ul><li> A convert moved by the Apostle Paul’s preaching on virtue and virginity in the apocryphal writing, The Acts of Paul and Thelca
  21. 21. Miraculously saved from being burned at the stake
  22. 22. Had to fight against an unsupportive family influence to pursue the work and apostolic work of the Gospel
  23. 23. Cited as a role model for women
  24. 24. Hailed as “the Apostle and protomartyr among women” and “equal to the apostles;” revered as a saint in many Christian traditions
  25. 25. Hidden identity and nearly unknown due to lack of knowledge of The Acts of Paul and Thelca</li></li></ul><li>The Apostle Mariamne<br /><ul><li> The sister of the Apostle Philip and companion in apostolic work of the Apostles Philip and Bartholomew
  26. 26. Regarded as “the Apostolic Virgin;” these three successfully preached and converted souls at Hieropolis; while Philip was crucified, the Apostles Bartholomew and Mariamne were set free
  27. 27. She travelled with Apostle Bartholomew to India and, upon his death, proclaimed the Gospel throughout Asia Minor
  28. 28. Revered as a saint in several Christian traditions, and as a model of Christian perseverance and faith;
  29. 29. Virtually unknown and ignored in identity by the majority of Christians, both traditional, and modern</li></li></ul><li>Anastasia of Sirmium, Apostle<br /><ul><li> c. 3rd-4th Century AD
  30. 30. Despite an arranged marriage to a pagan, she preserved herself personally and her faith; worked in ministry under powerful persecution under Emperor Diocletian
  31. 31. Started her apostolic work by providing visitation, food, clothing, and medical attention to Christians in prison
  32. 32. Travelled between cities to minister to Christian prisoners; travelled with other female workers and their families to travel to pagan areas, baptizing souls and proclaiming the Gospel
  33. 33. Once arrested, Anastasia continued in her apostolic work, converting and baptizing 120 prisoners on a transport boat
  34. 34. A powerful preacher of God’s Word and performer of miracles
  35. 35. Revered as a saint in many traditional Christian traditions
  36. 36. Virtually unknown by Christians today</li></li></ul><li>Nina, Apostle and Enlightener of Georgia<br /><ul><li> c. AD 296-335
  37. 37. Was deeply grieved for those who did not know the Lord and had not heard the Gospel from a very young age
  38. 38. Single-handedly converted the entire nation of Georgia to Christianity, including the Tsar and his family, the Tsarina, her family, and much of the government
  39. 39. Never sought fame in her lifetime, working independently and slowly for the conversion of Georgia
  40. 40. A powerful preacher of God’s Word, performer of miracles, and powerful influence and model, even today
  41. 41. Worked under and despite the intense persecution of Emperor Diocletian
  42. 42. Regarded as the “equal to the Apostle Andrew, enlightener of Iberia and reed-pipe of the Holy Spirit” in the Orthodox Church</li></li></ul><li>Angela of Foligno, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1248-1309
  43. 43. A wild woman early in her life who came to discover the power of God and the importance of holiness
  44. 44. Became a powerful teacher and leader on the issues of holiness and right living, both to men and women
  45. 45. Established a community for men and women without the confines of a cloister and enclosure
  46. 46. Known as the “Mistress of Theologians”
  47. 47. Revered as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, but seldom, if ever, mentioned</li></li></ul><li>Margery Kempe, Apostle<br /><ul><li> c. 1373-after 1438
  48. 48. Author of the first autobiography in the English language, The Book of Margery Kempe, featuring her pilgrimages in Europe and Asia
  49. 49. Experienced a vision of Jesus Christ, restoring her sanity after severe postpartum depression following the birth of her first child
  50. 50. Dealt with intense temptations and fought her calling by pursuing businesses, all of which failed
  51. 51. The last portion of her book contains years of dialogues she experienced by revelation of the Lord
  52. 52. Worked in travel and charity for many years
  53. 53. Revered as a saint in the Anglican and Episcopalian Churches; unacknowledged for her important contributions to literature and faith</li></li></ul><li>Argula von Grumbach, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1492-1554?
  54. 54. First woman writer of the Protestant Reformation
  55. 55. Challenged the staff at the University of Ingostadt on the acceptance of Martin Luther’s points of faith
  56. 56. Avid student of the Bible and knowledgeable of its contents in an age where this was uncommon for women; Tens of thousands of copies of her work (poems and writings) were circulated within a few years of their publication
  57. 57. Pursued her work in ministry despite religious disagreement with her husband and different levels of spousal abuse
  58. 58. One of only a few women who spoke out about her views; received the praise and acclaim of Martin Luther
  59. 59. Spent her latter years travelling and proclaiming the Protestant message to German nobles, dignitaries, and scholars
  60. 60. Not acknowledged for her contributions to Christianity or to women</li></li></ul><li>Jeanne d’Albrecht, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1528-1572
  61. 61. Political and spiritual leader of Reformation Huguenots in France
  62. 62. Commissioned the translation of the New Testament into Basque and Béarnaise
  63. 63. Staunchly stood against Roman Catholicism within French culture, outlawing unbiblical practices
  64. 64. Took a leading role in negotiating peace within France between Catholics and Protestants
  65. 65. Unacknowledged for both her spiritual and historical contributions; unstudied in general history</li></li></ul><li>Anne Marbury Hutchinson, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1591-1643
  66. 66. Stood against the social rules for women of her time, establishing Bible studies, services, and education for women and then later, men as well
  67. 67. Within two years of establishment in Boston, had the strongest following of any leader in the colony
  68. 68. Deep insight into spiritual matters, the Word, commentaries, exegesis, and sermon skills; led to jealousy among other New England ministers
  69. 69. Accused of heresy by male ministers
  70. 70. Considered the first American feminist and a staple of women in Christian history; unacknowledged and unknown</li></li></ul><li>Margaret Fell Fox, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1614-1702
  71. 71. Mother of Quakerism
  72. 72. Served as an early author and promoter of the movement, as well as a powerful source of intervention in cases of political conflict or conflict of believers
  73. 73. Arrested for failing to take an oath and holding Quaker meetings in her home
  74. 74. Author of “Women Speaking Justified,” a defense of women in ministry according to the Scriptures; one of the major texts for women in ministry in the 17th century
  75. 75. Revered by Quakers; unheard of by most Christian women today</li></li></ul><li>Lady Selina Hastings, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1707-1791
  76. 76. Founder, the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion society of evangelical churches; prominent Methodist and evangelical revivalist
  77. 77. Considered a superintendent over her churches and chapels (more than 64 in totality), which brought a Calvinistic and holiness element to the Methodist and revival movements
  78. 78. Founded a minister’s training college
  79. 79. Expelled from the Church of England for preaching
  80. 80. Limited acknowledged for her important contributions, mostly within the Methodist Church</li></li></ul><li>Barbara Ruckle Heck, Apostle<br /><ul><li>1734-1804
  81. 81. “The Mother of American Methodism”
  82. 82. Founded a powerful revival
  83. 83. Founder of one of the first integrated churches in the United States
  84. 84. Formed the earliest Methodist Society in Canada and the first in Salem, New York
  85. 85. Acknowledged within the American Methodist Church for her contributions in revival; unacknowledged by general history</li></li></ul><li>Phoebe Palmer, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1820 or 1821-1913
  86. 86. Made more than thirteen missions to rescue more than 70 slaves using the Underground Railroad
  87. 87. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the Civil War, she guided the Combahee River Raid, liberating more than 700 slaves
  88. 88. Hailed as “the Moses of her people;” walked in a powerful prophetic gift of visions and dreams throughout her life
  89. 89. Women’s rights advocate
  90. 90. Acknowledged for her important contributions to abolitionism, African-American history, and women’s history</li></li></ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1815-1902
  91. 91. Credited with influencing the first organized women’s rights and women’s suffrage movements in the United States
  92. 92. Advocate for women within Christianity; author, The Women’s Bible, seeking to correct sexist understanding often propagated with Biblical usage; strong in faith but unimpressed by organized religion
  93. 93. Strongly disagreed with her husband over the issue of women’s rights; despite differences, both considered the marriage a success
  94. 94. Advocate for equality in marriage, especially sexual equality and childbearing by consent
  95. 95. Travelling speaker on essential subjects
  96. 96. Acknowledged for historical role in women’s history</li></li></ul><li>Harriet Tubman, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1820 or 1821-1913
  97. 97. Made more than thirteen missions to rescue more than 70 slaves using the Underground Railroad
  98. 98. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the Civil War, she guided the Combahee River Raid, liberating more than 700 slaves
  99. 99. Hailed as “the Moses of her people;” walked in a powerful prophetic gift of visions and dreams throughout her life
  100. 100. Women’s rights advocate
  101. 101. Acknowledged for her important contributions to abolitionism, African-American history, and women’s history</li></li></ul><li>Maria Woodworth Etter, Apostle<br /><ul><li>1844-1924
  102. 102. One of the most well-known preachers of modern times
  103. 103. Called by God into ministry through a direct vision
  104. 104. Spent over 40 years of her life travelling and preaching; dedicated Tabernacle, now Lakeview Church
  105. 105. Powerful agent of God’s healing
  106. 106. Powerful influence for others in ministry
  107. 107. Moderately known, but not acknowledged for her truly massive contributions to Christianity and women in ministry</li></li></ul><li>Isabella Lilias Trotter, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1853-1928
  108. 108. Founder, Algiers Mission Band; the first missionary in modern history to work with Muslims and Muslim converts to Christianity
  109. 109. Worked heavily for and in education and the arts for girls; placed a heavy emphasis on reaching out to Muslim women with the love of Christ
  110. 110. The Algiers Mission included literacy, education, spinning, wool, storytelling, artwork medical work, travel, colporteurs, literature distribution, translations of the New Testament, and places of refuge
  111. 111. First to translate the New Testament into Arabic; powerful author, painter, and poet
  112. 112. Virtually unknown by modern Christian women</li></li></ul><li>Mary Lee Watson Cagle, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1864-1955
  113. 113. Co-founder, Church of the Nazarene and southern circuit rider, founding and overseeing many churches
  114. 114. Converted her second husband, H.C. Cagle, who became a preacher under her ministry
  115. 115. Hailed as the “Mother of Holiness in west Texas;” one of the first women ordained in modern history
  116. 116. Organized at least 28 congregations and sat as a chair on many district committees; crossed racial lines in an age when such was uncommon and unheard of
  117. 117. Preached until age 90
  118. 118. Un-acclaimed and unstudied in modern Christianity; virtually unknown in modern times </li></li></ul><li>Elliot J. Deobe-Sheeks, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1872-1946
  119. 119. Southern circuit rider; charter member and co-founder, the New Testament Church of Christ (later, Holiness Church of Christ and later a member of the Church of the Nazarene); powerful church planter, overseeing multiple congregations across the south
  120. 120. One of a few modern women to be the first to receive ordination credentials
  121. 121. Preached 182 sermons and travelled 7,600 miles in 1904 alone
  122. 122. Later, a professor of religion at Bresee College in Hutchinson, Kansas teaching church history, Christian missions, and Bible courses
  123. 123. Virtually unknown among Christian women today; not revered in the majority of Christian denominations</li></li></ul><li>Florence L. Crawford, Apostle<br /><ul><li> d. 1936
  124. 124. West coast founder and originator of the Apostolic Faith Mission in the Pacific Northwest United States; founding apostle of the Azusa Street Revival extension in Portland, Oregon
  125. 125. Impacting woman who grew the church and mission far beyond immediate walls in an age when women were not readily ordained or acknowledged
  126. 126. Worked using small offerings to establish missionaries, establish, build, and maintain churches, and publish tracts, books, newsletters, and a Sunday School curriculum
  127. 127. Virtually unknown among Christian women today</li></li></ul><li>Freda Lindsay, Apostle<br /><ul><li> 1914-2010
  128. 128. Co-founder, Christ for the Nations Institute; assumed full leadership of the Institute in 1973, after her husband’s death
  129. 129. Travelled in mission trips all over the world
  130. 130. School trained more than 32,000 graduates
  131. 131. Ministry has planted more than 12,000 churches worldwide; established 48 associate Bible schools in 33 countries
  132. 132. One of the most prominent Christian leaders in our modern day and age
  133. 133. Kept her living expenses low (lived on campus for more than 30 years) to sow more into the ministry
  134. 134. Though a powerful Christian leader, she is under acknowledged for her important contributions to the Kingdom</li></li></ul><li>Join us!<br />To learn more about women in history, Christian women and their identity in Christ, women in ministry throughout history, and more, join Apostle Dr. Lee Ann Marino (Apostolic Fellowship International Ministries, Apostolic University) for Compass Training™ or History Makers™ Seminars and women in ministry preparation<br />Counts toward degree credit through Apostolic University<br />To learn more, visit powerfortoday.org, powerfortoday.webs.com, apostolicuniversity.webs.com, feministchristians.webs.com, or contact us: apostolicuniversity@powerfortoday.org. <br />
  135. 135. References<br />“Anastasia of Sirmium.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasia_of_Sirmium<br />“Angela of Foligno.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angela_of_Foligno<br />“Anne Hutchinson.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Hutchinson<br />“Argula von Grumbach.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argula_von_Grumbach<br />“Barbara Heck.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbara_Heck<br />“Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countess_of_Huntingdon%27s_Connexion<br />“Elizabeth Cady Stanton.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Cady_Stanton<br />Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schlusser. “Apostleship of Women in Early Christianity, The.” http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/fiorenz2.asp<br />“Florence L. Crawford.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_L._Crawford <br />“Gaines, Adrienne S. “Freda Lindsay, Christ for the Nations Co-Founder, Dies at 95.” March 26, 2010 http://www.charismamag.com/index.php/news/26644-freda-lindsay-christ-for-the-nations-co-founder-dies-at-95<br />Ingersol, Stan. “Woman of Conscience, A: The Legacies of Elliot J. Sheeks.” http://www.umkc.edu/KCAA/DUSTYSHELF/DS18.HTM<br />Ingersol, Stan. “Mary Lee Cagle.” http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1875<br />“Jeanne II of Navarre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_III_of_Navarre <br />“Junia.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junia<br />“Legacy of Isabella Lilias Trotter, The.” http://bansuklee.com/xe/libms/144<br />“Margery Kempe.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margery_Kempe<br />“Maria Woodworth Etter.”<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Woodworth-Etter<br />“Margaret Fell.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Fell<br />“Margery Kempe.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margery_Kempe<br />Marino, Lee Ann B. “The Women’s History Hour: Our Tribute to Nina, Apostle and Enlightener of Georgia.”<br />Riss, Richard M. “A Brief History of Some Women In Ministry.” http://across.co.nz/WomenInMinistry.htm<br />“Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selina_Hastings,_Countess_of_Huntingdon<br />“St. Apphia, the Martyr of the Seventy.” http://www.antiochian.org/node/17520<br />“St. Mariamne, Sister of Apostle Philip.” http://www.antiochian.org/node/17518<br />“St. Photini, The Samaritan Woman.” http://www.antiochian.org/node/17560<br />“Thelca.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thecla<br />“Tubman, Harriet.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman <br />