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High Performance Leadership

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High
Performance
LEADERSHIP
 Leaders are what leaders do

   PAUL ROBINSON
POSITIVE REVOLUTION

                   Copyright c 2009 Paul Robinson
             The moral right of the author has been...
Acknowledgments
     NOTHING OF LARGE importance has never been
created without the collective support of like minded
peop...
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High Performance Leadership

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High Performance Leadership

  1. 1. High Performance LEADERSHIP Leaders are what leaders do PAUL ROBINSON
  2. 2. POSITIVE REVOLUTION Copyright c 2009 Paul Robinson The moral right of the author has been asserted. All cartoons narrated in this work is by Randy Glasbergen Copyright c Randy Glasbergen All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any other means, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and wiithout a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. Typeset in High Tower text Font By Revolution Designs Positive Revolution Books an imprint of Positive Revolution Inc www.positiverevolutions.com ALSO BY THE AUTHOR THE LAW OF ATTRACTION MONEY MAGNETISM A DATE WITH YOUR DESTINY THE PSYCHOLOGY OF A WINNER MASTERY IN NEGOTIATION TACTICS SUPER SELLING Available in audio books from Positive Revolution www.positiverevolution.biz
  3. 3. Acknowledgments NOTHING OF LARGE importance has never been created without the collective support of like minded people. This book is an outcome of consistent research and the collective contribution of positive revolution research team. I would like to extend my much gratitude to all of them. First and foremost the creative source from where everything flows and channeled through creativity. Next my collaborators at Positive Revolution, my partners and specially Vanitha Ram, who took the extra hours from work to edit this book. Secondly my well wishers and friends. This book is dedicated to you for your continuing support. I thank all the participants of my seminars and workshops. Thank you all for your valuable suggestions and intriguing questions that has triggered many of the revelations in this work. To all the members of Positive Revolution, it has been an amazing experience to enter in some intelligent discussion with you all. Every feed back I have received has helped me improve better every time I speak and write. Finally to you, the reader. As intended as it may seem, I believe you and I are kindred spirits, because I started of my development reading hundreds of books in management and leadership and they have tremendously helped to be improve my perceptions of reality. Together let us transform leadership together. Paul Robinson Bangalore, 2009
  4. 4. Contents Preface 1 Introduction 2 Chapter One High Performance Leadership 5 Chapter Two Deep Into the Leadership Data 10 Chapter Three Leadership is no Moral Science 16 Chapter Four Action Based Leadership 19 Chapter Five People Based Leadership 44 Chapter Six System Based Functional Leadership 55 Chapter Seven Creating Change In Evolving Landscapes 65 Chapter Eight Leadership is Developed 76 Conclusion 80 A Call for Action 83
  5. 5. Preface Wikipedia's definition of leadership is: “The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". “Leadership is the ability to see things as they are, to see things as better than they are and then to make them as you see it.” "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen." "A leader is a dealer in hope" - Napoleon Bonaparte The U.S. Army says a leader must "Be, Know, Do." The New York Fire Department says a leader is "First in, last out." Lee Iacocca says “A leader picks good people and sets the right priorities.” Jesse Jackson says, "Leadership has a harder job to do than just choose sides. It must bring sides together." “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” ~ John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States “Leaders are not what leaders are. Leaders are what leaders do” - High Performance Leadership High Performance Leadership 1 Paul Robinson
  6. 6. THERE ARE THOUSANDS of definitions about leadership and each year thousands of books and articles get published about leadership. Why another book? INTRODUCTION Leadership has been a curious subject for me for years. Amidst the bombardment of information it made me rethink on several grounds. First leadership was observed and studied on a common ground; later management gurus sliced leadership in to several pieces and objectively proved differences and variations from each other. Today they are joining the pieces back to reinterpret leadership on holistic grounds. Leadership has evolved over times and our understanding on the subject is still evolving. This book is not just another extension of leadership verbatim. I know that, there are thousands of books and articles published every year on the most sought after subject in management- leadership. Thousands of jargons and terms are invented every year to elaborate an innovative style or variable style of leadership to complement the changing times. High Performance Leadership 2 Paul Robinson
  7. 7. Terms like evolutionary leadership, transformational, change, innovative, collective leadership ,`strategic leadership`, `market leadership`, `team leadership` ,`de-personalising` leadership and so on and many are getting tied to this holistic band wagon. Not so surprisingly, people who research on the subject of leadership come up with new jargons every time adding a word from dictionary and prefixing it with leadership. What you get is a new point of view, a new perspective highly refutable on management circles. This happens because the subject we are talking is huge and everyone has a unique way of executing their leadership function; let it be it is in military, business or organizational or personal level. One point is very sure- A vast awareness of the subject on leadership can however help you to evolve your own personal leadership style. There is no one style, personality profile, or interaction approach for an effective leadership. Leaders do come in "all shapes and sizes." Few can deny the effectiveness of leaders such as Golda Meir, Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi, Meg Whitman, Dr. Martin Luther King, Lee Iacocca, Oprah Winfrey, Jack Welch or Steve Jobs. They all had success and few can deny that these leaders also differ significantly. Each of us has different role models. Many people in leadership positions struggle with understanding what makes a great leader. While billions of dollars are spent annually on leadership development, quality leadership is still in short supply. This book is my attempt to light up clarity among confusion. High Performance Leadership 3 Paul Robinson
  8. 8. We all know that nothing stays the same, but the rate of change in today's business world must be unprecedented. We've seen the advent of global competition, rapid technological development and widespread political change. The business world has moved from being relatively stable and simple to being increasingly dynamic and complex. Organizations now face new challenges and leaders must perform at high levels in today’s increasingly unpredictable situations. This new world requires a new set of leadership skills to ensure high performance and faster delivered results. The question is: can we identify leadership and team behaviours that underpin outstanding performance in dynamic, complex and competitive environments? And more than that, can people learn and develop these skills? The answer is Yes. It is possible. Leadership can be taught, coached and mentored to human perfection. That is what High performance leadership is all about. High Performance Leadership teaches you how to be an outstanding leader within your organization envied, loved and respected by others. The principles and practices you learn in this book is based upon observation and research from the foremost authorities in the field of leadership. High Performance is the new paradigm for result focused organizations to create outstanding leaders for today's changing and challenging times. High Performance Leadership 4 Paul Robinson
  9. 9. Chapter One HIGH PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP. LEADERSHIP IS A rich and meaningful word. It stirs up a sense of idealism, excitement, hope and courage. It is a word that inspires us to be our best; a word that we associate with those who have made the greatest difference in our lives. It is a title everyone respects, it is a person others follow, it is a function highly pivotal in the success of any organized human endeavor. Leadership is an exciting subject over all. High performance Leadership is even more productive and exciting when you study them. That is a promise. Performance is a term usually used in automobile industry, like high performance cars like Ferrarri or Lamborghini. When it comes to utmost human performance the term is- peak performance, referred mostly in sports and athletics. To understand high performance leadership in detail, you must understand three words in this context ie ‘high’, ‘performance’ and ‘leadership.’ High Performance Leadership 5 Paul Robinson
  10. 10. Let me first elaborate the term high. The latin motto of Olympic games- ‘altius, citius, fortius’ means higher, faster and stronger. It encompasses the whole rationale of Olympic Sports. This applies also to a performing skill like leadership. Altius or higher is the first motto of Olympics. Soaring above the ground defying gravity is a universally recognized challenge. In leadership to perform high means to set a goal above your current functionality, higher than your current performance and achieve the perceived vision, through developing attitudes and aptitudes that will accomplish the measured progress. We live in a time where bottom line results are not only desired but are also very essential for survival. The demands for high performance are so heavily placed in today’s time. Mediocrity and average performance is no longer engaged in a competitive environment. Today people and companies are only keen on breaking records, but also in increasing share value, increasing customer’s trust and base. Every organization wants a high performer who will give them the quantum leap of outstanding progress. Secondly this book is about performance. It is about the behavior and not about the personality of leadership. Performance is the result of a behavior. You judge performance as good or bad based on the measurable results that are produced from a behavior. There is a huge difference between personality and behavior. It is like the difference between ‘what you can and what you do.’ What ultimately produces result is the result of an action or a behavior, not what you are High Performance Leadership 6 Paul Robinson
  11. 11. capable of. Therefore- the so called virtue and qualities of leadership take a back seat when it comes to the result focused behavioral leadership. Behaviors are the actions you take and the decisions you make. You can control these things and they are manageable because they are also measurable. On a broader sense leadership is about improving people’s performance and performance is only judged by results. You can only manage what is measurable. High performance leadership is measurable and manageable. And the best part is, it can be taught. High level performance results from doing the right thing by the right person who possess the right attitude and aptitude at the right time applied singularly or collectively. High Performance Leadership 7 Paul Robinson
  12. 12. These days a lot of leaders suffer from the ‘capability syndrome’. They think they are capable of delivering results but they remain inactive. Capability does not equal results. You can be the person with all the qualities of a leader possessing all the skills a leader and you can be the worst leader if you do not produce any high optimum results. Remember results come from action. What you do is your behavior and what you are is your personality. Results come from action. The world will not pay you for what you know or what you are capable of; it pays you for what you do. No matter what your personality may be, the results always come from behavior. Leadership is not about who you are. It is not a person. It is about what you do at your best. Personality is the simple word for characteristics and traits and that alone will not make a high performance leader. In fact personality is a poor predictor of performance. Because we all do different things when we are faced with different situations, regardless of what our basic personality may be. However knowing a personality can predict a range of behavior in a person. Extensive researches in to charecter traits of effective leaders have failed to find any correlation between one particular set of traits and success. But on a behavioral level, a set of actions a person may take can actually predict the level of performance. According to behavior kinetics there are set of performance blocking behavior in a person as well as performance accelerating behaviors that make a high performer. High Performance Leadership 8 Paul Robinson
  13. 13. Thirdly high performance is about leadership. Academics and success of many organizations teach us that one of the primary components of any organized success is great leadership. There are more than 500 definitions about leadership and more than 1000 theories to elaborate each of them. Indifference is the new style to defining leadership. There are no written rules about it, because conventional knowledge about leadership is getting defied at this very moment as you read. High Performance Leadership 9 Paul Robinson
  14. 14. Chapter Two DEEP INTO THE LEADERSHIP DATA LEADERSHIP IS AN interesting subject and a curious one too. After the Second World War, the US govt. sponsored a massive piece of research in to leadership. Prior to the war they believed that leaders are born and not made but the results taught them to disbelieve on the theory. The researchers had spent roughly a half a million dollars examining the behavior of a large number of officers, they concluded that leadership was comprised of two types of behavior: one was based on the tasks performed like taking action, getting the job done and getting results and the other was based on the behavior of a person who builds interpersonal relations with others like showing concern, aiding them for their development and being sensitive and attentive to others needs. There were two strong distinctions made in the behavioral aspects of leadership, one the task master- skilled person who gets the High Performance Leadership 10 Paul Robinson
  15. 15. job done and the other interpersonally skilled person with people skills. Then later the third element was found- the leadership function and behavior of integration and coordination. Now there are three approaches to leadership. One is action based that talks about initiating activities, driving for results and getting things done. The second is people based, means show concern to people, and aid them in their development. Thirdly the system based leadership which is more like strategy oriented, integrating ideas and action, innovation and thinking. This is more like a functional aspect of leadership. All three types are suited for different situations. All these possess a set of attitudes and behaviours. You can develop a personal style best suited for your situation by combining three primary leadership approaches which I will be explaining in the following chapters. Bottom line you can demonstrate a set of attitudes and behaviors to reach the high performance you want. High Performance Leadership 11 Paul Robinson
  16. 16. What is interesting about these three types of leadership style is that it has its core origin in human personality. Core of personality is the cause and behavior is the effect. Famous psychologist Sigmund Freud recognized that there are an almost infinite variety of personalities, he identified three main types: erotic, obsessive, and narcissistic. Most of us have elements of all three. We are all, for example, somewhat narcissistic. If that were not so, we would not be able to survive or assert our needs. Freud’s definitions of personality types differed over time. When talking about the erotic personality type, however, Freud generally did not mean a sexual personality but rather ‘one for whom loving and above all being loved is most important’. This type of indivi- High Performance Leadership 12 Paul Robinson
  17. 17. -dual is dependent on those people they fear will stop loving them. They are driven by the human need for connection and love. Their identity is an extension of the larger network of people they are connected to. As personalities they are ‘outer directed people’, caring and supportive of others. These people develop a ‘people oriented’ leadership style and they want to be loved by their followers. Obsessives, in contrast, are ‘inner-directed’. They are self-reliant and conscientious. They create and maintain order and make the most effective operational managers. They look constantly for ways to help people listen better, resolve conflict, and find win-win opportunities. Obsessives are also ruled by a strict conscience—they like to focus on continuous improvement at work because it fits in with their sense of moral improvement. As entrepreneurs, obsessive’s start businesses that express their values, but they lack the vision, daring, and charisma it takes to turn a good idea into a great one. The best obsessives set high standards and communicate very effectively. They make sure that instructions are followed and costs are kept within budget. Obsessives develop the system based functional leadership style. Narcissistic types are ‘self directed’ people. They are independent and not easily impressed. They are driven by the need for significance and in business they gain power and glory. There are productive and unproductive narcissistic leaders. The difference is between Bill Gates (productive) and Bin Laden (unproductive). Productive narcissists are experts in High Performance Leadership 13 Paul Robinson
  18. 18. but they go beyond it. They also pose the critical questions. They want to learn everything about everything that affects the company and its products. Unlike erotics, they want to be admired, not loved. And unlike obsessives, they are not troubled by a punishing superego, so they are able to aggressively pursue their goals. They are the task masters. They get every job done. They are driven by results. Achievement and results are their preferences over people and system. They will change the system, bend the rules even manipulate their followers to get the work done. They are highly action oriented and they make up the ‘action based leadership’ style. In High Performance Leadership, behavioral leadership is an outcome of certain personality or the combination of the three core personality.High performance leadership can deliver manageable results through action based or people based or system based leadership. All leaders have a part of their behavior triggered either by action based or people based or system based leadership style from time to time. Leaders may adapt different styles as circumstances and times of change. All leaders dominate any one of these behavior and their style of leadership changes drastically and thus their performance and results change. Action oriented leadership is driven by the need for significance and significance is achieved by creating change. People based leadership is driven by human values and the need for connection and love. System based leadership is driven by principles and the need for certainty and they create an environment for best High Performance Leadership 14 Paul Robinson
  19. 19. practices and highly successful in driving proactive human behavior. In action based leadership every outcome is controlled but in people based leadership outcome is allowed. In system based leadership an outcome is generated. Action based leaders will say ‘do it” (action & result) to their teams, while people based leader will say ‘let us do it’(work or play together) and system based leaders create an environment for proactive actions from everyone in the organization (job is duty). There are several variations in each of these leadership styles. Each of them deliver results and you will learn them in detail in the following chapters. High Performance Leadership 15 Paul Robinson
  20. 20. Chapter Three LEADERSHIP IS NO MORAL SCIENCE SCHOLARS SHOULD REMIND us that leadership is not a moral concept. Leaders are like the rest of us: trustworthy and deceitful, cowardly and brave, greedy and generous. To assume that all good leaders are good people is to be willfully blind to the reality of the human condition, and it severely limits our scope for becoming more effective at leadership. Worse, it may cause the leaders among us to kid themselves into thinking that, because they are leaders, they must be trustworthy, brave, and generous and that they are never deceitful, cowardly, or greedy. There is no infallibility with leaders. They are humans. Every human intention is variable. As it can be self orientation or other people orientation or even company orientation. No one can put a moral principle to any of these orientations. This is just the way it is. You can’t expect all the leaders to be respectful towards their followers or do all their administrative responsibilities. High Performance Leadership 16 Paul Robinson
  21. 21. For some leaders their primary function is to create more followers but for other leaders it must be the task of making more leaders. There is no good leadership versus the bad one; there is only effective leadership against the ineffective leadership. Some leaders are effective at certain time and ineffective later. This is a function determined by a situation and as situation varies the style of leadership and leaders change according to circumstances. Sir Winston Churchill was a great leader for Britain under Second World War, but he never got re-elected for a peaceful Britain after the war re-election. Some leaders are effective for turbulent times to keep the homeostasis together and some are effective in peaceful times for growth. Some leaders make the best for crisis times and some for crucial changing times and others for maintaining the status-quo. Human needs like certainty, uncertainty and significance come and play at various situations. High Performance Leadership 17 Paul Robinson
  22. 22. Leaders are what leaders do. There is no moral science to it. There is no particular style to leadership. Only thing that matters is results. Leaders are there for a reason and the purpose of leadership in any context is to deliver results. If there is a problem, the leader must deliver solution. When there is chaos, the leader must deliver order. When there is confusion, a leader must bring clarity. When there is indecision, a leader must take the decision even if there is no evident answer. That is decision making. Leaders make the decisions today and they get their decisions managed by others for tomorrow. Each leaders lead differently. Leaders don't just lead from the front they lead from all angles. They push, they pull they tug from the sides. Leaders just do what- ever it takes to get results. Leadership is not only about having power but it is also about giving power. The most important thing to remember is that leaders are not always born. Leaders are also made. In today’s times leaders are emerged. They emerge because something outstanding in a person can not be hidden for long. They are also made by manipulations. They are voted or elected. Leaders spring up everyday. The effective ones are looked upon. The ineffectives are tolerated or violently opposed or forgotten in the sands of time. The one that deliver results are admired by everyone. Nobody can put down a productive leader who delivers results. That is just the way it is. I believe that high performance is in. Ultimately everyone wants to be the part of the winning team that is performing above all High Performance Leadership 18 Paul Robinson
  23. 23. Chapter Four ACTION BASED LEADERSHIP LEADERS ARE MADE of action. In an organization individuals at all level exert their influence over the behaviors of others and customers and they are influencing the action part of the leadership where the job has to be done, where the task has to be completed. Action based leaders are powered by their narcissistic personality. They are skilled orators and creative strategists who want to influence a group by attracting followers. These leaders also possess high linguistic intelligence that gives them a command over language and people. They are driven by the need for significance. They make their stamp of significance by making large contributions to the world. One major key to achieving significance is to do the most daring thing in any situation. Creating change is a significant event. Change leaders (as often called as) are action based High Performance Leadership 19 Paul Robinson
  24. 24. leaders. They turn around and re-engineer organizations. They also become founders of new organizations. Companies they lead or manage become their self extension of character and charisma. They love to transform. They want their impact felt in every echelons of society. There is so much of productive narcissism that drives their behaviours. The only major reflection of their narcissism is in creating the change they want to see. They want their brands to last longer and their leadership style to become a legacy. They are ambitious and even reach the celebrity status. Sigmund Freud dubbed narcissistic- “People of this type impress others as being ‘personalities,’” he wrote, describing one of the psychological types that clearly fall within the range of normality. “They are especially suited to act as a support for others, to take on the role of leaders, and to give a fresh stimulus to cultural development or damage the established state of affairs.” High Performance Leadership 20 Paul Robinson
  25. 25. Throughout history, narcissists have always emerged to inspire people and to shape the future. When military, religious, and political arenas dominated society, it was figures such as Napoléon Bonaparte, Mahatma Gandhi, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt who determined the social agenda. But from time to time, when business became the engine of social change, it, too, generated its share of narcissistic leaders. Freud also recognized that there is a dark side to narcissism. Narcissists, he pointed out, are emotionally isolated and highly distrustful. Perceived High Performance Leadership 21 Paul Robinson
  26. 26. threats can trigger rage in them. Achievements can feed feelings of grandiosity. That’s why Freud thought narcissists were the hardest personality types to analyze. Consider how an executive at Oracle describes his narcissistic CEO Larry Ellison: “The difference between God and Larry is that God does not believe he is Larry.” That observation is amusing, but it is also troubling. Not surprisingly, most people think of narcissists in a primarily negative way. After all, Freud named the type after the mythical figure Narcissus, who died because of his pathological preoccupation with himself. Yet narcissism can be extraordinarily useful—even necessary. Freud shifted his views about narcissism over time and recognized that we are all somewhat narcissistic. There is productive and unproductive narcissism. Leaders such as Jack Welch and George Soros are examples of productive narcissists. They are gifted and creative strategists who see the big picture and find meaning in the risky challenge of changing the world and leaving behind a legacy. Indeed, one reason we look to productive narcissists in times of great transition is that they have the audacity to push through the massive transformations that society periodically undertakes. Productive narcissists are not only risk takers willing to get the job done but also charmers who can convert the masses with their rhetoric speeches. The danger is that narcissism can turn unproductive when, lacking self-knowledge and restraining anchors, narcissists become unrealistic dreamers like Hitler. High Performance Leadership 22 Paul Robinson
  27. 27. Productive narcissism is an outcome of self awareness. Productive narcissists are great visionaries and they understand the vision thing particularly well, because they are by nature people who see the big picture. They are not analyzers who can break up big questions into manageable problems; they aren’t number crunchers either (these are usually the obsessives). Nor do they try to extrapolate to understand the future(like system based leaders)—they attempt to create it. To paraphrase George Bernard Shaw, some people see things as they are and ask why; narcissists see things that never were and ask why not. Narcissists have vision. Only people with vision can create or induce change. To create change one must know where they are and also must know where they are headed. Vision gives you the ideal of a great picture. Narcissist leaders are visionaries—but that’s not enough. People in mental hospitals also have visions. High Performance Leadership 23 Paul Robinson
  28. 28. The simplest definition of a leader is someone whom other people follow. Indeed, narcissists are especially gifted in attracting followers, and more often than not, they do so through language and emphatic speeches. Narcissists believe that words can move mountains and that inspiring speeches can change people’s beliefs and attitudes. Narcissistic leaders are often skillful orators, and this is one of the talents that make them so charismatic. Indeed, anyone who has seen narcissists perform can attest to their personal magnetism and their ability to stir enthusiasm among audiences. Yet this charismatic gift is more of a two-way affair than most people think. Although it is not always obvious, narcissistic leaders are quite dependent on their followers—they need affirmation, and preferably adulation. High Performance Leadership 24 Paul Robinson
  29. 29. That’s because charisma is a double-edged sword—it fosters both closeness and isolation. As he becomes increasingly self-assured, the narcissist becomes more spontaneous. He feels free of constraints. Ideas flow. He thinks he’s invincible. This energy and confidence further inspire his followers. But the very adulation that the narcissist demands can have a corrosive effect. As he expands, he listens even less to words of caution and advice. The significant behavior of narcissistic leaders is their action orientation. Action oriented leadership is performance driven. Albert Schweitzer once said “Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it is the only thing” This is the lead dog action in example in a dogsled team. The lead dog is at the front of the team. It sets the pace. It provides the leadership and inspiration to other dogs. In fact people will tend to do things if their bosses are doing the same thing. As the dictum goes ‘action speaks louder than words’. Action based leaders behave like the ‘lead dogs.’ the difference between action based with other styles of leadership is that, people based leaders behave like a ‘gardener’ and system based leader behave like a ‘shepherd’ to their followers. Action oriented behavior is also very competitive in nature. In the high performance level they strive to be the best, to deliver products and services faster, to gain market share, go higher to beat the competition, and capture more consumers and markets and hold them etc. The list of successful behaviors of action oriented leaders are: High Performance Leadership 25 Paul Robinson
  30. 30. 1. Pro action - or taking initiative and driving for results by getting things done. They are the advocators of action. They make their followers to take action on ideas that are observed risky. They push the limit by challenging people. 2. Setting an example. Being the Pace setter. Action oriented leader’ favorite dictum is ‘if I can do it, you can do it too’ 3. Inspiring people with big vision. They make people not only see the big picture but also make them believe they can achieve them. 4. Setting clear performance targets. Also monitoring each person’s performance against their targets. 5. Challenging people to raise their goals. They make people do things that were once believed as impossible. This makes them boost the confidence of their followers. 6. Focusing on actions on areas where there is a clear impact. They make priorities and action list for every one to follow. Instructions are followed strictly. Rules and standards are set for others to follow. 7. Paying attention to details, (evaluation and managerial). They get into the minutest details of impact. They never leave any stone unturned. 8.Time bound delivery of results. They are on a race against time. Pressure is increased to create the sense of urgency and an increase in productivity. 9. Clear cut quick decisions. They are fast decision makers because they know that the buck stops with them. 10. Spontaneous action. They encourage spontaneity. High Performance Leadership 26 Paul Robinson
  31. 31. They expect others to do a good job. There is no delay in their work. They expect results on every deadline they set. Their dominant attitude is to win at any cost. They do not care for others feelings.’ I don’t care, just get it done’ is their method of approaching a task even if it is perceived impossible. Failure is not encouraged by action oriented people. Performance blocking behavior of action oriented leadership is many. Since they are task masters they deemphasize team work. They can create a stressful over worked environment literally keeping people on their toes. They demand more from their followers. They can be savagely witty in their remarks and often intimidating in their approach. Despite the warm feelings their charisma can evoke, action oriented narcissists are typically not comfortable with their own emotions. They are selective listeners. They listen only for the kind of information they seek to understand. High Performance Leadership 27 Paul Robinson
  32. 32. They don’t learn easily from others. They don’t like to teach but prefer to indoctrinate and make speeches. They dominate meetings with subordinates. The result for the organization is greater internal competitiveness at a time when everyone is already under as much pressure as they can possibly stand. Perhaps the main problem is that the narcissist’s faults tend to become even more pronounced as he becomes more successful. Action based leaders believe in their actions and results that they develop a sense of predicament to their overall approach. They are highly sensitive to criticism and because they are extraordinarily sensitive (don’t tell me what to do, just do what I say), narcissistic leaders shun emotions as a whole. Indeed, perhaps one of the greatest paradoxes in this age of teamwork and partnering is that the best corporate leader in the contemporary world is the type of person who is emotionally isolated. Narcissistic leaders typically keep others at arm’s length. They can put up a wall of defense as thick as the Pentagon. And given their difficulty with knowing or acknowledging their own feelings, they are uncomfortable with other people expressing theirs—especially their negative feelings. Indeed, even productive narcissists are extremely sensitive to criticism or slights, which feel to them like knives threatening their self-image and their confidence in their visions. Narcissists are almost unimaginably thin-skinned. Like the fairy-tale princess who slept on many mattresses and yet knew she was sleeping on a pea, High Performance Leadership 28 Paul Robinson
  33. 33. narcissists—even powerful CEOs—bruise easily. This is one explanation why narcissistic leaders do not want to know what people think of them unless it is causing them a real problem. They cannot tolerate dissent. In fact, they can be extremely abrasive with employees who doubt them or with subordinates who are tough enough to fight back. Action oriented leaders are not empathetic towards their followers. Best-selling business writers today have taken up the slogan of “emotional intelligence and competencies”—the belief that successful leadership requires a strongly developed sense of empathy. But although they crave empathy from others, productive narcissists are not noted for being particularly empathetic themselves. Of course, leaders do need to communicate persuasively. But a lack of empathy did not prevent some of history’s greatest narcissistic leaders from knowing how to communicate—and inspire. Neither Churchill, de Gaulle, Stalin, nor Mao Tse-tung were empathetic. High Performance Leadership 29 Paul Robinson
  34. 34. And yet they inspired people because of their passion and their conviction at a time when people longed for certainty. In fact, in times of radical change, lack of empathy can actually be strength. A narcissist finds it easier than other personality types to buy and sell companies, to close and move facilities, and to lay off employees—decisions that inevitably make many people angry and sad. They have the least sentimental attachments to their followers when it comes to the priority of making profits. But narcissistic leaders typically have few regrets. As one CEO says, “If I listened to my employees’ needs and demands, they would eat me alive.” Given this lack of empathy, it’s hardly surprising that narcissistic leaders don’t score particularly well on evaluations of their interpersonal style. What’s more, neither 360- degree evaluations of their management style nor workshops in listening will make them more empathic. Narcissists don’t want to change themselves but they want to change everything around them—and High Performance Leadership 30 Paul Robinson
  35. 35. as long as they are successful, they don’t think they have to. They may see the need for operational managers to get touchy-feely training, but that’s not for them. There is a kind of emotional intelligence associated with narcissists, but it’s more street smarts than empathy. Narcissistic leaders are acutely aware of whether or not people are with them wholeheartedly. They know whom they can use. They can be brutally exploitative. That’s why, even though narcissists undoubtedly have “star quality,” they are often unlikable. They easily stir up people against them, and it is only in tumultuous times, when their gifts are desperately needed, that people are willing to tolerate narcissists as leaders. When it comes to teamwork action oriented leaders want followers who listen to their commands. Narcissistic leaders often say that they want teamwork. What that means in practice is that they want a group of yes-men. High Performance Leadership 31 Paul Robinson
  36. 36. Another demerit of action leaders is their lack of interest in mentoring others. Lack of empathy and extreme independence make it difficult for narcissists to mentor and be mentored. Generally speaking, narcissistic leaders set very little store by mentoring. They seldom mentor others, and when they do they typically want their protégés to be pale reflections of themselves. Most narcissists prefer “mentors” they can control. They do not follow advices they only listen to opinions and they make their own decisions with their gut feeling above all rationale. Narcissistic leaders are relentless and ruthless in their pursuit of victory. Games are not games but tests of their survival skills. As Donald Trump puts it ‘hire and keep the best people but never trust them’. Of course, all successful managers want to win, but narcissists are not restrained by conscience. Organizations led by narcissists are generally characterized by intense internal competition. Their High Performance Leadership 32 Paul Robinson
  37. 37. passion to win is marked by both the promise of glory and the primitive danger of extinction. It is a potent brew that energizes companies, creating a sense of urgency, but it can also be dangerous. These leaders see everything as a threat. As Andy Grove puts it, brilliantly articulating the narcissist’s fear, distrust, and aggression, “Only the paranoid survive.” There is very little business literature that tells narcissistic leaders how to avoid the pitfalls. There are two reasons for this. First, relatively few narcissistic leaders are interested in looking inward. I have identified three basic ways in which productive narcissists can avoid the traps of their own personality. 1) Find a trusted sidekick. Get a Mister#2 for Dr. Evil in Austin Powers’s movie. You can also get a’ mini me’ for a likeable or cuter version of you. High Performance Leadership 33 Paul Robinson
  38. 38. Many narcissists can develop a close relationship with one person, a sidekick who acts as an anchor, keeping the narcissistic partner grounded. However, given that narcissistic leaders trust only their own insights and view of reality, the sidekick has to understand the narcissistic leader and what he is trying to achieve. The narcissist must feel that this person, or in some cases persons, is practically an extension of himself. The sidekick must also be sensitive enough to manage the relationship. Don Quixote is a classic example of a narcissist who was out of touch with reality but who was constantly saved from disaster by his squire Sancho Panza. Not surprisingly, many narcissistic leaders rely heavily on their spouses, the people they are closest to. But dependence on spouses can be risky, because they may further isolate the narcissistic leader from his company by supporting his grandiosity and feeding his paranoia. High Performance Leadership 34 Paul Robinson
  39. 39. 2) A greater sense of Self-awareness can uphold action oriented leadership to perform at the highest level. Since narcissistic leaders lack empathy, a strong understanding of one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives are essential. People with strong self-awareness are neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful. Rather, they are honest—with themselves and with others. People who have a high degree of self-awareness recognize how their feelings affect them, other people, and their job performance. Self-awareness extends to a person’s understanding of his or her values and goals. The decisions of self- aware people mesh with their values; consequently, they often find work to be energizing. How can one recognize self-awareness? First and foremost, it shows itself as candor and an ability to assess oneself realistically. People with high self-awareness are able to speak accurately and openly—although not necessarily effusively or confessionally— about their emotions and the impact they have on their work. Self awareness is not a trait you are born with but a capacity you develop throughout your lifetime. It’s your understanding of your strengths and weaknesses, your purpose in life, your values and motivations, and how and why you respond to situations in a particular way. It requires a great deal of introspection and the ability to internalize feedback from others. No one is born a leader; we have to consciously develop into the leader we want to become. High Performance Leadership 35 Paul Robinson
  40. 40. One of the hallmarks of self-awareness is a self- deprecating sense of humor. Self-awareness can also be identified during performance reviews. Self-aware people know—and are comfortable talking about—their limitations and strengths, and they often demonstrate a thirst for constructive criticism. By contrast, people with low self awareness interpret the message that they need to improve as a threat or a sign of failure. Self-aware people can also be recognized by their self-confidence. They have a firm grasp of their capabilities and are less likely to set themselves up to fail by, for example, overstretching on assignments. They know, too, when to ask for help. And the risks they take on the job are calculated. They won’t ask for a challenge that they know they can’t handle alone. They’ll play to their strengths. Furthermore, leaders are constantly required to make judgment calls that require a candid assessment of capabilities—their own and those of others. Do we have the management expertise to acquire a competi- High Performance Leadership 36 Paul Robinson
  41. 41. -tior. Can we launch a new product within six months? People who assess themselves honestly—that is, self- aware people—are well suited to do the same for the organizations they run. 3. Self-Regulation. Biological impulses drive our emotions. We cannot do away with them—but we can do much to manage them. First of all self-regulation, which is like an ongoing inner conversation, is the component of emotional intelligence that frees us from being prisoners of our feelings. People engaged in such a conversation feel bad moods and emotional impulses just as everyone else does, but they find ways to control them and even to channel them in useful ways. Secondly, self-regulation is important for competitive reasons. High Performance Leadership 37 Paul Robinson
  42. 42. Everyone knows that business today is rife with ambiguity and change. Companies merge and break apart regularly. Technology transforms work at a dizzying pace. People who have mastered their emotions are able to roll with the changes. When a new program is announced, they don’t panic; instead, they are able to suspend judgment, seek out information, and listen to the executives as they explain the new program. As the initiative moves forward, these people are able to move with it. Sometimes they even lead the way. High Performance Leadership 38 Paul Robinson
  43. 43. ACTION BASED LEADERSHIP FOR CHANGE Whatever may be the flows of action oriented leaders, they are famous for creating change anywhere they are. People with narcissistic ideals often seem restless with the status quo. They are persistent with their questions about why things are done one way rather than another; they are eager to explore new approaches to their work. Since continuous change is not a natural condition of life, hence resistance to change is a healthy human instinct. Bringing change to any human condition is a majour challenge. This is the challenge action leadership is capable of handling better than everyone else. Change instills fear in followers. Therefore the process of creating change is vital. There is an educative process before change happens. Since action based leadership boast of oratory skills, this makes it easier for narcissist to inspire change among followers. Today’s times action oriented leadership has taken a new definition with regard to productive narcissism as change leaders. Change leaders follow Transformational Leadership. Transformational leadership theories are based on the idea of some form of collaborative greater good. There are skills and qualities that are needed in change management. The effect of these qualities on people undergoing significant organizational change can be summarized as: (1) Building an awareness of the value and importance of tasks. (2) Focusing their minds on group objectives rather than just personal interests. High Performance Leadership 39 Paul Robinson
  44. 44. (3) Appealing to and activating their aspirational needs. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transformational Leadership is particularly relevant to successful change management - especially in situations of major change. Transformational leadership is about raising consciousness. In practical terms this is all about encouraging people to become conscious and aware of what they feel, to feel it strongly and to do so in a context where their values have been defined in such a way that they can be motivated and encouraged to take constructive action. It takes tenacity to tame cynicism, mass ignorance and fear. Narcissists thrive in chaotic times. they love danger and uncertainty because they are adventurous people by nature. Action oriented leaders can motivate their followers. Interestingly, people with high motivation remain optimistic even when the score is against them. In such cases, self-regulation combines with achieve- High Performance Leadership 40 Paul Robinson
  45. 45. -ment motivation to overcome the frustration and depression that come after a setback or failure. It’s not difficult to understand how and why a motivation to achieve translates into strong leadership. If you set the performance bar high for yourself, you will do the same for the organization when you are in a position to do so. Likewise, a drive to surpass goals and an interest in keeping score can be contagious. Leaders with these traits can often build a team of managers around them with the same traits. And of course, optimism and organizational commitment are fundamental to leadership—just try to imagine running a company without them. Very often leadership is mostly familiar with activities like moving forward, creating change, vision and constantly improving up on results. But there is another dimension to leadership which is the stewardship behavior and function of leadership. High Performance Leadership 41 Paul Robinson
  46. 46. STEWARDSHIP FUNCTION OF LEADERSHIP The stewardship function is where most actions are carried out; it is the sustenance factor for any organization. A steward focus on sustaining performance making sure that everything runs more than ok. The performance at this level will greatly affect the entire functionality of leadership. These are the arms that carry out the leadership in to action and in to measurable results. Most often we only know about the top leaders in organization, only their names will be heard often, but there are hundreds and thousands of leaders in their organization whose names are not heard of, the people who really run things, who really steer various operations in the business. Every one is a leader whose actions affect the larger body of an organization. Leadership is a body of collective action to fulfill a collective goal. Leadership is accelerated by action. Changes, improvements, winning work culture, increased returns all take place as a result of several actions. On one side of leadership in action the performance is accelerated to create changes with a set of successful behaviors and on the other end the performance is sustained by the successful momentum of action. In a successful organization acceleration and sustenance go hand in hand through constant and never ending improvements. Japanese call it kaizen. You can apply this in several areas. Consistent action on a particular direction delivers results. Consistent improvement leads to better performance. High Performance Leadership 42 Paul Robinson
  47. 47. High Performance leadership delivers results through action. Productive narcissists are gutsy and fearless. What separate them from the rest is their commitment to action and the mantra of ‘do whatever it takes’ Major decisions of action based leaders are carried out by support teams that follow either a system based or people based leadership style. Action based leadership often exercised by founders of small and large organizations. Their identity becomes bigger than their organizations. It won’t be surprising to hear when an employee in Virgin says, ‘I work for Sir Richard Branson’s company rather than saying he or she actually work for Virgin. The persona of narcists go further than their organization. All narcists are revolutionary by nature. They create change wherever they are. They want people to remember them. They don’t form policies from their subordinate’s suggestions. They impose their decisions on people because they believe it is right for them. Gandhi is a true productive narcissistic leader. He never asked his followers what strategy they must use to get Britishers out of India. He formed his own policies of non-violence and non-cooperation, and he told the people to just follow them. Action oriented leaders are not only made of action, they also have a personal philosophy that drives their behavior. When the right philosophy is in coherence with vision and action, action based leaders deliver amazing results. High Performance Leadership 43 Paul Robinson
  48. 48. Chapter Five PEOPLE BASED LEADERSHIP ACTION BASED LEADERSHIP is ‘self oriented narcissistic leadership’ but people based leadership is ‘others oriented’ driven by the human need to connect, love and contribute to other fellow humans. This is an enlightened level of leadership and a rare one at it. It is not so easy to find people these days who are ‘others’ oriented. This also reveals the higher purpose of leadership more refined in its true function of serving people. Prentice defined leadership as ‘the accomplishment of a goal through the direction of human assistants.’ The man who successfully marshals his human collaborators to achieve particular ends is a leader. A great leader is one who can do so day after day, and year after year, in a wide variety of circumstances. He may not possess or display power; force or the threat of harm may never enter into his dealings. He may not be popular; his followers may never do what he wishes out of love or admiration for him. He may not ever High Performance Leadership 44 Paul Robinson
  49. 49. be a colorful person; he may never use memorable devices to dramatize the purposes of his group or to focus attention on his leadership. As for the important matter of setting goals, he may actually be a man of little influence, or even of little skill; as a leader he may merely carry out the plans of others. His unique achievement is a human and social one which stems from his understanding of his fellow workers and the relationship of their individual goals to the group goal that he must carry out. The effectiveness of Dale Carnegie’s famous prescriptions in his ‘How to Win Friends and Influence People’ is a good example. Its major principle is a variation of the Golden Rule: “treat others as you would like to be treated.” While limited and oversimplified, such a rule is a great improvement over the primitive coercive approaches or the straight reward-for-desired-behavior approach. It is the- to understand and to be understood approach that give clarity, power and direction to the completion of a desired outcome in people based leadership. High Performance Leadership 45 Paul Robinson
  50. 50. People based (or oriented) leadership is successful in any model where delegation of responsibility and accountability is needed to achieve a collaborative effort. Great teams are managed with people based leadership. These leaders treat their organization as an extended family. Everyone is respected and loved. There is job security and comfort created to every employee within the organization. People based leaders encourages risk taking and personal development in the organization. They create high performance teams. Other behaviors include: 1. Giving people credits for their achievement. 2. Asking others to perform and won’t use the ‘tell them’ approach. 3. Creating a learning environment and learning from failures. High Performance Leadership 46 Paul Robinson
  51. 51. People based leadership focus on human development. They invest on their followers for further Training and development. 4. Focus on Employee retention and employee welfare. 5. Soliciting ideas and suggestions from others as well as rewarding them. What makes people based leaders is their ability to connect with people. They have remarkable social skill. For them any human achievement is a collective work done towards the attainment of a common goal. Socially skilled people tend to have a wide circle of acquaintances, and they have a knack for finding common ground with people of all kinds—a knack for building rapport. That doesn’t mean they socialize continually; it means they work according to the assumption that nothing important gets done alone. Such people have a network in place when the time for action comes. Social skill along with empathetic skills is the culmination of the dimensions of emotional intelligence. Behavioral scientists have pointed out that on of the major key significant factors behind the success of many leaders and managers are their emotional intelligence. Emotional Intelligence is a bigger factor than IQ when it comes to dealing with people and succeeding in any human environment. After studying several star performers with average ones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of the difference in their profiles was attributable to emotional intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities. High Performance Leadership 47 Paul Robinson
  52. 52. Few researchers have confirmed that emotional intelligence not only distinguishes outstanding leaders but can also be linked to strong performance. From a scientific (rather than a popular) standpoint, emotional intelligence is the ability to accurately perceive your own and others’ emotions; to understand the signals that emotions send about relationships; and to manage your own and others’ emotions. It doesn’t necessarily include the qualities (like optimism, initiative, and self-confidence) that some popular definitions ascribe to it. Of course, emotional intelligence isn’t the only way to attain success as a leader: A brilliant strategist who can maximize profits may be able to hire and keep talented employees even if he or she doesn’t have strong personal connections with them. A decrease in ego can increase in the emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is about caring for other people. It is not ‘me me me me’ it is ‘us us us us’. That is the primary shift. Empathy, sympathy, consideration, humility are all by products of this shift in thinking and behavior. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Emotional intelligence can be learned. The process is not easy. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well- developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and for the organization, make it worth the effort. Of all the dimensions of emotional intelligence, empathy is the most easily recognized. We have all felt High Performance Leadership 48 Paul Robinson
  53. 53. the empathy of a sensitive teacher or friend; we have all been struck by its absence in an unfeeling coach or boss. But when it comes to business, we rarely hear people praised, let alone rewarded, for their empathy. The very word seems un-businesslike, out of place amid the tough realities of the marketplace. But empathy doesn’t mean a kind of “I’m OK, you’re OK” mushiness. Rather, empathy means thoughtfully considering employees’ feelings—along with other factors—in the process of making intelligent decisions. Empathy is particularly important today as a component of leadership for at least three reasons: the increasing use of teams; the rapid pace of globalization; and the growing need to retain talent. Empathy plays a key role in the retention of talent, particularly in today’s information economy. Leaders have always needed empathy to develop and keep good people, but today the stakes are higher. When good people leave, they take the company’s knowledge with them. That’s where coaching and mentoring come in. High Performance Leadership 49 Paul Robinson
  54. 54. COACHING AND MENTORING It has repeatedly been shown that coaching and mentoring pay off not just in better performance but also in increased job satisfaction and increased turnover. But what makes coaching and mentoring work best is the nature of the relationship. Outstanding coaches and mentors get inside the heads of the people they are helping. To influence people, first you must know what is already influencing them. People based leaders are highly emotionally intelligent and they sense how to give effective feedback. They know when to push for better performance and when to hold back. In this way they motivate their protégés, they demonstrate empathy in action. In what is probably sounding like a refrain, let me repeat that empathy doesn’t get much respect in business. People wonder how leaders can make hard decisions if they are “feeling” for all the people who will be affected. But leaders with empathy do more than sympathize with people around them: They use their knowledge to improve their companies in subtle but important ways. So what makes the people based leadership? Is it leading by feeling? People based leaders have greater sense of self awareness. They are driven by human values of respect, empathy, motivation, love and collaboration People tend to be very effective at managing relationships when they can understand and control their own emotions and can empathize with the feelings of others. A deep feeling of empathy High Performance Leadership 50 Paul Robinson
  55. 55. with the urge to connect oneself to a large spectrum of human network upbeats a leader’s social skill. Socially skilled people, for instance, are adept at managing teams—that’s their empathy at work. Likewise, they are expert persuaders—a manifestation of self- awareness, self-regulation, and empathy combined. Given those skills, good persuaders know when to make an emotional plea, for instance, and when an appeal to reason will work better. And motivation, when publicly visible, makes such people excellent collaborators; their passion for the work spreads to others, and they are driven to find solutions. But some-times social skill shows itself in ways the other emotional intelligence components do not. Bottom-line People based leadership is about managing relationships effectively. No leader is an island. After all, the leader’s task is to get work done through other people, and social skill makes that task possible. A leader who cannot express her empathy may as well not have it at all. In people based leadership style dominant performance roles are: 1)Developmental roles. Functions include building teams and developing People. They create a positive climate by providing coaching, training and developmental resources to improve performance of followers. These behaviors are relevant to flat, flexible, team-based structures which have to integrate with other teams. They build the ownership, involvement and commitment of people and nurture their contribution. They improve the High Performance Leadership 51 Paul Robinson
  56. 56. performance of people through development of their skills and creation of an atmosphere of learning. When these behaviors are not well developed, an organization can become fragmented and less than the sum of its parts. For an organization which relies on the quality of its people, under-development of this cluster represents an absolute limit to its growth. Leaders train others to become leaders. They believe in and trust the people who follow them. They share, delegate, give and share credit to others for their ideas and contributions. 2. Inspirational role. People based leader are others oriented and they work on their followers through coaching and mentoring. High Performance Leadership 52 Paul Robinson
  57. 57. The behaviours in this cluster relate particularly to building confidence and excitement throughout the team and are crucial to achieving ‘buy in’ to ideas. In a crisis where decisions are required quickly, these behaviours create an atmosphere of confidence within the team. Without these behaviours you will see confusion, pessimism and lack of direction. Leaders listen to the counsel of others. They listen to the criticism of others. They are not defensive. They don't get angry nor do they wilt away. They accept and even welcome impute from others for they know it is a way to make the situation better or themselves better. 3) People based leaders take the role of a servant more than the master. This is a biggie. Leaders actually serve. They care about others they are willing to get their hands dirty. They come alongside people and get their hand and feet muddy. They don't sit in their office just giving orders for someone else to do it. They are willing to show people how to get it done. This develops loyalty in an organization. The objective of this leadership style is to create an atmosphere where self actualization kicks in as a driving force for many people in the organization. People do not want to be told as what to do. They like to be asked and needed. This increases their self confidence and moreover in people based leadership glory of achievement is shared among people. People based leadership has its own flows as well. Leaders tend to give undue lenience to people in this leadership behavior. Leaders develop impractical High Performance Leadership 53 Paul Robinson
  58. 58. approaches to people expecting that others will do the job even if it is not monitored. They become too dependable on others and this allows others to make mistakes and at times costly ones are made. Few employees will take undue advantage of a situation as people based leadership is observed as naïve leaders. There are many great leaders, and many different ways to lead. One way to lead people is leading by focusing on people. As a leader your people are your most valuable asset, knowing this is a big step to being a great leader. A true leader find ways to help others to become more. Leaders do not lead businesses they lead people. People will work for organizations where they are cared and appreciated. They will stick with you when they feel you help them to be more than they thought they could be. In people oriented leadership, leaders create an environment for every one in the organization to perform at their highest potential. The focus is on people performance. High Performance Leadership 54 Paul Robinson
  59. 59. Chapter Six SYSTEM BASED FUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP SYSTEM BASED LEADERSHIP is a principle centered leadership. It is functional and it is based primarily on the system and strategy. System based leaders are excellent planners and administrators who get the job done by a collective effort of various departments more than people. The whole functions of performance is expected from every individual and they are systematized in this leadership style. There is a unified and harmonic operation between departments. Leadership is exercised through a cordial co-ordination of activities of individuals and groups. This leadership style can be compared to the orchestra conductor who skillfully conducts his orchestra in co-ordination and harmony. System based leaders are great planners with long term vision. They set priorities and assign the job to various departments in an organization to achieve goals that are collectively formed. High Performance Leadership 55 Paul Robinson
  60. 60. Strategy orientation is the key behavioral skill of a system based leadership. They look at business from a strategic point of view and they define targets according to timely executed plan. They make constant analysis of past and current behavior and they devise new strategies for winning customers, markets, products and services. They have a visionary planning method of looking at a future scenario. They make decisions based on the issues that are likely to arise in the future and they get their decisions managed by their followers. This type of leadership may not take the quantum leap of change like the action based leaders, but they do re-engineer their organization from time to time. Change is slow in this environment due to high administrative entanglements. There will be approval procedures from different department before they make a decision. System leadership seeks approval and collective leadership is the result of this outcome. System leaders are great innovators. They make their recommendations from time to time. They analyze, mull over the details before any decision is made. There is also a time delay in decision making compared to action based leaders due to the system in place. System leaders can manage tasks that are huge. Collective and synchronized action is the key to performance. There will be procedures to follow and everyone abides to certain rules and protocols. This leadership style is ideal for operations where large departments are to be coherently administered. High Performance Leadership 56 Paul Robinson
  61. 61. System leadership has a major responsibility in being the head and does all the thinking part for organizational growth and stability. The process of thinking is done primarily in three ways: 1) Information Search, 2) Concept formation and 3) Conceptual Flexibility. The three behaviours in this cluster are crucial to strategy formation, planning and the ability to see the '‘bigger picture’. Whilst they make the highest contribution to performance they are often the least developed and least valued in most organizations. Information Search means gathering many different kinds of information by using a wide variety of sources to build a rich informational environment in preparation for decision-making in the organization. Concept Formation is building frameworks or models, forming concepts, hypotheses or ideas on the basis of information. System leadership is acutely aware of patterns, trends and cause / effect relations by linking information from various departments. Conceptual Flexibility means Identifying feasible alternatives or multiple options in planning and decision-making while holding options in focus simultaneously and evaluating their pros and cons. Once all the thinking is done, they evaluate the pros and cons and decide up on the maximum upsides versus many downsides of options. In this scenario followers from various divisions and departments can make valid suggestions based on the feedback they receive from customers, employees and shareholders. High Performance Leadership 57 Paul Robinson
  62. 62. The successful behaviors of system based leadership are: 1) Setting SMART performance goals. Leadership is simply the ability to turn a dream or a vision of a desired future state into a reality with and through the cooperation of other people. To throw your life into something worthwhile, your dream must be worth pursuing. It all starts with a great vision, something beyond your capabilities to keep you challenged and motivated. The driving force of any leadership course is an inspiring vision. A vision gives you a sense of direction, gives you the ability to look beyond what is to what should be and serves as a goal motivation to bring about exciting results. Forming vision is having a great emphasis on future directions and moving people towards shared dreams. It is very effective in giving cohesion to groups of people by providing clear directions and objectives. It is group centered behavior and requires better than average communication skills. Having a vision is not everything, translating a vision into a bundle of goals and action list and getting the results means realistic vision. High Performance Leadership 58 Paul Robinson
  63. 63. "Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality" advises Warren Bennis, a world renowned authority on leadership. Once the vision is formed, vision is translated into several outcomes or results. Then a list of goals is formed along with several strategies to achieve that outcome. Smart performance goals are set for others to achieve. It is called SMART goals because these goals are Specified, Manageable, Attainable, Result focuses and Time bound. High Performance Leadership 59 Paul Robinson
  64. 64. 2)Principle orientation High Performance leadership in a system based leadership is controlled by certain principles and practices everyone abides by within the organization. They are often called as best practices. Principles are stressed on performance and it is the principles that determine the collective outcome. High performance leadership applies continuous performance improvement as a core value of the organization. Most of the high performance behavior is motivated by core values of an individual, as the individual strive to become the ideal. When you apply continuous performance improvement you will be doing things differently to achieve the result you want. In any work environment people refuse to do things differently. As every one is creatures of habits we all learn certain way of functioning and exercising responsibilities. When you don’t get the performance you want ask yourself a question ‘What can I do now differently to improve my performance? Principle orientation is goal orientation with an outcome in mind. Most of the outcomes they reach are value enhancing for customers, employees and shareholders. When principles are in place certain benchmark of performance is already predetermined by everyone and accepted as best practices. This usually upgrade the homeostasis of the organization rather than challenging them or changing them. 3) Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research On going review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting edge in business. Conducting and High Performance Leadership 60 Paul Robinson
  65. 65. evaluating research is an important way of planning and being prepared for the future. Excellent leadership is always pro active rather than reactive. Responsive behavior is encouraged in system leadership. Employees and followers are asked to evaluate and asked to give suggestions and recommendations to do things better. 4) Consideration: It is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern for subordinates. 5) Reward Behavior: The extent to which a leader provides his subordinates with compliments, tangible benefits and desired specific treatment. 6) Punishment Behavior: The leader's use of reprimands or unfavorable tasks assignments and active with holding of rewards. High Performance Leadership 61 Paul Robinson
  66. 66. 7) Monitor Employee Performance. Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted ways. Policies and procedures need to be clear. Conferencing should be on a regular basis and not just when there is a problem. Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or viewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Individual and group conferencing should be undertaken not only to monitor performance, but with the expectation of on going professional development and support. There should be frequent encouragement and clear criteria for on going goals both for the group and individual. 8) Creativity. When vision drives action oriented leaders it is creativity that drives system based leaders. High Performance Leadership 62 Paul Robinson
  67. 67. Creativity is a main hub in the ability of organizations to maintain a competitive advantage. It looks at the degree to which inhibitors such as organizational designs as well as leadership style may positively or negatively affect creativity in organizations. For organizations to be empowered to survive leaders and followers should seek after "creativity." This is an individual's ability to conceive of or conjure new ideas, which can benefit society. It is the center of innovativeness, the momentum behind organizational success. Failure to encourage and embrace creativity within contemporary organizations may be viewed as creating conditions that are conducive to organizations failures. 9) Feedback. Leaders should be willing to evaluate and implement employees' ideas; employees will very likely feel valued, self-esteem will soar and self- confidence will grow. 10) Brainstorm. Leaders should be willing to create brainstorm workshops and seminars where employees are free to verbalize and visualize their creative endeavors. While it is important for leaders to be able to find solutions to problems, they should also provide employees the opportunity to problem-solve. Roosevelt said it best, a good leaders picks good men to do the job he wants done and self-restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it. It is also important that leaders recognize employees' accomplishments, because as the old adage goes "success breeds success.". Success is celebrated together and blame is shouldered as accountability singularly to the leader. High Performance Leadership 63 Paul Robinson
  68. 68. System based leadership is ideal for a large organization which has several departments and divisions. This is system developed by collective owned enterprises where a board of directors has stronger power over the CEO. This system is effective in managing change rather that creating change. The downside of this style is also several. On a due course of time this system becomes static in performance. Even though innovation is advocated in this model, the actual realization of change takes time due to delayed execution. There are approval seeking behaviors and leaders often have to sacrifice their staunch believes and decisions against compromises. This is a shared authority situation, where the system has more authority than the leader. This leadership style has a democratic tone to it. This is highly suitable for managing operations. It is also ideal where integration is important in an organization. Complex tasks are managed through a systemized approach of chunking tasks. In a factory environment where, design, production, distribution, sales and management are involved a systemized leadership is brought in to simplify operations. But taken to the extreme system based leadership can become a highly bureaucratic enterprise where you hardly see the leader’s fingerprint anywhere. High Performance Leadership 64 Paul Robinson
  69. 69. Chapter Seven CREATING CHANGE IN EVOLVING LANDSCAPES CHANGE IS OFTEN viewed as a dreaded word, as it means moving out of a comfort zone, going into the unknown, encountering challenges and finding appropriate measures of dealing with the challenges. There are two types of belief system and people act on either of them. One is a law of permanence. This states that nothing is going to change and everything stays the same forever. The other is the law of change. Everything is subjected to change and change is constant. The latter law is very true and individuals who act up on this law succeed in any environment. What about the law of permanence? That is total crap. I made it up. There is nothing like the law of permanence but sadly as a matter of fact majority of people blindly follow this. High Performance Leadership 65 Paul Robinson
  70. 70. Everything is subjected to change. What we experience is a subjective experience of a reality that is shifting every time we observe it. Change is a natural process. In a changing environment leaders must have the mind set to revise new information and adapt to new behaviors. Flexibility and adaptation has kept human beings on top of the food chain in the evolutionary process through out several millenniums. Organizations that constantly change, adapt, revise, reframe and re-engineer their ways of conducting business will eventually evolve and become market leaders. The one that is resisting change and being caught up in the indecision model of red tapes will suffer and go extinct for their reluctance to adhere nature's ruling principle of change. Change is a challenge. We are all as humans resist and fear change. Change is a threatening proposition to any comfortable way of doing things. Our comfort zones are not easy to break. The pattern has a strong foot on our neuro- system. We are all creatures of habits and any change is unwelcome by human nature. Nature has devised this behavioral formation in order to protect us from potential dangers. Anything that is unknown is observed with fear and opposed strongly. The very reason that change often happens in slow motion in a rapidly changing world is because of the fact that changes go through three stages before it is actualized. First anything that denotes change is violently opposed, secondly they are ridiculed by everyone and finally they are accepted by everyone else. High Performance Leadership 66 Paul Robinson
  71. 71. In the Middle Ages changes were slow. Change picked up the pace after the Renaissance period. After Industrial revolution, the speed of change increased it’s tempo. After Information Revolution a faster pace is set that many fail catch up to the changes and act according to the times. Today change is more shocking and faster than a man's ability to comprehend and understand it. But today what is driving higher performance is nothing but through change. Change is everywhere. People are changing the way they communicate and the way they do business. Constant Innovation has become the key to outperform competitions. Successful change begins with leaders. They should model the change the wish to see by being visionary, persuasive and consistent examples. Once leaders are change-ready, employees are likely to follow, the end result -change becomes a team effort. Leaders can tailor their styles by first modeling the change they wish to see. How? Simple! Provide opportunities for employees to become a part of the decision-making process. High Performance Leadership 67 Paul Robinson
  72. 72. Change will continue to be a permanent fixture presently and futuristically. Creativity and innovation will continue to be the key driving forces behind products and services, as organizations continue to meet the demands of a novelty seeking populace. The onus now resides with leaders; they should identify obstacles to organizational success and make serious inroads to remove these barriers. Leaders are agents of change. Today everyone talks a great deal about creating change and the challenge still remains on how an effective change can be brought in. Creating change involves various processes. The major steps as follows: High Performance Leadership 68 Paul Robinson
  73. 73. Step one: Find out the reasons for change. There has to be a major why behind changing anything. People need reasons to change and if the reasons are not compelling enough people are not willing to change. People are willing to change when they feel they are threatened. It is only major pain that can change people in comparison to the pain of changing itself. Most People are willing to change at the last minute, often during the crisis when they hit an emotional threshold. As a leader the challenge of leadership is to make others realize the crisis ahead of times, if they are not willing to change now. Create enough reasons why change is imminent and very important. Once you get this step clear and ready move to the next step Step two: Paint a better scenario of the future. This is creating a scenario, or a situation that through change, everyone will embark on a better favorable scenario or situation. The proposition of the vision or the painted scenario must be better than the current scenario you are trying to change. Everyone loves growth, improvement and profits. The scenario you propose must be better than the current statuesque. This is attaching pleasure to an outcome. People are willing to give up what is painful to embrace anything that is pleasurable. That is a human nature. Once vision is presented to people, obviously there will be questions and judgments raised in contrast to what you are proposing. Then you must deploy the next step Step three: Tell them how People will believe in any option or plans as long as you have the best laid plans and strategies are High Performance Leadership 69 Paul Robinson
  74. 74. convincingly presented to support them. People get rational and question about an abstract vision. Strategy and action plan must be presented in cogent manner for people to accept that the proposition you offer for change is achievable. Vision without plan of action is mere hallucination. Once people believe in your ability to create change, take the support of followers to the next step Step Four: Decisions and making change happen. Once you decide to create the change you desire, you can begin to manage your decisions by others. Remember people need enough reasons to change their behaviors and once you propose a new set of behaviors, they are willing to substitute with new set of behaviors. Once people experience results their conviction is reinforced and they will move as force to create the change together. Step five: Manage change Change requires constant revisions and adjustments. They need to be managed. It is important to reinforce the behavior and conditioned patterns in people. There is always a possibility to snap back to an old pattern of thinking, feeling and doing. When you manage change you focus on constant reinforcement of change in every area of management. Change can not persist if it only takes place on peripheral levels. It must get deeper and function at all levels. Every change commands a new belief system, a new set of behaviors and new set of practices that deliver results better and faster than ever before. High Performance Leadership 70 Paul Robinson
  75. 75. One of the finest ways to implement change is re- engineering the conditioned believes and practices in work environment. People have been conditioned to do certain things over several years and certain practices over centuries altogether. An interesting finding in human psychology in context to performance is that- people behave in accordance to their belief system. We all do everything to prove that we are right according to our belief system. Any major change in transformational leadership is the change in beliefs. Every belief we have is supported by facts. We have acquired these facts whether they are true or false over the time of upbringing. We think, feel and act in certain way in consistency with our beliefs whether it is true or not. High Performance Leadership 71 Paul Robinson
  76. 76. Our beliefs have already created a preset point for our performance. We behave and perform in a manner that is predictable by these preset points. All of us have a preset point. This point is like a thermostat for an air conditioner. A thermostat has a preset temperature setting and any changes in temperature is reinstated by the thermostat. Thermostat works in consistency with the preset temperature point. Any changes in temperature in a room is consistently readjusted by its thermostat. Human behaviors are more or less the same, always getting readjusted when change is encountered. We have certain pre set points to everything we believe. We have a preset point that tells how much we can eat, how much we can earn, how much tasks we can accomplish everyday or what we are capable of and what is possible by us. Since these predicaments and self concepts are preset, the challenge of any change in leadership is pushing the bar of performance or changing the preset points of performance. High Performance Leadership 72 Paul Robinson
  77. 77. In high performance leadership, the first challenge lies in assessing the current behaviors and measuring results and outcome it produces. Secondly to achieve a desired outcome, one must change the thermostat of every individual performance including one's own to a level of achievable goal and vision. Before evolution takes place in external circumstances, involution must be imposed within the frame of references. Change occurs first in the human mind and then it happens in reality. Making that shift in the mind is a challenge, but it is possible if you know where performance is currently set. Change in any nature is an expansion of mind. There are limiting set points for performance and achievements. Once those limitations are substituted with new set of beliefs, people are driven to achieve more. Ultimately high performance is a shift of believes. New set of believes override the limiting ones and new behaviours are installed to deliver results. Today’s evolutionary leadership looks for major shifts and outcomes. It is not about doing better than others in a competitive environment. It is doing it better than the way it was done earlier. The only challenge is constant improvement ie, competing with one own earlier preset performance. Imagine if we could improve 1% everyday in what we do, that is 365% performance growth in a year. The real analysis is in one’s own productive behaviors more than analyzing the competition. When you tend to do better than High Performance Leadership 73 Paul Robinson
  78. 78. your completion, later they will also out beat you by doing it better. When you out beat your performance to a new quantum level, you not only set a standard but also a bench mark, hard to be imitated by your competition. Supremacy is built through out performance, by raising your level of performance in a consistent manner. In this case you not only become the agent of change, you also become the change itself. Change results are manifested in the future but the process of change is in the present. People tend to do crazy things under pressure. Their behavior becomes irrational under pressure. A chaotic time will demand change but people tend to make wrong decisions under pressure. The best way to avoid that is to perceive future chaos and take a preparatory step by arming your organization with right strategies and decisions before the unfortunate event takes place.Today companies must perceive change well in advance even before they appear. High Performance Leadership 74 Paul Robinson
  79. 79. Often time’s leaders experience their major opposition to change from their managers. This is because of the core managerial function. Managers preserve the statusquo that leaders are changing. Change is an emotional event. When you talk about change everyone in the organization tend to go panic at first. If you make a statement like ‘there is going to be some changes around here!’, what is immediately understood by others could be lay offs. Every time when leaders apply a new vision in their organization they are creating a change. Vision is the picture of the future. Change is the medium to take that picture into a reality. High Performance Leadership is about creating the change to increase performance standards of individuals and organizations. High Performance Leadership 75 Paul Robinson
  80. 80. Chapter Eight LEADERSHIP IS DEVELOPED ‘To be a leader is to be a beginner’ -DENNIS WAITELEY World’s foremost authority in human potential development. TO BECOME A leader, you have to be able to work with others, able to influence others, have an effective communication line with others so that you can achieve all of your vision and goals. Although this may sound easy, it actually isn't. I do not say that it is impossible too!. Anyone can become an effective leader. That is what leadership development is about. Anyone can. We are a bundle of limitless potential, when harnessed and channeled for anything, we become a possibility. We can be anything we want to be. That is the privilege of being human. A tree can become nothing but a tree, a bear can become nothing but a grown up bear, but man can become anything. That is the privilege the nature has designed for us. Then why not use it.. High Performance Leadership 76 Paul Robinson
  81. 81. In order to become or evolve into being something, the first step is to have a deep understanding of oneself. Becoming aware of your strong and weak areas are key points in leadership development. By knowing your weak points, you can start working on them so that you could either get rid of them or turn them into positive characteristics. If you have difficulty working on your weak points then you must seek out partnership with someone who can complement you on areas that you are weak and work with them as a team. This also goes the same for your strengths. You can complement your expertise where it is wanted. Today leadership is not about singularity of objectives and goals. It is more about collective action through partnership and synergy to accomplish a common objective. Leadership is about working together, and the major challenge is in relating with various kinds of people with diverse interests and culture. As a leader you need to influence other people, directing their efforts to the attainment of the shared vision. To influence others first you must know what is already influencing them. To understand what is already influencing them, you must relate with them and connect with them. Having a great rapport with other people give you a peek into their world and the values they have been raised and the principles they are holding on to. Once you understand and appreciate their world, you will eventually learn to use the leverage of changing their behaviors. Leaders tend to have an effect on other people and at the same time they are affected by others. It is a two High Performance Leadership 77 Paul Robinson
  82. 82. way street. There is so much of giving and taking. There are transactions and deals made. Relationships are built by mutual respect and faith. Most of the decisions are emotionally driven as people choose to trust in a leader’s ability and vision. The whole impact of leadership is controlled by several emotional states of mind. What distinguishes an effective leader from the rest of the pack is their right psychology of mind- energy. Leaders are high energy people. Followers are attracted to high energy. Enthusiasm is the nature of High Performance Leaders. Charisma is often attributed to their dialect of influencing others with their words. Emotional intelligence give them an edge over everyone to truly connect with people form different backgrounds and differences. An outstanding communication skill is often the common attribute to great leadership. Having good communication with your team mates is the key to get High Performance Leadership 78 Paul Robinson
  83. 83. through each other and achieve optimum project results at a faster rate. With this kind of attribute, you, as a leader, will be able to avoid and resolve issues before they even occur. Sometimes, in order to achieve good leadership development, you have to hear professional opinions about how you lead or work with other people. Feedbacks are essential. Feed backs tell you where you are currently performing as a leader. If you know where you are- you will surely can navigate your way to where you want to be. Of course, you can't just be a leader in an instant. You have to find it in your heart the urge to be one. People who are being looked up by others should consider this as an opportunity and honor to step into the shoes of a leaders. There are leadership development programs, go and attend seminars and workshops about leadership. Read as much as you can. Great leaders are great readers. Leadership is about quality communication. To improve your communication, you must improve the content of your communication. Great contents are delivered from great minds. Learn and grow. Education is a never ending process. Leaders need to be revised and updated on time. Decision making is done through the maximum analysis of data available and after plunging into information, leaders decide. Decide to be a high performance leader. High Performance Leadership 79 Paul Robinson

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