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High Performance Leadership

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High Performance Leadership

  1. 1. HighPerformanceLEADERSHIP Leaders are what leaders do PAUL ROBINSON
  2. 2. POSITIVE REVOLUTION Copyright c 2009 Paul Robinson The moral right of the author has been asserted. All cartoons narrated in this work is by Randy Glasbergen Copyright c Randy Glasbergen All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any other means, withoutthe prior permission in writing of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and wiithout a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. Typeset in High Tower text Font By Revolution Designs Positive Revolution Books an imprint of Positive Revolution Inc ALSO BY THE AUTHOR THE LAW OF ATTRACTION MONEY MAGNETISM A DATE WITH YOUR DESTINY THE PSYCHOLOGY OF A WINNER MASTERY IN NEGOTIATION TACTICS SUPER SELLING Available in audio books from Positive Revolution
  3. 3. Acknowledgments NOTHING OF LARGE importance has never beencreated without the collective support of like mindedpeople. This book is an outcome of consistent research andthe collective contribution of positive revolution researchteam. I would like to extend my much gratitude to all ofthem. First and foremost the creative source from whereeverything flows and channeled through creativity. Next my collaborators at Positive Revolution, mypartners and specially Vanitha Ram, who took the extrahours from work to edit this book. Secondly my well wishers and friends. This book isdedicated to you for your continuing support. I thank all the participants of my seminars andworkshops. Thank you all for your valuable suggestionsand intriguing questions that has triggered many of therevelations in this work. To all the members of Positive Revolution, it has been anamazing experience to enter in some intelligent discussionwith you all. Every feed back I have received has helped meimprove better every time I speak and write. Finally to you, the reader. As intended as it may seem, Ibelieve you and I are kindred spirits, because I started ofmy development reading hundreds of books inmanagement and leadership and they have tremendouslyhelped to be improve my perceptions of reality.Together let us transform leadership together.Paul RobinsonBangalore, 2009
  4. 4. Contents Preface 1 Introduction 2 Chapter One High Performance Leadership 5 Chapter Two Deep Into the Leadership Data 10 Chapter Three Leadership is no Moral Science 16 Chapter Four Action Based Leadership 19 Chapter Five People Based Leadership 44 Chapter Six System Based Functional Leadership 55 Chapter SevenCreating Change In Evolving Landscapes 65 Chapter Eight Leadership is Developed 76 Conclusion 80 A Call for Action 83
  5. 5. Preface Wikipedias definition of leadership is:“The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". “Leadership is the ability to see things as they are, to see things as better than they are and then to make them as you see it.”"Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen." "A leader is a dealer in hope" - Napoleon Bonaparte The U.S. Army says a leader must "Be, Know, Do." The New York Fire Department says a leader is "First in, last out." Lee Iacocca says “A leader picks good people and sets the right priorities.” Jesse Jackson says, "Leadership has a harder job to do than just choose sides. It must bring sides together." “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” ~ John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States “Leaders are not what leaders are. Leaders are what leaders do” - High Performance Leadership High Performance Leadership 1 Paul Robinson
  6. 6. THERE ARE THOUSANDS of definitions about leadership and each year thousands of books and articles get published about leadership. Why another book?INTRODUCTION Leadership has been a curious subject for me for years. Amidst the bombardment of information it made me rethink on several grounds. First leadership was observed and studied on a common ground; later management gurus sliced leadership in to several pieces and objectively proved differences and variations from each other. Today they are joining the pieces back to reinterpret leadership on holistic grounds. Leadership has evolved over times and our understanding on the subject is still evolving. This book is not just another extension of leadership verbatim. I know that, there are thousands of books and articles published every year on the most sought after subject in management- leadership. Thousands of jargons and terms are invented every year to elaborate an innovative style or variable style of leadership to complement the changing times. High Performance Leadership 2 Paul Robinson
  7. 7. Terms like evolutionary leadership, transformational,change, innovative, collective leadership ,`strategicleadership`, `market leadership`, `team leadership`,`de-personalising` leadership and so on and many aregetting tied to this holistic band wagon. Not so surprisingly, people who research on thesubject of leadership come up with new jargons everytime adding a word from dictionary and prefixing itwith leadership. What you get is a new point of view, anew perspective highly refutable on managementcircles. This happens because the subject we aretalking is huge and everyone has a unique way ofexecuting their leadership function; let it be it is inmilitary, business or organizational or personal level. One point is very sure- A vast awareness of thesubject on leadership can however help you to evolveyour own personal leadership style. There is no one style, personality profile, orinteraction approach for an effective leadership.Leaders do come in "all shapes and sizes." Few candeny the effectiveness of leaders such as Golda Meir,Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi, Meg Whitman,Dr. Martin Luther King, Lee Iacocca, Oprah Winfrey,Jack Welch or Steve Jobs. They all had success andfew can deny that these leaders also differsignificantly. Each of us has different role models.Many people in leadership positions struggle withunderstanding what makes a great leader. Whilebillions of dollars are spent annually on leadershipdevelopment, quality leadership is still in shortsupply. This book is my attempt to light up clarityamong confusion. High Performance Leadership 3 Paul Robinson
  8. 8. We all know that nothing stays the same, but the rateof change in todays business world must beunprecedented. Weve seen the advent of globalcompetition, rapid technological development andwidespread political change. The business world hasmoved from being relatively stable and simple to beingincreasingly dynamic and complex. Organizationsnow face new challenges and leaders must perform athigh levels in today’s increasingly unpredictablesituations. This new world requires a new set of leadershipskills to ensure high performance and faster deliveredresults. The question is: can we identify leadership andteam behaviours that underpin outstanding performance indynamic, complex and competitive environments? Andmore than that, can people learn and develop these skills? The answer is Yes. It is possible. Leadership can betaught, coached and mentored to human perfection.That is what High performance leadership is all about.High Performance Leadership teaches you how to bean outstanding leader within your organizationenvied, loved and respected by others. The principlesand practices you learn in this book is based uponobservation and research from the foremostauthorities in the field of leadership. High Performance is the new paradigm for resultfocused organizations to create outstanding leaders fortodays changing and challenging times. High Performance Leadership 4 Paul Robinson
  9. 9. Chapter OneHIGH PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP. LEADERSHIP IS A rich and meaningful word. It stirs up a sense of idealism, excitement, hope and courage. It is a word that inspires us to be our best; a word that we associate with those who have made the greatest difference in our lives. It is a title everyone respects, it is a person others follow, it is a function highly pivotal in the success of any organized human endeavor. Leadership is an exciting subject over all. High performance Leadership is even more productive and exciting when you study them. That is a promise. Performance is a term usually used in automobile industry, like high performance cars like Ferrarri or Lamborghini. When it comes to utmost human performance the term is- peak performance, referred mostly in sports and athletics. To understand high performance leadership in detail, you must understand three words in this context ie ‘high’, ‘performance’ and ‘leadership.’ High Performance Leadership 5 Paul Robinson
  10. 10. Let me first elaborate the term high. The latin mottoof Olympic games- ‘altius, citius, fortius’ means higher,faster and stronger. It encompasses the wholerationale of Olympic Sports. This applies also to aperforming skill like leadership. Altius or higher is thefirst motto of Olympics. Soaring above the grounddefying gravity is a universally recognized challenge.In leadership to perform high means to set a goal aboveyour current functionality, higher than your currentperformance and achieve the perceived vision,through developing attitudes and aptitudes that willaccomplish the measured progress. We live in a time where bottom line results are notonly desired but are also very essential for survival.The demands for high performance are so heavilyplaced in today’s time. Mediocrity and averageperformance is no longer engaged in a competitiveenvironment. Today people and companies are onlykeen on breaking records, but also in increasing sharevalue, increasing customer’s trust and base. Everyorganization wants a high performer who will givethem the quantum leap of outstanding progress. Secondly this book is about performance. It is aboutthe behavior and not about the personality ofleadership. Performance is the result of a behavior.You judge performance as good or bad based on themeasurable results that are produced from a behavior.There is a huge difference between personality andbehavior. It is like the difference between ‘what you canand what you do.’ What ultimately produces result isthe result of an action or a behavior, not what you are High Performance Leadership 6 Paul Robinson
  11. 11. capable of. Therefore- the so called virtue and qualitiesof leadership take a back seat when it comes to theresult focused behavioral leadership. Behaviors are theactions you take and the decisions you make. You cancontrol these things and they are manageable becausethey are also measurable. On a broader sense leadership is about improvingpeople’s performance and performance is only judgedby results. You can only manage what is measurable.High performance leadership is measurable andmanageable. And the best part is, it can be taught. High level performance results from doing theright thing by the right person who possess the rightattitude and aptitude at the right time appliedsingularly or collectively. High Performance Leadership 7 Paul Robinson
  12. 12. These days a lot of leaders suffer from the ‘capabilitysyndrome’. They think they are capable of deliveringresults but they remain inactive. Capability does notequal results. You can be the person with all thequalities of a leader possessing all the skills a leader andyou can be the worst leader if you do not produce anyhigh optimum results. Remember results come fromaction. What you do is your behavior and what you are isyour personality. Results come from action. The worldwill not pay you for what you know or what you arecapable of; it pays you for what you do. No matter whatyour personality may be, the results always come frombehavior. Leadership is not about who you are. It is nota person. It is about what you do at your best.Personality is the simple word for characteristics andtraits and that alone will not make a high performanceleader. In fact personality is a poor predictor ofperformance. Because we all do different things whenwe are faced with different situations, regardless ofwhat our basic personality may be. However knowing a personality can predict arange of behavior in a person. Extensive researches into charecter traits of effective leaders have failed to findany correlation between one particular set of traits andsuccess. But on a behavioral level, a set of actions aperson may take can actually predict the level ofperformance. According to behavior kinetics there areset of performance blocking behavior in a person aswell as performance accelerating behaviors that make ahigh performer. High Performance Leadership 8 Paul Robinson
  13. 13. Thirdly high performance is about leadership.Academics and success of many organizations teach usthat one of the primary components of any organizedsuccess is great leadership. There are more than 500definitions about leadership and more than 1000theories to elaborate each of them. Indifference is thenew style to defining leadership. There are no writtenrules about it, because conventional knowledge aboutleadership is getting defied at this very moment as youread. High Performance Leadership 9 Paul Robinson
  14. 14. Chapter TwoDEEP INTO THE LEADERSHIP DATA LEADERSHIP IS AN interesting subject and a curious one too. After the Second World War, the US govt. sponsored a massive piece of research in to leadership. Prior to the war they believed that leaders are born and not made but the results taught them to disbelieve on the theory. The researchers had spent roughly a half a million dollars examining the behavior of a large number of officers, they concluded that leadership was comprised of two types of behavior: one was based on the tasks performed like taking action, getting the job done and getting results and the other was based on the behavior of a person who builds interpersonal relations with others like showing concern, aiding them for their development and being sensitive and attentive to others needs. There were two strong distinctions made in the behavioral aspects of leadership, one the task master- skilled person who gets the High Performance Leadership 10 Paul Robinson
  15. 15. job done and the other interpersonally skilled personwith people skills. Then later the third element wasfound- the leadership function and behavior ofintegration and coordination. Now there are three approaches to leadership. One isaction based that talks about initiating activities,driving for results and getting things done. The secondis people based, means show concern to people, and aidthem in their development. Thirdly the system basedleadership which is more like strategy oriented,integrating ideas and action, innovation and thinking.This is more like a functional aspect of leadership. All three types are suited for different situations.All these possess a set of attitudes and behaviours. Youcan develop a personal style best suited for yoursituation by combining three primary leadershipapproaches which I will be explaining in the followingchapters. Bottom line you can demonstrate a set ofattitudes and behaviors to reach the high performanceyou want. High Performance Leadership 11 Paul Robinson
  16. 16. What is interesting about these three types ofleadership style is that it has its core origin in humanpersonality. Core of personality is the cause andbehavior is the effect. Famous psychologist Sigmund Freud recognizedthat there are an almost infinite variety ofpersonalities, he identified three main types: erotic,obsessive, and narcissistic. Most of us have elements ofall three. We are all, for example, somewhatnarcissistic. If that were not so, we would not be able tosurvive or assert our needs. Freud’s definitions of personality types differedover time. When talking about the erotic personalitytype, however, Freud generally did not mean a sexualpersonality but rather ‘one for whom loving and aboveall being loved is most important’. This type of indivi- High Performance Leadership 12 Paul Robinson
  17. 17. -dual is dependent on those people they fear will stoploving them. They are driven by the human need forconnection and love. Their identity is an extension ofthe larger network of people they are connected to. Aspersonalities they are ‘outer directed people’, caringand supportive of others. These people develop a‘people oriented’ leadership style and they want to beloved by their followers. Obsessives, in contrast, are ‘inner-directed’. Theyare self-reliant and conscientious. They create andmaintain order and make the most effectiveoperational managers. They look constantly for waysto help people listen better, resolve conflict, and findwin-win opportunities. Obsessives are also ruled by astrict conscience—they like to focus on continuousimprovement at work because it fits in with their senseof moral improvement. As entrepreneurs, obsessive’sstart businesses that express their values, but they lackthe vision, daring, and charisma it takes to turn a goodidea into a great one. The best obsessives set highstandards and communicate very effectively. Theymake sure that instructions are followed and costs arekept within budget. Obsessives develop the systembased functional leadership style. Narcissistic types are ‘self directed’ people. They areindependent and not easily impressed. They are drivenby the need for significance and in business they gainpower and glory. There are productive andunproductive narcissistic leaders. The difference isbetween Bill Gates (productive) and Bin Laden(unproductive). Productive narcissists are experts in High Performance Leadership 13 Paul Robinson
  18. 18. but they go beyond it. They also pose the criticalquestions. They want to learn everything abouteverything that affects the company and its products.Unlike erotics, they want to be admired, not loved.And unlike obsessives, they are not troubled by apunishing superego, so they are able to aggressivelypursue their goals. They are the task masters. They getevery job done. They are driven by results.Achievement and results are their preferences overpeople and system. They will change the system, bendthe rules even manipulate their followers to get thework done. They are highly action oriented and theymake up the ‘action based leadership’ style. In High Performance Leadership, behavioralleadership is an outcome of certain personality or thecombination of the three core personality.Highperformance leadership can deliver manageable resultsthrough action based or people based or system basedleadership. All leaders have a part of their behaviortriggered either by action based or people based orsystem based leadership style from time to time.Leaders may adapt different styles as circumstancesand times of change. All leaders dominate any one ofthese behavior and their style of leadership changesdrastically and thus their performance and resultschange. Action oriented leadership is driven by the need forsignificance and significance is achieved by creatingchange. People based leadership is driven by humanvalues and the need for connection and love. Systembased leadership is driven by principles and the needfor certainty and they create an environment for best High Performance Leadership 14 Paul Robinson
  19. 19. practices and highly successful in driving proactivehuman behavior. In action based leadership every outcome iscontrolled but in people based leadership outcome isallowed. In system based leadership an outcome isgenerated. Action based leaders will say ‘do it” (action& result) to their teams, while people based leader willsay ‘let us do it’(work or play together) and systembased leaders create an environment for proactiveactions from everyone in the organization (job isduty). There are several variations in each of theseleadership styles. Each of them deliver results and youwill learn them in detail in the following chapters. High Performance Leadership 15 Paul Robinson
  20. 20. Chapter ThreeLEADERSHIP IS NO MORAL SCIENCE SCHOLARS SHOULD REMIND us that leadership is not a moral concept. Leaders are like the rest of us: trustworthy and deceitful, cowardly and brave, greedy and generous. To assume that all good leaders are good people is to be willfully blind to the reality of the human condition, and it severely limits our scope for becoming more effective at leadership. Worse, it may cause the leaders among us to kid themselves into thinking that, because they are leaders, they must be trustworthy, brave, and generous and that they are never deceitful, cowardly, or greedy. There is no infallibility with leaders. They are humans. Every human intention is variable. As it can be self orientation or other people orientation or even company orientation. No one can put a moral principle to any of these orientations. This is just the way it is. You can’t expect all the leaders to be respectful towards their followers or do all their administrative responsibilities. High Performance Leadership 16 Paul Robinson
  21. 21. For some leaders their primary function is to createmore followers but for other leaders it must be the taskof making more leaders. There is no good leadershipversus the bad one; there is only effective leadershipagainst the ineffective leadership. Some leaders areeffective at certain time and ineffective later. This is afunction determined by a situation and as situationvaries the style of leadership and leaders changeaccording to circumstances. Sir Winston Churchillwas a great leader for Britain under Second WorldWar, but he never got re-elected for a peaceful Britainafter the war re-election. Some leaders are effective forturbulent times to keep the homeostasis together andsome are effective in peaceful times for growth. Someleaders make the best for crisis times and some forcrucial changing times and others for maintaining thestatus-quo.Human needs like certainty, uncertainty andsignificance come and play at various situations. High Performance Leadership 17 Paul Robinson
  22. 22. Leaders are what leaders do. There is no moral scienceto it. There is no particular style to leadership. Onlything that matters is results. Leaders are there for areason and the purpose of leadership in any context isto deliver results. If there is a problem, the leader mustdeliver solution. When there is chaos, the leader mustdeliver order. When there is confusion, a leader mustbring clarity. When there is indecision, a leader musttake the decision even if there is no evident answer.That is decision making. Leaders make the decisionstoday and they get their decisions managed by othersfor tomorrow. Each leaders lead differently. Leaders dont just leadfrom the front they lead from all angles. They push,they pull they tug from the sides. Leaders just do what-ever it takes to get results. Leadership is not only about having power but it isalso about giving power. The most important thing toremember is that leaders are not always born. Leadersare also made. In today’s times leaders are emerged.They emerge because something outstanding in aperson can not be hidden for long. They are also madeby manipulations. They are voted or elected. Leadersspring up everyday. The effective ones are lookedupon. The ineffectives are tolerated or violentlyopposed or forgotten in the sands of time. The one thatdeliver results are admired by everyone. Nobody canput down a productive leader who delivers results.That is just the way it is. I believe that highperformance is in. Ultimately everyone wants to bethe part of the winning team that is performing aboveall High Performance Leadership 18 Paul Robinson
  23. 23. Chapter FourACTION BASED LEADERSHIP LEADERS ARE MADE of action. In an organization individuals at all level exert their influence over the behaviors of others and customers and they are influencing the action part of the leadership where the job has to be done, where the task has to be completed. Action based leaders are powered by their narcissistic personality. They are skilled orators and creative strategists who want to influence a group by attracting followers. These leaders also possess high linguistic intelligence that gives them a command over language and people. They are driven by the need for significance. They make their stamp of significance by making large contributions to the world. One major key to achieving significance is to do the most daring thing in any situation. Creating change is a significant event. Change leaders (as often called as) are action based High Performance Leadership 19 Paul Robinson
  24. 24. leaders. They turn around and re-engineerorganizations. They also become founders of neworganizations. Companies they lead or managebecome their self extension of character and charisma.They love to transform. They want their impact felt inevery echelons of society. There is so much ofproductive narcissism that drives their behaviours.The only major reflection of their narcissism is increating the change they want to see. They want theirbrands to last longer and their leadership style tobecome a legacy. They are ambitious and even reachthe celebrity status. Sigmund Freud dubbed narcissistic- “People of thistype impress others as being ‘personalities,’” he wrote,describing one of the psychological types that clearlyfall within the range of normality. “They areespecially suited to act as a support for others, to takeon the role of leaders, and to give a fresh stimulus tocultural development or damage the established stateof affairs.” High Performance Leadership 20 Paul Robinson
  25. 25. Throughout history, narcissists have alwaysemerged to inspire people and to shape the future.When military, religious, and political arenasdominated society, it was figures such as NapoléonBonaparte, Mahatma Gandhi, and Franklin DelanoRoosevelt who determined the social agenda. Butfrom time to time, when business became the engineof social change, it, too, generated its share ofnarcissistic leaders. Freud also recognized that there is a dark side tonarcissism. Narcissists, he pointed out, areemotionally isolated and highly distrustful. Perceived High Performance Leadership 21 Paul Robinson
  26. 26. threats can trigger rage in them. Achievements canfeed feelings of grandiosity. That’s why Freud thoughtnarcissists were the hardest personality types toanalyze. Consider how an executive at Oracledescribes his narcissistic CEO Larry Ellison: “Thedifference between God and Larry is that God does notbelieve he is Larry.” That observation is amusing, butit is also troubling. Not surprisingly, most peoplethink of narcissists in a primarily negative way. Afterall, Freud named the type after the mythical figureNarcissus, who died because of his pathologicalpreoccupation with himself. Yet narcissism can be extraordinarily useful—evennecessary. Freud shifted his views about narcissismover time and recognized that we are all somewhatnarcissistic. There is productive and unproductive narcissism.Leaders such as Jack Welch and George Soros areexamples of productive narcissists. They are giftedand creative strategists who see the big picture andfind meaning in the risky challenge of changing theworld and leaving behind a legacy. Indeed, one reasonwe look to productive narcissists in times of greattransition is that they have the audacity to pushthrough the massive transformations that societyperiodically undertakes. Productive narcissists are not only risk takerswilling to get the job done but also charmers who canconvert the masses with their rhetoric speeches. Thedanger is that narcissism can turn unproductive when,lacking self-knowledge and restraining anchors,narcissists become unrealistic dreamers like Hitler. High Performance Leadership 22 Paul Robinson
  27. 27. Productive narcissism is an outcome of selfawareness. Productive narcissists are great visionariesand they understand the vision thing particularly well,because they are by nature people who see the bigpicture. They are not analyzers who can break up bigquestions into manageable problems; they aren’tnumber crunchers either (these are usually theobsessives). Nor do they try to extrapolate tounderstand the future(like system basedleaders)—they attempt to create it. To paraphraseGeorge Bernard Shaw, some people see things as they areand ask why; narcissists see things that never were and askwhy not. Narcissists have vision. Only people with visioncan create or induce change. To create change one mustknow where they are and also must know where theyare headed. Vision gives you the ideal of a greatpicture. Narcissist leaders are visionaries—but that’snot enough. People in mental hospitals also havevisions. High Performance Leadership 23 Paul Robinson
  28. 28. The simplest definition of a leader is someonewhom other people follow. Indeed, narcissists areespecially gifted in attracting followers, and moreoften than not, they do so through language andemphatic speeches. Narcissists believe that words canmove mountains and that inspiring speeches canchange people’s beliefs and attitudes. Narcissisticleaders are often skillful orators, and this is one of thetalents that make them so charismatic. Indeed, anyonewho has seen narcissists perform can attest to theirpersonal magnetism and their ability to stirenthusiasm among audiences. Yet this charismatic gift is more of a two-way affairthan most people think. Although it is not alwaysobvious, narcissistic leaders are quite dependent ontheir followers—they need affirmation, and preferablyadulation. High Performance Leadership 24 Paul Robinson
  29. 29. That’s because charisma is a double-edged sword—itfosters both closeness and isolation. As he becomesincreasingly self-assured, the narcissist becomes morespontaneous. He feels free of constraints. Ideas flow.He thinks he’s invincible. This energy and confidencefurther inspire his followers. But the very adulationthat the narcissist demands can have a corrosive effect.As he expands, he listens even less to words of cautionand advice. The significant behavior of narcissistic leaders istheir action orientation. Action oriented leadership isperformance driven. Albert Schweitzer once said“Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it is theonly thing” This is the lead dog action in example in a dogsledteam. The lead dog is at the front of the team. It sets thepace. It provides the leadership and inspiration to otherdogs. In fact people will tend to do things if their bossesare doing the same thing. As the dictum goes ‘actionspeaks louder than words’. Action based leaders behave like the ‘lead dogs.’ thedifference between action based with other styles ofleadership is that, people based leaders behave like a‘gardener’ and system based leader behave like a‘shepherd’ to their followers. Action oriented behavior is also very competitive innature. In the high performance level they strive to bethe best, to deliver products and services faster, to gainmarket share, go higher to beat the competition, andcapture more consumers and markets and hold themetc. The list of successful behaviors of action orientedleaders are: High Performance Leadership 25 Paul Robinson
  30. 30. 1. Pro action - or taking initiative and driving forresults by getting things done.They are the advocators of action. They make theirfollowers to take action on ideas that are observedrisky. They push the limit by challenging people.2. Setting an example. Being the Pace setter. Actionoriented leader’ favorite dictum is ‘if I can do it, youcan do it too’3. Inspiring people with big vision. They make peoplenot only see the big picture but also make them believethey can achieve them.4. Setting clear performance targets. Also monitoringeach person’s performance against their targets.5. Challenging people to raise their goals. They makepeople do things that were once believed as impossible.This makes them boost the confidence of theirfollowers.6. Focusing on actions on areas where there is a clearimpact. They make priorities and action list for everyone to follow. Instructions are followed strictly. Rulesand standards are set for others to follow.7. Paying attention to details, (evaluation andmanagerial). They get into the minutest details ofimpact. They never leave any stone unturned. 8.Time bound delivery of results. They are on a raceagainst time. Pressure is increased to create the senseof urgency and an increase in productivity.9. Clear cut quick decisions. They are fast decisionmakers because they know that the buck stops withthem.10. Spontaneous action. They encourage spontaneity. High Performance Leadership 26 Paul Robinson
  31. 31. They expect others to do a good job. There is no delayin their work. They expect results on every deadlinethey set. Their dominant attitude is to win at any cost. Theydo not care for others feelings.’ I don’t care, just get itdone’ is their method of approaching a task even if it isperceived impossible. Failure is not encouraged byaction oriented people. Performance blocking behavior of action orientedleadership is many. Since they are task masters theydeemphasize team work. They can create a stressfulover worked environment literally keeping people ontheir toes. They demand more from their followers.They can be savagely witty in their remarks and oftenintimidating in their approach. Despite the warm feelings their charisma canevoke, action oriented narcissists are typically notcomfortable with their own emotions. They areselective listeners. They listen only for the kind ofinformation they seek to understand. High Performance Leadership 27 Paul Robinson
  32. 32. They don’t learn easily from others. They don’t like toteach but prefer to indoctrinate and make speeches.They dominate meetings with subordinates. Theresult for the organization is greater internalcompetitiveness at a time when everyone is alreadyunder as much pressure as they can possibly stand.Perhaps the main problem is that the narcissist’s faultstend to become even more pronounced as he becomesmore successful. Action based leaders believe in their actions andresults that they develop a sense of predicament totheir overall approach. They are highly sensitive tocriticism and because they are extraordinarilysensitive (don’t tell me what to do, just do what I say),narcissistic leaders shun emotions as a whole. Indeed, perhaps one of the greatest paradoxes in thisage of teamwork and partnering is that the bestcorporate leader in the contemporary world is the typeof person who is emotionally isolated. Narcissisticleaders typically keep others at arm’s length. They canput up a wall of defense as thick as the Pentagon. Andgiven their difficulty with knowing or acknowledgingtheir own feelings, they are uncomfortable with otherpeople expressing theirs—especially their negativefeelings. Indeed, even productive narcissists are extremelysensitive to criticism or slights, which feel to them likeknives threatening their self-image and theirconfidence in their visions. Narcissists are almost unimaginably thin-skinned.Like the fairy-tale princess who slept on manymattresses and yet knew she was sleeping on a pea, High Performance Leadership 28 Paul Robinson
  33. 33. narcissists—even powerful CEOs—bruise easily. Thisis one explanation why narcissistic leaders do not wantto know what people think of them unless it is causingthem a real problem. They cannot tolerate dissent. Infact, they can be extremely abrasive with employeeswho doubt them or with subordinates who are toughenough to fight back. Action oriented leaders are not empathetic towardstheir followers. Best-selling business writers todayhave taken up the slogan of “emotional intelligenceand competencies”—the belief that successfulleadership requires a strongly developed sense ofempathy. But although they crave empathy fromothers, productive narcissists are not noted for beingparticularly empathetic themselves. Of course, leadersdo need to communicate persuasively. But a lack ofempathy did not prevent some of history’s greatestnarcissistic leaders from knowing how tocommunicate—and inspire. Neither Churchill, deGaulle, Stalin, nor Mao Tse-tung were empathetic. High Performance Leadership 29 Paul Robinson
  34. 34. And yet they inspired people because of their passionand their conviction at a time when people longed forcertainty. In fact, in times of radical change, lack of empathycan actually be strength. A narcissist finds it easierthan other personality types to buy and sell companies,to close and move facilities, and to lay offemployees—decisions that inevitably make manypeople angry and sad. They have the least sentimentalattachments to their followers when it comes to thepriority of making profits. But narcissistic leaders typically have few regrets.As one CEO says, “If I listened to my employees’needs and demands, they would eat me alive.” Given this lack of empathy, it’s hardly surprisingthat narcissistic leaders don’t score particularly well onevaluations of their interpersonal style. What’s more,neither 360- degree evaluations of their managementstyle nor workshops in listening will make them moreempathic. Narcissists don’t want to change themselvesbut they want to change everything around them—and High Performance Leadership 30 Paul Robinson
  35. 35. as long as they are successful, they don’t think theyhave to. They may see the need for operationalmanagers to get touchy-feely training, but that’s notfor them. There is a kind of emotional intelligence associatedwith narcissists, but it’s more street smarts thanempathy. Narcissistic leaders are acutely aware ofwhether or not people are with them wholeheartedly.They know whom they can use. They can be brutallyexploitative. That’s why, even though narcissistsundoubtedly have “star quality,” they are oftenunlikable. They easily stir up people against them, andit is only in tumultuous times, when their gifts aredesperately needed, that people are willing to toleratenarcissists as leaders. When it comes to teamwork action oriented leaderswant followers who listen to their commands.Narcissistic leaders often say that they wantteamwork. What that means in practice is that theywant a group of yes-men. High Performance Leadership 31 Paul Robinson
  36. 36. Another demerit of action leaders is their lack ofinterest in mentoring others. Lack of empathy andextreme independence make it difficult for narcissiststo mentor and be mentored. Generally speaking,narcissistic leaders set very little store by mentoring.They seldom mentor others, and when they do theytypically want their protégés to be pale reflections ofthemselves.Most narcissists prefer “mentors” they can control.They do not follow advices they only listen toopinions and they make their own decisions with theirgut feeling above all rationale. Narcissistic leaders are relentless and ruthless intheir pursuit of victory. Games are not games but testsof their survival skills. As Donald Trump puts it ‘hireand keep the best people but never trust them’. Ofcourse, all successful managers want to win, butnarcissists are not restrained by conscience.Organizations led by narcissists are generallycharacterized by intense internal competition. Their High Performance Leadership 32 Paul Robinson
  37. 37. passion to win is marked by both the promise of gloryand the primitive danger of extinction. It is a potentbrew that energizes companies, creating a sense ofurgency, but it can also be dangerous. These leaders see everything as a threat. As AndyGrove puts it, brilliantly articulating the narcissist’sfear, distrust, and aggression, “Only the paranoidsurvive.” There is very little business literature that tellsnarcissistic leaders how to avoid the pitfalls. There aretwo reasons for this. First, relatively few narcissisticleaders are interested in looking inward. I haveidentified three basic ways in which productivenarcissists can avoid the traps of their own personality. 1) Find a trusted sidekick. Get a Mister#2 for Dr.Evil in Austin Powers’s movie. You can also get a’ minime’ for a likeable or cuter version of you. High Performance Leadership 33 Paul Robinson
  38. 38. Many narcissists can develop a close relationship withone person, a sidekick who acts as an anchor, keepingthe narcissistic partner grounded. However, given thatnarcissistic leaders trust only their own insights andview of reality, the sidekick has to understand thenarcissistic leader and what he is trying to achieve.The narcissist must feel that this person, or in somecases persons, is practically an extension of himself.The sidekick must also be sensitive enough to managethe relationship. Don Quixote is a classic example of anarcissist who was out of touch with reality but whowas constantly saved from disaster by his squireSancho Panza. Not surprisingly, many narcissisticleaders rely heavily on their spouses, the people theyare closest to. But dependence on spouses can be risky,because they may further isolate the narcissistic leaderfrom his company by supporting his grandiosity andfeeding his paranoia. High Performance Leadership 34 Paul Robinson
  39. 39. 2) A greater sense of Self-awareness can upholdaction oriented leadership to perform at the highestlevel. Since narcissistic leaders lack empathy, a strongunderstanding of one’s emotions, strengths,weaknesses, needs, and drives are essential. Peoplewith strong self-awareness are neither overly criticalnor unrealistically hopeful. Rather, they arehonest—with themselves and with others. People whohave a high degree of self-awareness recognize howtheir feelings affect them, other people, and their jobperformance. Self-awareness extends to a person’s understandingof his or her values and goals. The decisions of self-aware people mesh with their values; consequently,they often find work to be energizing. How can onerecognize self-awareness? First and foremost, it shows itself as candor and anability to assess oneself realistically. People with highself-awareness are able to speak accurately andopenly—although not necessarily effusively orconfessionally— about their emotions and the impactthey have on their work. Self awareness is not a trait you are born with but acapacity you develop throughout your lifetime. It’syour understanding of your strengths and weaknesses,your purpose in life, your values and motivations, andhow and why you respond to situations in a particularway. It requires a great deal of introspection and theability to internalize feedback from others. No one is born a leader; we have to consciouslydevelop into the leader we want to become. High Performance Leadership 35 Paul Robinson
  40. 40. One of the hallmarks of self-awareness is a self-deprecating sense of humor. Self-awareness can also be identified duringperformance reviews. Self-aware people know—andare comfortable talking about—their limitations andstrengths, and they often demonstrate a thirst forconstructive criticism. By contrast, people with lowself awareness interpret the message that they need toimprove as a threat or a sign of failure. Self-aware people can also be recognized by theirself-confidence. They have a firm grasp of theircapabilities and are less likely to set themselves up tofail by, for example, overstretching on assignments.They know, too, when to ask for help. And the risksthey take on the job are calculated. They won’t ask fora challenge that they know they can’t handle alone.They’ll play to their strengths. Furthermore, leaders are constantly required tomake judgment calls that require a candid assessmentof capabilities—their own and those of others. Do wehave the management expertise to acquire a competi- High Performance Leadership 36 Paul Robinson
  41. 41. -tior. Can we launch a new product within six months?People who assess themselves honestly—that is, self-aware people—are well suited to do the same for theorganizations they run. 3. Self-Regulation.Biological impulses drive our emotions. We cannot doaway with them—but we can do much to managethem. First of all self-regulation, which is like anongoing inner conversation, is the component ofemotional intelligence that frees us from beingprisoners of our feelings. People engaged in such aconversation feel bad moods and emotional impulsesjust as everyone else does, but they find ways to controlthem and even to channel them in useful ways. Secondly, self-regulation is important forcompetitive reasons. High Performance Leadership 37 Paul Robinson
  42. 42. Everyone knows that business today is rife withambiguity and change. Companies merge and breakapart regularly. Technology transforms work at adizzying pace. People who have mastered theiremotions are able to roll with the changes. When anew program is announced, they don’t panic; instead,they are able to suspend judgment, seek outinformation, and listen to the executives as theyexplain the new program. As the initiative movesforward, these people are able to move with it.Sometimes they even lead the way. High Performance Leadership 38 Paul Robinson
  43. 43. ACTION BASED LEADERSHIP FOR CHANGE Whatever may be the flows of action orientedleaders, they are famous for creating change anywherethey are. People with narcissistic ideals often seemrestless with the status quo. They are persistent withtheir questions about why things are done one wayrather than another; they are eager to explore newapproaches to their work. Since continuous change isnot a natural condition of life, hence resistance tochange is a healthy human instinct. Bringing change to any human condition is a majourchallenge. This is the challenge action leadership iscapable of handling better than everyone else. Changeinstills fear in followers. Therefore the process ofcreating change is vital. There is an educative processbefore change happens. Since action based leadershipboast of oratory skills, this makes it easier fornarcissist to inspire change among followers. Today’s times action oriented leadership has takena new definition with regard to productive narcissismas change leaders. Change leaders followTransformational Leadership. Transformationalleadership theories are based on the idea of some formof collaborative greater good. There are skills andqualities that are needed in change management. Theeffect of these qualities on people undergoingsignificant organizational change can be summarizedas: (1) Building an awareness of the value andimportance of tasks. (2) Focusing their minds on group objectives ratherthan just personal interests. High Performance Leadership 39 Paul Robinson
  44. 44. (3) Appealing to and activating their aspirationalneeds. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transformational Leadership is particularlyrelevant to successful change management - especiallyin situations of major change. Transformationalleadership is about raising consciousness. In practicalterms this is all about encouraging people to becomeconscious and aware of what they feel, to feel itstrongly and to do so in a context where their valueshave been defined in such a way that they can bemotivated and encouraged to take constructive action.It takes tenacity to tame cynicism, mass ignorance andfear. Narcissists thrive in chaotic times. they lovedanger and uncertainty because they are adventurouspeople by nature. Action oriented leaders can motivate theirfollowers. Interestingly, people with high motivationremain optimistic even when the score is against them.In such cases, self-regulation combines with achieve- High Performance Leadership 40 Paul Robinson
  45. 45. -ment motivation to overcome the frustration anddepression that come after a setback or failure. It’s not difficult to understand how and why amotivation to achieve translates into strongleadership. If you set the performance bar high foryourself, you will do the same for the organizationwhen you are in a position to do so. Likewise, a driveto surpass goals and an interest in keeping score can becontagious. Leaders with these traits can often build ateam of managers around them with the same traits.And of course, optimism and organizationalcommitment are fundamental to leadership—just tryto imagine running a company without them. Very often leadership is mostly familiar withactivities like moving forward, creating change,vision and constantly improving up on results. Butthere is another dimension to leadership which is thestewardship behavior and function of leadership. High Performance Leadership 41 Paul Robinson
  46. 46. STEWARDSHIP FUNCTION OF LEADERSHIP The stewardship function is where most actions arecarried out; it is the sustenance factor for anyorganization. A steward focus on sustainingperformance making sure that everything runs morethan ok. The performance at this level will greatlyaffect the entire functionality of leadership. These arethe arms that carry out the leadership in to action andin to measurable results. Most often we only knowabout the top leaders in organization, only their nameswill be heard often, but there are hundreds andthousands of leaders in their organization whosenames are not heard of, the people who really runthings, who really steer various operations in thebusiness. Every one is a leader whose actions affect thelarger body of an organization. Leadership is a body of collective action to fulfill acollective goal. Leadership is accelerated by action. Changes,improvements, winning work culture, increasedreturns all take place as a result of several actions. Onone side of leadership in action the performance isaccelerated to create changes with a set of successfulbehaviors and on the other end the performance issustained by the successful momentum of action. In asuccessful organization acceleration and sustenance gohand in hand through constant and never endingimprovements. Japanese call it kaizen. You can applythis in several areas. Consistent action on a particulardirection delivers results. Consistent improvementleads to better performance. High Performance Leadership 42 Paul Robinson
  47. 47. High Performance leadership delivers results throughaction. Productive narcissists are gutsy and fearless. Whatseparate them from the rest is their commitment toaction and the mantra of ‘do whatever it takes’ Major decisions of action based leaders are carriedout by support teams that follow either a system basedor people based leadership style. Action based leadership often exercised by foundersof small and large organizations. Their identitybecomes bigger than their organizations. It won’t besurprising to hear when an employee in Virgin says, ‘Iwork for Sir Richard Branson’s company rather thansaying he or she actually work for Virgin. The persona of narcists go further than theirorganization. All narcists are revolutionary by nature.They create change wherever they are. They wantpeople to remember them. They don’t form policiesfrom their subordinate’s suggestions. They imposetheir decisions on people because they believe it isright for them. Gandhi is a true productive narcissistic leader. Henever asked his followers what strategy they must useto get Britishers out of India. He formed his ownpolicies of non-violence and non-cooperation, and hetold the people to just follow them. Action oriented leaders are not only made of action,they also have a personal philosophy that drives theirbehavior. When the right philosophy is in coherencewith vision and action, action based leaders deliveramazing results. High Performance Leadership 43 Paul Robinson
  48. 48. Chapter FivePEOPLE BASED LEADERSHIP ACTION BASED LEADERSHIP is ‘self oriented narcissistic leadership’ but people based leadership is ‘others oriented’ driven by the human need to connect, love and contribute to other fellow humans. This is an enlightened level of leadership and a rare one at it. It is not so easy to find people these days who are ‘others’ oriented. This also reveals the higher purpose of leadership more refined in its true function of serving people. Prentice defined leadership as ‘the accomplishment of a goal through the direction of human assistants.’ The man who successfully marshals his human collaborators to achieve particular ends is a leader. A great leader is one who can do so day after day, and year after year, in a wide variety of circumstances. He may not possess or display power; force or the threat of harm may never enter into his dealings. He may not be popular; his followers may never do what he wishes out of love or admiration for him. He may not ever High Performance Leadership 44 Paul Robinson
  49. 49. be a colorful person; he may never use memorabledevices to dramatize the purposes of his group or tofocus attention on his leadership. As for the importantmatter of setting goals, he may actually be a man oflittle influence, or even of little skill; as a leader he maymerely carry out the plans of others. His unique achievement is a human and social onewhich stems from his understanding of his fellowworkers and the relationship of their individual goalsto the group goal that he must carry out. Theeffectiveness of Dale Carnegie’s famous prescriptionsin his ‘How to Win Friends and Influence People’ is agood example. Its major principle is a variation of theGolden Rule: “treat others as you would like to be treated.”While limited and oversimplified, such a rule is a greatimprovement over the primitive coercive approachesor the straight reward-for-desired-behavior approach. It is the- to understand and to be understoodapproach that give clarity, power and direction to thecompletion of a desired outcome in people basedleadership. High Performance Leadership 45 Paul Robinson
  50. 50. People based (or oriented) leadership is successful inany model where delegation of responsibility andaccountability is needed to achieve a collaborativeeffort. Great teams are managed with people basedleadership. These leaders treat their organization asan extended family. Everyone is respected and loved.There is job security and comfort created to everyemployee within the organization. People basedleaders encourages risk taking and personaldevelopment in the organization. They create highperformance teams. Other behaviors include: 1. Giving people credits for their achievement. 2. Asking others to perform and won’t use the ‘tellthem’ approach. 3. Creating a learning environment and learningfrom failures. High Performance Leadership 46 Paul Robinson
  51. 51. People based leadership focus on human development.They invest on their followers for further Training anddevelopment. 4. Focus on Employee retention and employee welfare.5. Soliciting ideas and suggestions from others as wellas rewarding them. What makes people based leaders is their ability toconnect with people. They have remarkable social skill.For them any human achievement is a collective workdone towards the attainment of a common goal. Socially skilled people tend to have a wide circle ofacquaintances, and they have a knack for findingcommon ground with people of all kinds—a knack forbuilding rapport. That doesn’t mean they socialize continually; itmeans they work according to the assumption thatnothing important gets done alone. Such people have anetwork in place when the time for action comes.Social skill along with empathetic skills is theculmination of the dimensions of emotionalintelligence. Behavioral scientists have pointed outthat on of the major key significant factors behind thesuccess of many leaders and managers are theiremotional intelligence. Emotional Intelligence is abigger factor than IQ when it comes to dealing withpeople and succeeding in any human environment.After studying several star performers with averageones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of thedifference in their profiles was attributable toemotional intelligence factors rather than cognitiveabilities. High Performance Leadership 47 Paul Robinson
  52. 52. Few researchers have confirmed that emotionalintelligence not only distinguishes outstanding leadersbut can also be linked to strong performance. From a scientific (rather than a popular) standpoint,emotional intelligence is the ability to accuratelyperceive your own and others’ emotions; to understandthe signals that emotions send about relationships; andto manage your own and others’ emotions. It doesn’tnecessarily include the qualities (like optimism,initiative, and self-confidence) that some populardefinitions ascribe to it. Of course, emotionalintelligence isn’t the only way to attain success as aleader: A brilliant strategist who can maximize profitsmay be able to hire and keep talented employees even ifhe or she doesn’t have strong personal connectionswith them. A decrease in ego can increase in the emotionalintelligence. Emotional intelligence is about caring forother people. It is not ‘me me me me’ it is ‘us us us us’.That is the primary shift. Empathy, sympathy,consideration, humility are all by products of this shiftin thinking and behavior. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Emotional intelligence can be learned. The process isnot easy. It takes time and, most of all, commitment.But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for theindividual and for the organization, make it worth theeffort. Of all the dimensions of emotional intelligence,empathy is the most easily recognized. We have all felt High Performance Leadership 48 Paul Robinson
  53. 53. the empathy of a sensitive teacher or friend; we haveall been struck by its absence in an unfeeling coach orboss. But when it comes to business, we rarely hearpeople praised, let alone rewarded, for their empathy.The very word seems un-businesslike, out of placeamid the tough realities of the marketplace. But empathy doesn’t mean a kind of “I’m OK,you’re OK” mushiness. Rather, empathy meansthoughtfully considering employees’ feelings—alongwith other factors—in the process of makingintelligent decisions. Empathy is particularly important today as acomponent of leadership for at least three reasons: theincreasing use of teams; the rapid pace ofglobalization; and the growing need to retain talent. Empathy plays a key role in the retention of talent,particularly in today’s information economy. Leadershave always needed empathy to develop and keep goodpeople, but today the stakes are higher. When goodpeople leave, they take the company’s knowledge withthem. That’s where coaching and mentoring come in. High Performance Leadership 49 Paul Robinson
  54. 54. COACHING AND MENTORINGIt has repeatedly been shown that coaching andmentoring pay off not just in better performance butalso in increased job satisfaction and increasedturnover. But what makes coaching and mentoringwork best is the nature of the relationship.Outstanding coaches and mentors get inside the headsof the people they are helping. To influence people,first you must know what is already influencing them.People based leaders are highly emotionallyintelligent and they sense how to give effectivefeedback. They know when to push for betterperformance and when to hold back. In this way theymotivate their protégés, they demonstrate empathy inaction. In what is probably sounding like a refrain, let merepeat that empathy doesn’t get much respect inbusiness. People wonder how leaders can make harddecisions if they are “feeling” for all the people whowill be affected. But leaders with empathy do morethan sympathize with people around them: They usetheir knowledge to improve their companies in subtlebut important ways. So what makes the people based leadership? Is itleading by feeling? People based leaders have greatersense of self awareness. They are driven by humanvalues of respect, empathy, motivation, love andcollaboration People tend to be very effective atmanaging relationships when they can understandand control their own emotions and can empathizewith the feelings of others. A deep feeling of empathy High Performance Leadership 50 Paul Robinson
  55. 55. with the urge to connect oneself to a large spectrum ofhuman network upbeats a leader’s social skill. Sociallyskilled people, for instance, are adept at managingteams—that’s their empathy at work. Likewise, theyare expert persuaders—a manifestation of self-awareness, self-regulation, and empathy combined.Given those skills, good persuaders know when tomake an emotional plea, for instance, and when anappeal to reason will work better. And motivation,when publicly visible, makes such people excellentcollaborators; their passion for the work spreads toothers, and they are driven to find solutions. Butsome-times social skill shows itself in ways the otheremotional intelligence components do not. Bottom-line People based leadership is aboutmanaging relationships effectively. No leader is anisland. After all, the leader’s task is to get work donethrough other people, and social skill makes that taskpossible. A leader who cannot express her empathymay as well not have it at all. In people based leadership style dominantperformance roles are:1)Developmental roles. Functions include buildingteams and developing People. They create a positiveclimate by providing coaching, training anddevelopmental resources to improve performance offollowers. These behaviors are relevant to flat,flexible, team-based structures which have tointegrate with other teams. They build theownership, involvement and commitment of peopleand nurture their contribution. They improve the High Performance Leadership 51 Paul Robinson
  56. 56. performance of people through development of theirskills and creation of an atmosphere of learning. When these behaviors are not well developed, anorganization can become fragmented and less than thesum of its parts. For an organization which relies onthe quality of its people, under-development of thiscluster represents an absolute limit to its growth.Leaders train others to become leaders. They believe inand trust the people who follow them. They share,delegate, give and share credit to others for their ideasand contributions.2. Inspirational role. People based leader are othersoriented and they work on their followers throughcoaching and mentoring. High Performance Leadership 52 Paul Robinson
  57. 57. The behaviours in this cluster relate particularly tobuilding confidence and excitement throughout theteam and are crucial to achieving ‘buy in’ to ideas. In acrisis where decisions are required quickly, thesebehaviours create an atmosphere of confidence withinthe team. Without these behaviours you will seeconfusion, pessimism and lack of direction. Leaders listen to the counsel of others. They listen tothe criticism of others. They are not defensive. Theydont get angry nor do they wilt away. They accept andeven welcome impute from others for they know it is away to make the situation better or themselves better.3) People based leaders take the role of a servantmore than the master. This is a biggie. Leaders actually serve. They careabout others they are willing to get their hands dirty.They come alongside people and get their hand andfeet muddy. They dont sit in their office just givingorders for someone else to do it. They are willing toshow people how to get it done. This develops loyalty in an organization. Theobjective of this leadership style is to create anatmosphere where self actualization kicks in as adriving force for many people in the organization.People do not want to be told as what to do. They liketo be asked and needed. This increases their selfconfidence and moreover in people based leadershipglory of achievement is shared among people. People based leadership has its own flows as well.Leaders tend to give undue lenience to people in thisleadership behavior. Leaders develop impractical High Performance Leadership 53 Paul Robinson
  58. 58. approaches to people expecting that others will do thejob even if it is not monitored. They become toodependable on others and this allows others to makemistakes and at times costly ones are made. Fewemployees will take undue advantage of a situation aspeople based leadership is observed as naïve leaders. There are many great leaders, and many differentways to lead. One way to lead people is leading byfocusing on people. As a leader your people are yourmost valuable asset, knowing this is a big step to beinga great leader. A true leader find ways to help others to becomemore. Leaders do not lead businesses they lead people.People will work for organizations where they arecared and appreciated. They will stick with you whenthey feel you help them to be more than they thoughtthey could be. In people oriented leadership, leaders create anenvironment for every one in the organization toperform at their highest potential. The focus is onpeople performance. High Performance Leadership 54 Paul Robinson
  59. 59. Chapter Six SYSTEM BASEDFUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP SYSTEM BASEDLEADERSHIP is a principlecentered leadership. It is functionaland it is based primarily on thesystem and strategy. System basedleaders are excellent planners andadministrators who get the job doneby a collective effort of variousdepartments more than people. Thewhole functions of performance isexpected from every individual andthey are systematized in thisleadership style. There is a unifiedand harmonic operation betweendepartments. Leadership is exercisedthrough a cordial co-ordination ofactivities of individuals and groups.This leadership style can becompared to the orchestra conductorwho skillfully conducts his orchestrain co-ordination and harmony. System based leaders are greatplanners with long term vision.They set priorities and assign the jobto various departments in anorganization to achieve goals that arecollectively formed. High Performance Leadership 55 Paul Robinson
  60. 60. Strategy orientation is the key behavioral skill of asystem based leadership. They look at business from astrategic point of view and they define targetsaccording to timely executed plan. They make constantanalysis of past and current behavior and they devisenew strategies for winning customers, markets,products and services. They have a visionary planningmethod of looking at a future scenario. They makedecisions based on the issues that are likely to arise inthe future and they get their decisions managed bytheir followers. This type of leadership may not takethe quantum leap of change like the action basedleaders, but they do re-engineer their organizationfrom time to time. Change is slow in this environmentdue to high administrative entanglements. There willbe approval procedures from different departmentbefore they make a decision. System leadership seeksapproval and collective leadership is the result of thisoutcome. System leaders are great innovators. They maketheir recommendations from time to time. Theyanalyze, mull over the details before any decision ismade. There is also a time delay in decision makingcompared to action based leaders due to the system inplace. System leaders can manage tasks that are huge.Collective and synchronized action is the key toperformance. There will be procedures to follow andeveryone abides to certain rules and protocols. Thisleadership style is ideal for operations where largedepartments are to be coherently administered. High Performance Leadership 56 Paul Robinson
  61. 61. System leadership has a major responsibility in beingthe head and does all the thinking part fororganizational growth and stability. The process ofthinking is done primarily in three ways:1) Information Search, 2) Concept formation and3) Conceptual Flexibility. The three behaviours in this cluster are crucial tostrategy formation, planning and the ability to see the‘bigger picture’. Whilst they make the highestcontribution to performance they are often the leastdeveloped and least valued in most organizations. Information Search means gathering many differentkinds of information by using a wide variety of sourcesto build a rich informational environment inpreparation for decision-making in the organization. Concept Formation is building frameworks or models,forming concepts, hypotheses or ideas on the basis ofinformation. System leadership is acutely aware ofpatterns, trends and cause / effect relations by linkinginformation from various departments. Conceptual Flexibility means Identifying feasiblealternatives or multiple options in planning anddecision-making while holding options in focussimultaneously and evaluating their pros and cons. Once all the thinking is done, they evaluate the prosand cons and decide up on the maximum upsidesversus many downsides of options. In this scenariofollowers from various divisions and departments canmake valid suggestions based on the feedback theyreceive from customers, employees and shareholders. High Performance Leadership 57 Paul Robinson
  62. 62. The successful behaviors of system based leadershipare:1) Setting SMART performance goals. Leadership is simply the ability to turn a dream or avision of a desired future state into a reality with andthrough the cooperation of other people. To throwyour life into something worthwhile, your dreammust be worth pursuing. It all starts with a greatvision, something beyond your capabilities to keepyou challenged and motivated. The driving force ofany leadership course is an inspiring vision. A visiongives you a sense of direction, gives you the ability tolook beyond what is to what should be and serves as agoal motivation to bring about exciting results. Forming vision is having a great emphasis on futuredirections and moving people towards shared dreams.It is very effective in giving cohesion to groups ofpeople by providing clear directions and objectives. Itis group centered behavior and requires better thanaverage communication skills. Having a vision is noteverything, translating a vision into a bundle of goalsand action list and getting the results means realisticvision. High Performance Leadership 58 Paul Robinson
  63. 63. "Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality"advises Warren Bennis, a world renowned authorityon leadership. Once the vision is formed, vision is translated intoseveral outcomes or results. Then a list of goals isformed along with several strategies to achieve thatoutcome. Smart performance goals are set for othersto achieve. It is called SMART goals because thesegoals are Specified, Manageable, Attainable, Resultfocuses and Time bound. High Performance Leadership 59 Paul Robinson
  64. 64. 2)Principle orientation High Performance leadership in a system basedleadership is controlled by certain principles andpractices everyone abides by within the organization.They are often called as best practices. Principles arestressed on performance and it is the principles thatdetermine the collective outcome. High performance leadership applies continuousperformance improvement as a core value of theorganization. Most of the high performance behavioris motivated by core values of an individual, as theindividual strive to become the ideal. When you applycontinuous performance improvement you will bedoing things differently to achieve the result you want.In any work environment people refuse to do thingsdifferently. As every one is creatures of habits we alllearn certain way of functioning and exercisingresponsibilities. When you don’t get the performanceyou want ask yourself a question ‘What can I do nowdifferently to improve my performance? Principle orientation is goal orientation with anoutcome in mind. Most of the outcomes they reach arevalue enhancing for customers, employees andshareholders. When principles are in place certainbenchmark of performance is already predeterminedby everyone and accepted as best practices. Thisusually upgrade the homeostasis of the organizationrather than challenging them or changing them.3) Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research On going review and research is vital in order tokeep on the cutting edge in business. Conducting and High Performance Leadership 60 Paul Robinson
  65. 65. evaluating research is an important way of planningand being prepared for the future. Excellent leadershipis always pro active rather than reactive. Responsivebehavior is encouraged in system leadership.Employees and followers are asked to evaluate andasked to give suggestions and recommendations to dothings better.4) Consideration: It is the extent to which a leader isapproachable and shows personal concern forsubordinates.5) Reward Behavior: The extent to which a leaderprovides his subordinates with compliments, tangiblebenefits and desired specific treatment.6) Punishment Behavior: The leaders use ofreprimands or unfavorable tasks assignments andactive with holding of rewards. High Performance Leadership 61 Paul Robinson
  66. 66. 7) Monitor Employee Performance. Employeeperformance needs to be monitored in mutuallyaccepted ways. Policies and procedures need to beclear. Conferencing should be on a regular basis andnot just when there is a problem. Assessments andevaluations should not be merely all formality orviewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filedaway. Individual and group conferencing should beundertaken not only to monitor performance, but withthe expectation of on going professional developmentand support. There should be frequent encouragementand clear criteria for on going goals both for the groupand individual.8) Creativity. When vision drives action orientedleaders it is creativity that drives system based leaders. High Performance Leadership 62 Paul Robinson
  67. 67. Creativity is a main hub in the ability of organizationsto maintain a competitive advantage. It looks at thedegree to which inhibitors such as organizationaldesigns as well as leadership style may positively ornegatively affect creativity in organizations. For organizations to be empowered to surviveleaders and followers should seek after "creativity."This is an individuals ability to conceive of or conjurenew ideas, which can benefit society. It is the center ofinnovativeness, the momentum behindorganizational success. Failure to encourage andembrace creativity within contemporaryorganizations may be viewed as creating conditionsthat are conducive to organizations failures.9) Feedback. Leaders should be willing to evaluateand implement employees ideas; employees will verylikely feel valued, self-esteem will soar and self-confidence will grow.10) Brainstorm. Leaders should be willing to createbrainstorm workshops and seminars where employeesare free to verbalize and visualize their creativeendeavors. While it is important for leaders to be ableto find solutions to problems, they should also provideemployees the opportunity to problem-solve.Roosevelt said it best, a good leaders picks good men to dothe job he wants done and self-restraint to keep frommeddling with them while they do it. It is also importantthat leaders recognize employees accomplishments,because as the old adage goes "success breeds success.".Success is celebrated together and blame is shoulderedas accountability singularly to the leader. High Performance Leadership 63 Paul Robinson
  68. 68. System based leadership is ideal for a largeorganization which has several departments anddivisions. This is system developed by collectiveowned enterprises where a board of directors hasstronger power over the CEO. This system is effective in managing change ratherthat creating change. The downside of this style is alsoseveral. On a due course of time this system becomesstatic in performance. Even though innovation isadvocated in this model, the actual realization ofchange takes time due to delayed execution. There areapproval seeking behaviors and leaders often have tosacrifice their staunch believes and decisions againstcompromises. This is a shared authority situation,where the system has more authority than the leader.This leadership style has a democratic tone to it. This is highly suitable for managing operations. Itis also ideal where integration is important in anorganization. Complex tasks are managed through asystemized approach of chunking tasks. In a factoryenvironment where, design, production, distribution,sales and management are involved a systemizedleadership is brought in to simplify operations. But taken to the extreme system based leadership canbecome a highly bureaucratic enterprise where youhardly see the leader’s fingerprint anywhere. High Performance Leadership 64 Paul Robinson
  69. 69. Chapter Seven CREATING CHANGE INEVOLVING LANDSCAPES CHANGE IS OFTEN viewed asa dreaded word, as it means movingout of a comfort zone, going into theunknown, encountering challengesand finding appropriate measures ofdealing with the challenges. There are two types of beliefsystem and people act on either ofthem. One is a law of permanence.This states that nothing is going tochange and everything stays thesame forever. The other is the law of change.Everything is subjected to changeand change is constant. The latterlaw is very true and individuals whoact up on this law succeed in anyenvironment. What about the law ofpermanence? That is total crap. Imade it up. There is nothing like thelaw of permanence but sadly as amatter of fact majority of peopleblindly follow this. High Performance Leadership 65 Paul Robinson
  70. 70. Everything is subjected to change. What weexperience is a subjective experience of a reality thatis shifting every time we observe it. Change is anatural process. In a changing environment leadersmust have the mind set to revise new information andadapt to new behaviors. Flexibility and adaptationhas kept human beings on top of the food chain in theevolutionary process through out severalmillenniums. Organizations that constantly change,adapt, revise, reframe and re-engineer their ways ofconducting business will eventually evolve andbecome market leaders. The one that is resistingchange and being caught up in the indecision model ofred tapes will suffer and go extinct for their reluctanceto adhere natures ruling principle of change. Change is a challenge. We are all as humans resistand fear change. Change is a threatening propositionto any comfortable way of doing things. Our comfortzones are not easy to break. The pattern has a strongfoot on our neuro- system. We are all creatures ofhabits and any change is unwelcome by humannature. Nature has devised this behavioral formationin order to protect us from potential dangers.Anything that is unknown is observed with fear andopposed strongly. The very reason that change oftenhappens in slow motion in a rapidly changing world isbecause of the fact that changes go through threestages before it is actualized.First anything that denotes change is violentlyopposed, secondly they are ridiculed by everyone andfinally they are accepted by everyone else. High Performance Leadership 66 Paul Robinson
  71. 71. In the Middle Ages changes were slow. Changepicked up the pace after the Renaissance period. AfterIndustrial revolution, the speed of change increased it’stempo. After Information Revolution a faster pace isset that many fail catch up to the changes and actaccording to the times. Today change is more shockingand faster than a mans ability to comprehend andunderstand it. But today what is driving higherperformance is nothing but through change. Change is everywhere. People are changing the waythey communicate and the way they do business.Constant Innovation has become the key tooutperform competitions. Successful change begins with leaders. They shouldmodel the change the wish to see by being visionary,persuasive and consistent examples. Once leaders arechange-ready, employees are likely to follow, the endresult -change becomes a team effort. Leaders can tailor their styles by first modeling thechange they wish to see. How? Simple!Provide opportunities for employees to become a partof the decision-making process. High Performance Leadership 67 Paul Robinson
  72. 72. Change will continue to be a permanent fixturepresently and futuristically. Creativity andinnovation will continue to be the key driving forcesbehind products and services, as organizationscontinue to meet the demands of a novelty seekingpopulace. The onus now resides with leaders; theyshould identify obstacles to organizational success andmake serious inroads to remove these barriers. Leaders are agents of change. Today everyone talks agreat deal about creating change and the challenge stillremains on how an effective change can be brought in. Creating change involves various processes. Themajor steps as follows: High Performance Leadership 68 Paul Robinson
  73. 73. Step one: Find out the reasons for change. There hasto be a major why behind changing anything. Peopleneed reasons to change and if the reasons are notcompelling enough people are not willing to change.People are willing to change when they feel they arethreatened. It is only major pain that can changepeople in comparison to the pain of changing itself.Most People are willing to change at the last minute,often during the crisis when they hit an emotionalthreshold. As a leader the challenge of leadership is tomake others realize the crisis ahead of times, if they arenot willing to change now. Create enough reasons whychange is imminent and very important. Once you getthis step clear and ready move to the next step Step two: Paint a better scenario of the future.This is creating a scenario, or a situation that throughchange, everyone will embark on a better favorablescenario or situation. The proposition of the vision orthe painted scenario must be better than the currentscenario you are trying to change. Everyone lovesgrowth, improvement and profits. The scenario youpropose must be better than the current statuesque.This is attaching pleasure to an outcome. People arewilling to give up what is painful to embrace anythingthat is pleasurable. That is a human nature. Oncevision is presented to people, obviously there will bequestions and judgments raised in contrast to whatyou are proposing. Then you must deploy the next step Step three: Tell them howPeople will believe in any option or plans as long asyou have the best laid plans and strategies are High Performance Leadership 69 Paul Robinson
  74. 74. convincingly presented to support them. People getrational and question about an abstract vision.Strategy and action plan must be presented in cogentmanner for people to accept that the proposition youoffer for change is achievable. Vision without plan ofaction is mere hallucination. Once people believe inyour ability to create change, take the support offollowers to the next step Step Four: Decisions and making change happen.Once you decide to create the change you desire, youcan begin to manage your decisions by others.Remember people need enough reasons to change theirbehaviors and once you propose a new set of behaviors,they are willing to substitute with new set ofbehaviors. Once people experience results theirconviction is reinforced and they will move as force tocreate the change together. Step five: Manage changeChange requires constant revisions and adjustments.They need to be managed. It is important to reinforcethe behavior and conditioned patterns in people. Thereis always a possibility to snap back to an old pattern ofthinking, feeling and doing. When you manage changeyou focus on constant reinforcement of change inevery area of management. Change can not persist if itonly takes place on peripheral levels. It must get deeperand function at all levels. Every change commands a new belief system, a newset of behaviors and new set of practices that deliverresults better and faster than ever before. High Performance Leadership 70 Paul Robinson
  75. 75. One of the finest ways to implement change is re-engineering the conditioned believes and practices inwork environment. People have been conditioned todo certain things over several years and certainpractices over centuries altogether. An interesting finding in human psychology incontext to performance is that- people behave inaccordance to their belief system. We all doeverything to prove that we are right according to ourbelief system. Any major change in transformationalleadership is the change in beliefs. Every belief we have is supported by facts. We haveacquired these facts whether they are true or false overthe time of upbringing. We think, feel and act incertain way in consistency with our beliefs whether itis true or not. High Performance Leadership 71 Paul Robinson
  76. 76. Our beliefs have already created a preset point for ourperformance. We behave and perform in a mannerthat is predictable by these preset points. All of us havea preset point. This point is like a thermostat for an airconditioner. A thermostat has a preset temperaturesetting and any changes in temperature is reinstatedby the thermostat. Thermostat works in consistencywith the preset temperature point. Any changes intemperature in a room is consistently readjusted by itsthermostat. Human behaviors are more or less thesame, always getting readjusted when change isencountered. We have certain pre set points to everything webelieve. We have a preset point that tells how much wecan eat, how much we can earn, how much tasks wecan accomplish everyday or what we are capable ofand what is possible by us. Since these predicamentsand self concepts are preset, the challenge of anychange in leadership is pushing the bar of performanceor changing the preset points of performance. High Performance Leadership 72 Paul Robinson
  77. 77. In high performance leadership, the first challengelies in assessing the current behaviors and measuringresults and outcome it produces. Secondly to achieve adesired outcome, one must change the thermostat ofevery individual performance including ones own to alevel of achievable goal and vision. Before evolutiontakes place in external circumstances, involution mustbe imposed within the frame of references. Change occurs first in the human mind and then ithappens in reality. Making that shift in the mind is achallenge, but it is possible if you know whereperformance is currently set. Change in any nature is an expansion of mind.There are limiting set points for performance andachievements. Once those limitations are substitutedwith new set of beliefs, people are driven to achievemore. Ultimately high performance is a shift of believes.New set of believes override the limiting ones andnew behaviours are installed to deliver results. Today’s evolutionary leadership looks for majorshifts and outcomes. It is not about doing better thanothers in a competitive environment. It is doing itbetter than the way it was done earlier. The onlychallenge is constant improvement ie, competing withone own earlier preset performance. Imagine if wecould improve 1% everyday in what we do, that is 365%performance growth in a year. The real analysis is inone’s own productive behaviors more than analyzingthe competition. When you tend to do better than High Performance Leadership 73 Paul Robinson
  78. 78. your completion, later they will also out beat you bydoing it better. When you out beat your performanceto a new quantum level, you not only set a standard butalso a bench mark, hard to be imitated by yourcompetition. Supremacy is built through out performance, byraising your level of performance in a consistentmanner. In this case you not only become the agent ofchange, you also become the change itself. Change results are manifested in the future but theprocess of change is in the present. People tend to docrazy things under pressure. Their behavior becomesirrational under pressure. A chaotic time will demandchange but people tend to make wrong decisions underpressure. The best way to avoid that is to perceivefuture chaos and take a preparatory step by armingyour organization with right strategies and decisionsbefore the unfortunate event takes place.Todaycompanies must perceive change well in advance evenbefore they appear. High Performance Leadership 74 Paul Robinson
  79. 79. Often time’s leaders experience their majoropposition to change from their managers. This isbecause of the core managerial function. Managerspreserve the statusquo that leaders are changing.Change is an emotional event. When you talk aboutchange everyone in the organization tend to go panicat first. If you make a statement like ‘there is going tobe some changes around here!’, what is immediatelyunderstood by others could be lay offs. Every time when leaders apply a new vision in theirorganization they are creating a change. Vision is thepicture of the future. Change is the medium to takethat picture into a reality. High PerformanceLeadership is about creating the change to increaseperformance standards of individuals andorganizations. High Performance Leadership 75 Paul Robinson
  80. 80. Chapter EightLEADERSHIP IS DEVELOPED ‘To be a leader is to be a beginner’ -DENNIS WAITELEY World’s foremost authority in human potential development. TO BECOME A leader, you haveto be able to work with others, able toinfluence others, have an effectivecommunication line with others sothat you can achieve all of your visionand goals. Although this may soundeasy, it actually isnt. I do not say that it is impossibletoo!. Anyone can become an effectiveleader. That is what leadershipdevelopment is about. Anyone can.We are a bundle of limitlesspotential, when harnessed andchanneled for anything, we become apossibility. We can be anything wewant to be. That is the privilege ofbeing human. A tree can becomenothing but a tree, a bear can becomenothing but a grown up bear, but mancan become anything. That is theprivilege the nature has designed forus. Then why not use it.. High Performance Leadership 76 Paul Robinson
  81. 81. In order to become or evolve into being something, thefirst step is to have a deep understanding of oneself.Becoming aware of your strong and weak areas are keypoints in leadership development. By knowing yourweak points, you can start working on them so that youcould either get rid of them or turn them into positivecharacteristics. If you have difficulty working on yourweak points then you must seek out partnership withsomeone who can complement you on areas that youare weak and work with them as a team. This also goes the same for your strengths. You cancomplement your expertise where it is wanted. Today leadership is not about singularity ofobjectives and goals. It is more about collective actionthrough partnership and synergy to accomplish acommon objective. Leadership is about workingtogether, and the major challenge is in relating withvarious kinds of people with diverse interests andculture. As a leader you need to influence other people,directing their efforts to the attainment of the sharedvision. To influence others first you must know whatis already influencing them. To understand what isalready influencing them, you must relate with themand connect with them. Having a great rapport withother people give you a peek into their world and thevalues they have been raised and the principles they areholding on to. Once you understand and appreciatetheir world, you will eventually learn to use theleverage of changing their behaviors. Leaders tend to have an effect on other people and atthe same time they are affected by others. It is a two High Performance Leadership 77 Paul Robinson
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