The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.

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A closer look at the structure of the earth for Year 8 Science students at Saint Ignatius College Geelong.

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The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.

  1. 1. Ian Anderson (2013) Saint Ignatius College Geelong 01. Structure of the Earth. Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BlueMarble/ BlueMarble_history.php
  2. 2. Structure of the Earth. Earth is made up of four layers.  Inner core.  Outer core.  Mantle.  Crust. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml
  3. 3. Structure of the Earth.  Inner core.  Solid.  ~1200 km thick.  High in iron & nickel.  Temperatures up to 7000°C.  The hottest part of the earth.  Heat is generated by:  Left over heat from earth’s creation.  Radioactive decay of elements including uranium, thorium & potassium. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml
  4. 4. Structure of the Earth.  Outer core.  Surrounds the inner core.  Temperatures up to 6000°C.  Molten.  High in iron & nickel.  ~2000 km thick. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml
  5. 5. Structure of the Earth.  Mantle.  Made up of molten rock called magma.  Section closest to the core is more molten than the section closest to the earth’s crust.  Temperatures ranges from 500 near the crust to 3000°C closer to the core.  Widest section of earth.  ~2900 km thick. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml
  6. 6. Structure of the Earth.  Crust.  The outer layer.  Solid rock.  Includes all landforms, rocks & soil.  Varies in thickness.  ~8 km thick below the oceans to ~40 km below the continents.  Broken up into tectonic plates. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/ natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml
  7. 7. Plate tectonics.  The earth’s crust is broken up into pieces called tectonic plates. Source: http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/tectonic.htm
  8. 8. Plate tectonics.  The earth’s crust is broken up into pieces called tectonic plates.  The plates are floating on the molten rock of the mantle.  Greatest geological activity (volcanoes, earthquakes & mountain building) occurs on the edges of these plates.  e.g. Ring of fire along the edges of the Pacific Plate. Source: http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/tectonic.htm
  9. 9. Plate tectonics.  Convection currents within mantle move tectonic plates (~1 cm per year).  Driving some plates apart (e.g. North American & European plates) and causing others to collide (e.g. Pacific Plate & South America).  Results in geological activity and oceanic trench formation. Source: http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/ platetect.html
  10. 10. Plate tectonics. Great Rift Valley, Africa. Source: http://www.imagesoftheworld.com/volcanoes/ 74africa.html Source: http://ethiopiaembassy.eu/country-profiles/tourism/ Source: http://www.amazon.com/Africas-Great-Valley-Nigel- Pavitt/dp/0810906023
  11. 11. Plate tectonics. Evidence for theory of plate tectonics includes:  Shape of the continents. Source: http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/ platetect.html
  12. 12. Plate tectonics. Evidence for theory of plate tectonics includes:  Shape of the continents.  Fossil evidence. Source: http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L104-Bonner/Sp10/Part3.html
  13. 13. Plate tectonics. Evidence for theory of plate tectonics includes:  Shape of the continents.  Fossil evidence.  Geological similarities between continents. Source: http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L104-Bonner/Sp10/Part3.html
  14. 14. Plate tectonics. Evidence for theory of plate tectonics includes:  Shape of the continents.  Fossil evidence.  Geological similarities between continents.  Younger age of sea floor compared to continental crust. Source: http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L104-Bonner/Sp10/Part3.html
  15. 15. http://sickscience8.wikispaces.com/

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