Unit 4 animal tissue

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Unit 4 animal tissue

  1. 1. UNIT 4: ANIMAL TISSUE Campbell and Reece, 2010.Chapter 40 p. 856 – 860
  2. 2. WHERE DO TISSUES FIT INTHE LIVING ORGANISM? Life begins as a single cell called a zygoteafter fertilization This cell differentiates into a variety oftissues. (Group of cells with the samefunction) A group of tissues with the same functionforms an organ. Group of organs – Organ system Group of organ systems - Organism
  3. 3. WHAT IS TISSUE?SPECIALIZED CELL of thesame type that perform acommon function in thebody.
  4. 4. MAJOR TYPES OF ANIMALTISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Covers or linesbody cavity and forms glands. CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Binds differentorgans together and support the body. MUSCLE TISSUE: Movement NERVOUS TISSUE: Senses and transmitsimpulses
  5. 5. EPITHELIALTISSUESQUAMOUS CUBOIDAL COLUMNAR CILLIATED GLANDULAR
  6. 6. SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL TISSUESTRUCTURE Single layer thin, large, flattened cells Cells have irregular shape and are closely packed inmosaic form. Cells are attached to a basement membrane.FUNCTIONS Diffusion of gasses can occur easily over surface. Supply friction free surface for blood flow. Protects and supports underlying tissue
  7. 7. SQUAMOUS EPITELIAL TISSUEWHERE?•Lining of lungsand blood vessels•In mouth andesophagus.
  8. 8. CUBOIDAL EPITHELIAL TISSUESTRUCTUTE Square cells, closely packed in a single layer. Cells attached to a basement membrane.FUNCTION Absorbs molecules
  9. 9. CUBOIDAL EPITHELIAL CELLSWHERE?•Lining ofkidney tubules•Liningvariousglands.
  10. 10. COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUESTRUCTURE Tall elongated, column-shaped cells. Nucleus near the base of the cell. Cells are attached to a basement membrane.FUNCTIONS Plays a role in absorption of nutrients. Protects and supports underlying tissues.
  11. 11. COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUEWHERE?•Lining ofsmallintestine,stomachandoviducts
  12. 12. CILLIATED CULUMNAR EPITHELIALTISSUESTRUCTURE Comprises of columnar cells with cilia at their freeedgesFUNCTIONS Sweeps impurities towards throat Improves movement of substance through the ducts.
  13. 13. CILLIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIALTISSUEWHERE?•Lining oftrachea andnostrils,bronchiand spermducts)
  14. 14. GLANDULAR COLUMNAREPITHELIAL TISSUESTRUCTURE Consist of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells. Unicellular glandular cells with goblet cells scatteredamong non-glandular cells.FUNCTIONS Produce mucus which serves to lubricate the intestineand make movement of food easier. Keep respiratory passage moist. Secrete enzymes, hormones, sweat, wax and saliva.
  15. 15. GLANDULAR COLUMNAREPITHELIAL TISSUEWHERE?• In smallintestine andrespirativepassages.• Occur insalivary glands,thyroid glandand sebaceousglands in theskin.
  16. 16. • FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE• SUPPORTIVE CONNECTIVETISSUE• FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  17. 17.  LOOSE AREOLAR FIBROUSCONNECTIVE TISSUEDENSE WHITE FIBROUS CONNECTIVETISSUEDENSE YELLOW FIBROUSCONNECTIVE TISSUEADIPOSE TISSUE
  18. 18. LOOSE AREOLAR FIBROUSCONNECTIVE TISSUE Occurs beneath the skinand most epitheliallayers connecting organstogether. Filling the spacesbetween organs andmuscles, around musclesand blood vessels
  19. 19. DESCRIPTION OF AREOLAR- Loosely arranged tissue In jelly-like matrix there are 4 types of livingcells and two types of non-living cells. Macrophages Mast cells Fat cells Fibroblasts Collagen fibres Elastic fibres
  20. 20. FUNCTIONS OF AREOLAR-Areolar tissue binds organs or organcomponents together and supportsstructures.Allows for movement betweenstructures.The matrix allows for diffusion ofsubstances like gases, nutrients,hormones and wastes to and from theblood.
  21. 21.  Fibroblasts – secrete collagen and produceelastic fibres. Macrophages – Engulf foreign particles bymeans of phagocytosis to defend the bodyagainst infection. Mast cells – They secrete the matrix, releasehistamine during inflammation, produceheparin (anticoagulant). Fat cells – Synthesis and storage of fats. Collagen fibres strengthen the tissue. Elastic fibres – Allows for expansion andcontraction.
  22. 22. MACROPHAGES, PLASMA CELLSMAST CELLS AND ELASTIC FIBRES
  23. 23. FIBROBLASTS
  24. 24. DENDE WHITE FIBROUSCONNECTIVE TISSUE In dermis of skin,tendonsFUNCTIONS:Attach muscle to bones
  25. 25. DESCRIPTION OF DENSE WHITE- Consist of mainly white collagen non-elasticfibres. The collagen fibres are non-elastic,densely packed, arranged in parallelbundles, and has a shiny appearance. Fibroblasts are elongated cells and occurparallel in rows. Minimum amount of matrix.
  26. 26. YELLOW FIBROUS CONNECTIVETISSUE In ligamentsFUNCTIONS: Attach bone to bone Hold bones of a joint inplace. Restrict movement ofbones and preventdislocation duringnormal movement.
  27. 27. DESCRIPTION OF DENSE YELLOW- Consist of white collagen fibres and anetwork of yellow elastic fibres. Ligaments are strong and flexible.
  28. 28. ADDIPOSE TISSUE Found beneath the skin,around heart and otherorgans.FUNCTION: Insulation Stores fat.DESCRIPTION: Large round cells filledwith fat or oil.
  29. 29. COLLAGEN FIBRES AND ADIPOSECELLS
  30. 30.  HYALINE CARTILAGEWHITE FIBROUS CARTILAGEYELLOW ELASTIC CARTILAGE BONE
  31. 31. HYALINE CARTILAGE Occurs at the ends ofbones in movablejoints. Parts of thelarynx. In the walls of thetrachea and bronchi. In between the ribsand the sternum. On the tip of the nose
  32. 32. DESCRIPTION Contains fine collagen fibres. White translucent matrix. Cartilage tissue is surrounded by a fibrouscapsule called the perichondrium withblood vessels for nutrition. It consists of living cells calledchondrocytes. They occur in small fluid-filled spaces calledlacunae. In the lacunae the cells arearranged singular or in groups.
  33. 33. FUNCTIONS Chondrocytes produce arubber matrix calledchondrin. Reduce friction at joints Attach bones firmly to otherbones. Keeps tubes open (C-shaped intrachea). Forms permanent structures(nose). Longitudinal growth of longbones.
  34. 34. FIBROCARTILAGE Occurs as disks betweenthe vertebrae. Surrounds the edges ofthe sockets of ball-and-socket joints. Between the pubic bonesin front of the pelvicgirdle.
  35. 35. FUNCTIONS It serves as shockabsorbers betweenadjacent vertebrae. It deepens sockets tomake dislocation lesseasy.
  36. 36. DESCRIPTION Contain a large number of collagenfibres. White translucent matrix. Cartilage tissue is surrounded by afibrous capsule called theperichondrium with blood vesselsfor nutrition. It consists of living cells calledchondrocytes. They occur in small fluid-filledspaces called lacunae. In thelacunae the cells are arrangedsingular or in groups.
  37. 37. ELASTIC CARTILAGE In the ear lobe At the tip of the nose In the epiglottis. Septum of nose
  38. 38. FUNCTIONS It maintains the shapeand flexibility of the earlobe and tip of the nose. It strengthens andsupports the ear, noseand epiglottis.
  39. 39. DESCRIPTION Contain collagen fibres and a large network of elasticfibres. Translucent matrix. Cartilage tissue is surrounded by a fibrous capsulecalled the perichondrium with blood vessels fornutrition. It consists of living cells called chondrocytes. They occur in small fluid-filled spaces called lacunae.In the lacunae the cells are arranged singular or ingroups.
  40. 40. COMPACT BONE Occur in the bonesof the skeleton
  41. 41. FUNCTIONS Support Protection Locomotion Red blood corpusclesand white blood cellsare produced in the redbone marrow.
  42. 42. DESCRIPTION The matrix of compactbone consists of collagenfibres together withcalcium, phosphorus andmagnesium. These components arearranged in circles calledlamellae, around theHaversian canal,containing artery, vein andnerve. Contain bone cells calledosteocytes
  43. 43. BLOODBLOOD PLASMAERYTHROCYTESLEUCOCYTESBLOOD PLATELETS
  44. 44. BLOODPLASMAWHERE? Matrix in which the bloodcells are found.FUNCTIONS: Transport various formedelements to body parts. Dispersion medium. Transports digested food. Transports cellular waste. Transports hormones. Plays a role in regulation ofbody temperature. Transports antibodiesDESCRIPTION Straw color fluidconsisting mainly ofwater with manysubstances in solutionlike nutrients, organicwaste, inorganic saltsand ions, plasmaprotein, dissolvedgases, hormones,enzymes andantibodies.
  45. 45. ERYTHROCYTES (RED BLOODCELLS)FUNCTIONS: Transports oxygen in theblood from the lungs toall living cells. Transports some of thecarbon dioxide from thebody tissues the lungs. Play a role in the clottingof blood. Play a role in theregulating of pH of bodyfluids
  46. 46. DESCRIPTION Small round biconcave disks filled with cytoplasm,but without a nucleus. Contain the red pigment hemoglobin. Hemoglobin contains 4 units, each with theprotein globin and a complex iron-containing,structure called heme. The iron form a looseassociation with oxygen and in this way red bloodcells transport oxygen and readily give it up totissues.
  47. 47. LEUCOCYTES(WHITE BLOOD CELLS)FUNCTIONS: Engulf infections bymeans ofphagocytosis. Produce antibodies. Defense orimmunity of body
  48. 48. DESCRIPTION Larger cells with nuclei. Without staining theyappear transparent. Irregular is shape. – there are5 types of leucocytes basedon differences in size andnuclear shape: Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Monocytes. Lymphocytes.
  49. 49. BLOOD PLATELETSDESCRIPTION: Fragments of giant cells,present only in bonemarrow. They are small discswithout nuclei andbounded by a typical cellmembrane. A characteristic feature ofplatelets is their tendencyto stick to foreign surfacesand to each other to formclumps.FUNCTIONS; When blood vessels aredamaged, plateletsform a plug that sealsthe vessel, and injuredtissues releasemolecules that helpthe clotting of blood.
  50. 50. SMOOTH MUSCLE –CARDIAC MUSCLE –SKELETAL MUSCLE -
  51. 51. SMOOTH MUSCLE Found wide spread inbody. Found in the walls ofbloodvessels, digestivetract, respiratory ducts,urinary ducts andreproductive ducts. In iris of eye and formsmall muscles attach tohair follicles
  52. 52. FUNCTIONS OF SMOOTH - Control slow involuntarymovements of organsperforming important lifeprocesses e.g. Contractionof stomach wall duringperistalsis. Responsible for themovement of substancesin internal passages e.g.Blood in blood vessels.
  53. 53. DESCRIPTION OF SMOOTH - Every smooth muscle fibre is an elongated, thin cellwith a thick central part and pointed ends. Every cell has a big nucleus centrally situated. This muscle is never connected to bone. Can contract for long with out causing a spasm e.g.Uterus wall during birth.
  54. 54. CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE Found only in the heart.
  55. 55. DESCRIPTION OF CARDIAC - Contain many mitochondria, glucose and bloodsupply. Consist of branched cells with one or two centralnuclei. Cells are rectangular and connected with musclebridges. The ends of 2 cells are attached by intercalated disks.
  56. 56. FUNCTION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE It causes the rythmic beating of the heart so that bloodcan flow through the whole body.
  57. 57. SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE
  58. 58. SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE
  59. 59. NERVOUS TISSUE Nervous tissue is composed of highly specialized nervecells called neurons and supporting cells orneuroglia. The neurons, which are the basic units ofcommunication, react to stimuli and transmit theimpulses (information) form one region of the body toanother. Neurons extend throughout the body and do not actalone.
  60. 60. STRUCTURE OF A NEURON Neurons are usually long, large and complex in shape. It consists of a cell body and several cytoplasmicprocesses. Processes that transmit impulses to the cell body aredendrites and usually are multiple. The single process that transmits impulses away formsthe cell body in the axon. The cell body contains a nucleus, neurofibrills, Nisslgranules, neuroplasma.
  61. 61. Three types of neuronsaccording to structure: Unipolar neurons Bipolar neuronsMultipolar neurons
  62. 62. Three types of neurons because offunction: Sensory neuron Motor neuron Inter-

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