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Sow Lifetime Productivity

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Dr. Chris Hostetler, National Pork Board, from the 2015 World Pork Expo, June 3 - 5, 2015, Des Moines, IA, USA.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Sow Lifetime Productivity

  1. 1. Chris Hostetler Director of Animal Science National Pork Board Improving Sow Lifetime Productivity
  2. 2. Definition • The total number of quality pigs a female weans from the time she becomes breeding eligible until she leaves the herd.
  3. 3. Factors Affecting Sow Lifetime Productivity • Gilt development methods • Gilt selection and utilization rates • Sow retention • Number of pigs weaned per litter • Farrowing rate • Sow livability • Seasonal variation • Litter of Origin
  4. 4. Litter of origin data • Tissue for genotyping • Male:Female • Blood samples for immunocrit • Number fully formed piglets born • Number born alive • Dam ID • Parity of dam • Day 1 weight of each piglet • Number weaned • Weaning weight of each piglet
  5. 5. Challenges with Sow Lifetime Productivity • Not routinely assessed or monitored • Not commonly available on most sow record systems • Policy of culling based on parity • Fallout of early parity sows
  6. 6. Sow Lifetime Productivity DistributionFemales(%) Number of Pigs 42% of females selected for breeding have 19 or fewer pigs Adapted from Pollman – Leman Conference 2012
  7. 7. How big is the opportunity?
  8. 8. Research Goal • Conduct research that will improve sow lifetime productivity by 30% by 2017 – Increase from 34 pigs/sow lifetime to 44 pigs/sow lifetime
  9. 9. Major Research Areas • Gilt development and retention – Optimizing gilt growth and social interactions – Gilt competency • Selection criteria, immune status/markers – Sow retention • Strategies to minimize depletion body reserves 9
  10. 10. Major Research Areas • Increased number of pigs weaned and piglet weaning weight – Sow lactation and gestation feed efficiency – Milk quality and quantity – Increased farrowing rate – Strategies to minimize pregnancy loss – Mitigation of the impact of seasonal infertility 10
  11. 11. Research Challenges • Requires large scale projects in order to get meaningful results • Multi-year projects to track females from day of birth through 3rd parity • SLP is multifactorial trait so requires a concerted effort • Expense – no other funding agencies are working in this area
  12. 12. Research Consortium • Industry Partners Murphy Brown LLC Holden Family Farms Carthage Veterinary Clinic • USMARC Dr. Clay Lents Dr. Lea Rempel Dr. Jeremy Miles Dr. Gary Rohrer Dr. Dan Nonneman Dr. Brad Freking Dr. Bob Cushman • Investigators Dr. Rob Knox Dr. Billy Flowers Dr. Nathalie Trottier Dr. Janeen Salak-Johnson Dr. Ken Stalder Dr. George Foxcroft • Universities Iowa State NC State University of Illinois University Of Alberta Michigan State University
  13. 13. Research Projects NPB ID Title 11-103 Evaluation of a Physiological Test for Sow Longevity 11-111 Development of Strategies to Improve Sow Productive Lifetime 11-118 Reproductive performance and longevity in replacement gilts allowed different amounts of floor space during the nursery phase of rearing 11-146 Effects of Preweaning Factors on Sow Lifetime Productivity 12-111 The impact of the timing of relocation of replacement gilts from pens to stalls on gilt fertility and sow longevity 12-209 Optimal dietary energy and protein for the development of gilts 12-210 Dietary effects on sow productivity to three parities 13-022 Impact of in utero heat stress on subsequent growth, composition and reproduction 13-129 Understanding the biology of seasonal infertility to develop mitigation strategies for swine 14-133 Impact of in utero heat stress on subsequent lactational performance and performance of offspring 14-149 Capturing genetic potential for greater sow lifetime productivity 14-235 Optimal dietary protein for the development of gilts
  14. 14. Effect of Neonatal Litter Size on SLP
  15. 15. Reproductive Performance and Neonatal Litter Size Farrowingrate(%) 90 80 70 60 2 100 0 3 4 5 61 Sow Parity NumberBornAlive 11 10 9 2 12 0 3 4 5 61 Sow Parity > 10 piglets (10.5 + 0.2) < 7 piglets (11.0 + 0.1) > 10 piglets (83.3%) < 7 piglets (88.7%) Adapted from Flowers 05-082
  16. 16. Femalesremaininginproduction(%) E = Entry B = Breeding - gilts F = Farrowing R = Rebreeding Effect of Neonatal Lactation Litter Size on Sow Longevity 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 F1 100 0 R1 F2 R2 F3 R3 F4 R4 F5 R5 F6E B Production phase < 7 piglets > 10 piglets Adapted from Flowers 05-082
  17. 17. Effect of Birth Weight on Longevity
  18. 18. E = Entry B = Breeding - gilts F = Farrowing R = Rebreeding Effect of Replacement Gilt Birth Weight on Sow LongevityFemalesremaininginproduction(%) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 F1 100 0 R1 F2 R2 F3 R3 F4 R4 F5 R5 F6E B Production phase 2.6 - 3.5 lbs < 2.5 lbs > 3.6 lbs Adapted from Flowers 05-082
  19. 19. Effect of Colostrum Intake on Puberty Failure Adapted from Vallet 12-209
  20. 20. Effect of Nursery Floor Space on Productivity
  21. 21. Item Floor space allowance, ft2 /pig Gilt Birth Size 1.6 2.0 2.9 SE P S M L SE P Initial BW, lb 12.6 12.5 12.2 0.07 0.12 4.43a 5.60b 6.92c 0.07 <0.01 Final BW, lb 56.1a 57.4a 59.2b 0.3 <0.01 23.1a 26.1b 29.4c 0.3 <0.01 ADG, lb 0.94a 0.99a 1.01b 0.01 <0.01 0.40a 0.45b 0.49c 0.01 <0.01 Impact of Birth Weight and Floor Space on Growth Rate Adapted from Estienne 11-118
  22. 22. Item: Nursery space allowance, ft2 /gilt 1.83 2.69 3.55 Number of gilts1 585 448 361 Parity 1 Total born 12.94 12.93 12.92 Born alive 12.24 12.17 12.20 Born dead 0.71 0.78 0.74 Parity 2 Total born 13.08a 13.62b 13.05a,b Born alive 12.47a 13.00b 12.49a,b Born dead 0.64 0.66 0.60 Parity 3 Total born 14.11 14.14 13.84 Born alive 13.34 13.36 13.11 Born dead 0.76 0.76 0.71 Parities 1 to 32 Total born 33.05 32.85 32.56 Born alive 31.35 31.10 30.94 Impact of Nursery Floor Space on Sow Productivity
  23. 23. Development of a Physiological Test For Sow Longevity
  24. 24. Sow Retention for Reduced Neonatal Litter Size (< 7 pigs) Adapted from Flowers 11-103
  25. 25. Sow Retention for Normal Neonatal Litter Size (< 10 pigs) Adapted from Flowers 11-103
  26. 26. Relocation of Gilts Post-breeding
  27. 27. RELwk1 RELwk2 RELwk3 P-value n 194 186 183 Inter estrus interval, d 20.7±0.3x 22.1 ± 0.3y 23.0 ± 0.4y < .001 Normal inter-estrus interval of 18 to 24 d, % 83.9 ± 3.2 85.9 ± 3.3 78.3 ± 3.3 0.24 Shorter inter-estrus interval of < 18 d, % 9.8 ± 1.9x 3.2 ± 1.9y 2.3 ± 1.9y < .001 Longer inter-estrus interval of > 24 d, % 6.4 ± 2.5x 11.3 ± 2.6x 19.4 ± 2.6y < .001 No. of services 1.9 ± 0.03 1.9 ± 0.03 1.8 ± 0.03 0.59 4 wk conception rate, % 89.6 ± 2.5 90.0 ± 2.5 88.0 ± 2.6 0.81 Farrowing rate, % 84.2 ± 2.9 86.9 ± 3.0 84.6 ± 3.0 0.69 Total born/litter 13.4 ± 0.3 13.8 ± 0.3 13.3 ± 0.3 0.28 Pigs born alive/litter 12.5 ± 0.3 12.9 ± 0.3 12.5 ± 0.3 0.53 Gilts rebred within 7 d, % 95.4 ± 2.0 92.8 ± 2.0 95.1 ± 2.0 0.54 Timing of Relocation of Gilts on Performance
  28. 28. Key Take Aways • Improvement in sow lifetime productivity will substantially impact profitability of all phases of production • Litter of origin has a significant affect on sow lifetime productivity • Gilt selection, development and management is one key to improving sow lifetime productivity
  29. 29. SLP-Related Resources Stock No. Title 04764 Replacement Gilt Evaluation Pocket Guide 04822 Heat Detection Poster 04969 Scoring Sow Body Condition Poster 07002 Seeing What You Feel Poster 04842 Selection Guide Poster Set
  30. 30. This message funded by America’s Pork Producers and the Pork Checkoff www.pork.org/research

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