World Languages


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World Languages

  1. 1. World LanguagesDifferences between English andArabic, Chinese, Kayah, and Hindi by Gloria Thorpe
  2. 2. Turn to a partner and describeto them exactly where youkeep scissors in your house orapartment.However, you must place all prepositionsbehind the nounEg: my house in the floor on a short table next to a painting under ocean of
  3. 3. Discuss with your partneryour reaction to the previous activity
  4. 4. Students of a new language have many rules to learn, as well as habits of speech to change
  6. 6. EnglishTom’s nice cat is in thekitchen
  7. 7. ArabicCat Tom nice the kitchenin
  8. 8. ChineseTom nice describe cat onekitchen in
  9. 9. KayahTom’s nice cat is kitchen in
  10. 10. HindiTom’s nice cat kitchen in is.
  11. 11. Now, work with a partner to saythese words: Vjio Pzae Ngucdt
  12. 12. Of 26 teenage ELLs surveyed, 85%reported that pronunciation has been the most difficult aspect of learning English.
  13. 13. Arabic
  14. 14. Varieties of Arabic Egypt – 50 million speakers Algeria – 22 million speakers Sudan – 19 million speakers Iraq/Saudi Arabia/Syria – 14 million speakers
  15. 15. English words drawn fromArabic  Crocus  Syrup  Ghoul  Candy  Giraffe  Alcohol  Algorithm  Lime  Camel  Sash  Sugar  Cable  Borax
  16. 16. Considerations for English learners 1/3 of English vowel sounds  Use of only ◦ “Sheep” versus “Ship” is difficult  Consistent syllable stress ◦ English stress is random and inconsistent  HOLiday  toMORrow  yesterDAY  Consistent patterns to distinguish parts of speech (eg. “ly” indicates adverbs) ◦ Lack of consistent patterns in English are confusing  No use of “to be” in present tense ◦ “The man nice” versus “The man is nice”  Leads to incorrect speaking in English  Consonant clusters (“spl”, “tch”) are rareDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
  17. 17. Kayah
  18. 18. Language of Karenni people inBurma 210,000 speakers Recently developed written language ◦ Low literacy rate of 20-50%
  19. 19. Considerations for English learners  Possible low exposure to reading and writing  Similar rules of grammar to English  Many different sounds ◦ Includes sounds that are not found in English ◦ Excludes many consonant clusters (“dr” & “ch”)Discuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
  20. 20. Chinese (Mandarin)
  21. 21. Mandarin Most common Chinese dialect/language 1,200,000 speakers Written symbols indicate meaning, rather than sound ◦ Written language is shared between different dialects and languages ◦ About 50,000 characters Tonal language ◦ Pitch of voice influences meaning of
  22. 22. Considerations for English learners  Phonetic alphabet is a new concept and, therefore, confusing  Difficulty distinguishing “r” “l” and “n”  Low exposure to words ending in consonants ◦ Vowel sounds may be added or extended  Use of tone to express emotion may be confusingDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
  23. 23. Hindi
  24. 24. Hindi Spoken by 370, 000 people Official language of India Closely related to 7 languages ◦ Such as Urdu, in Pakistan and Nepal
  25. 25. Considerations for English leaners  ½ vowels of English  2X consonants of English ◦ Sound patterns are unfamiliar  Highly phonetic language ◦ English phonics are inconsistent  Lack of “th” sound  Consistent syllable stress  Different use of present continuous ◦ I am not knowing the answerDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
  26. 26. References Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Shoebottom, P. (2012a). The differences between English and Arabic. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from Shoebottom, P. (2012b). The differences between English and Chinese. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from Mylanguages Ltd. (2011a). Learn Arabic. Retrieved from Mylanguages Ltd. (2011b). Learn Chinese. Retrieved from (2011). Arabic for beginners. Retrieved from Ager, S. (2012a). Arabic. Retrieved from Ager, S. (2012b). Kayah Li. Retrieved from International Organization for Migration Cultural Orientation Team. (2009). Retrieved from Helgerson, H.A. (2009, October). Kayah Li. Retrieved from Chinese-Lessons. (2006). Chinese lessons. Retrieved from http://www.chinese- Living Language. (2007). Spoken word Hindi: A complete course for beginners. Broadway, MD: Random House, Inc.