World LanguagesDifferences between English andArabic, Chinese, Kayah, and Hindi by Gloria Thorpe
Turn to a partner and describeto them exactly where youkeep scissors in your house orapartment.However, you must place all prepositionsbehind the nounEg: my house in the floor on a short table next to a painting under ocean of
Discuss with your partneryour reaction to the previous activity
Students of a new language have many rules to learn, as well as habits of speech to change
Considerations for English learners 1/3 of English vowel sounds Use of only ◦ “Sheep” versus “Ship” is difficult Consistent syllable stress ◦ English stress is random and inconsistent HOLiday toMORrow yesterDAY Consistent patterns to distinguish parts of speech (eg. “ly” indicates adverbs) ◦ Lack of consistent patterns in English are confusing No use of “to be” in present tense ◦ “The man nice” versus “The man is nice” Leads to incorrect speaking in English Consonant clusters (“spl”, “tch”) are rareDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
Language of Karenni people inBurma 210,000 speakers Recently developed written language ◦ Low literacy rate of 20-50%
Considerations for English learners Possible low exposure to reading and writing Similar rules of grammar to English Many different sounds ◦ Includes sounds that are not found in English ◦ Excludes many consonant clusters (“dr” & “ch”)Discuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
Mandarin Most common Chinese dialect/language 1,200,000 speakers Written symbols indicate meaning, rather than sound ◦ Written language is shared between different dialects and languages ◦ About 50,000 characters Tonal language ◦ Pitch of voice influences meaning of
Considerations for English learners Phonetic alphabet is a new concept and, therefore, confusing Difficulty distinguishing “r” “l” and “n” Low exposure to words ending in consonants ◦ Vowel sounds may be added or extended Use of tone to express emotion may be confusingDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
Hindi Spoken by 370, 000 people Official language of India Closely related to 7 languages ◦ Such as Urdu, in Pakistan and Nepal
Considerations for English leaners ½ vowels of English 2X consonants of English ◦ Sound patterns are unfamiliar Highly phonetic language ◦ English phonics are inconsistent Lack of “th” sound Consistent syllable stress Different use of present continuous ◦ I am not knowing the answerDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
References Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Shoebottom, P. (2012a). The differences between English and Arabic. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/arabic.htm Shoebottom, P. (2012b). The differences between English and Chinese. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/chinese.htm Mylanguages Ltd. (2011a). Learn Arabic. Retrieved from http://mylanguages.org/learn_arabic.php Mylanguages Ltd. (2011b). Learn Chinese. Retrieved from http://mylanguages.org/learn_chinese.php LearnArabicFree.info. (2011). Arabic for beginners. Retrieved from http://learnarabicfree.info/beginners/ Ager, S. (2012a). Arabic. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/arabic.htm Ager, S. (2012b). Kayah Li. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kayahli.htm International Organization for Migration Cultural Orientation Team. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.churchworldservice.org/ Helgerson, H.A. (2009, October). Kayah Li. Retrieved from http://www.karennirefugees.com/uploads/3/0/1/9/3019325/learning_kayah.pdf Chinese-Lessons. (2006). Chinese lessons. Retrieved from http://www.chinese- lessons.com/ Living Language. (2007). Spoken word Hindi: A complete course for beginners. Broadway, MD: Random House, Inc.