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- 2. Investigating Effect of Computer Simulations in Physics Teaching at Undergraduate Level Author Popat S. Tambade Co-author Dr. B. G. Wagh Submitted to E-Learn 2008 – World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education Prof. Ramkrishna More College, Akurdi, Pune, INDIA K. A. A. N. M. Sonawane College, Satana, Nashik, INDIA [email_address]
- 3. Process of learning …….. Expectation from students ……. <ul><li>Have ability to solve standard physics problems </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate them into conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the reasoning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the formalism of physics to objects and events in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Develop functional understanding </li></ul>
- 4. Classroom Scenario <ul><li>Write down every equation or the law that the teacher puts on the blackboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorize these, together with the list of formulae at the end of each chapter. </li></ul><ul><li>Do enough rote homework and end-of-the chapter problems to recognize which formula to be applied to which problem. </li></ul>Contd…..
- 5. <ul><li>Pass the examinations by selecting the correct formulas for the problems on the examination. </li></ul><ul><li>Erase all information from the brain after the exam to make the room for the next set of the materials </li></ul>Classroom Scenario….
- 6. Objectives <ul><li>To identify difficulties in learning physics </li></ul><ul><li>To overcome difficulties in learning physics and simplify concepts in physics </li></ul><ul><li>To develop the computer simulation package on the topics of Oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a tool (diagnostic test) to measure the effect of learning through use of computer simulations and traditional methods </li></ul><ul><li>To induce proper concepts of physics </li></ul>
- 7. Research Questions <ul><li>In Oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be able to interpret formulae in physics? </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be able to interpret graphical representations in physics? </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be able to interpret physics in given situations? </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be consistent of conceptual understanding? </li></ul>
- 8. Research Work Method <ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li> Students from </li></ul><ul><li>1. Prof. Ramkrishna More College, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>2. Baburaoji Gholap College, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>3. Annasaheb Magar College, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>4. Waghire College, Otur, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>Total 128 students from 2005-06 and 2006-07 </li></ul>Experimental Research work method is used <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Students from second year undergraduate physics affiliated to University of Pune </li></ul>
- 9. <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic tests </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from the students </li></ul>
- 10. Flow chart of design of study Traditional lectures Pretest Control Group Experimental Group Special sessions using computer simulations and Group discussions Posttest Revision by traditional method Data analysis
- 11. Interactive Physics Simulation Package <ul><li>IPSP has following simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Stable and Unstable Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy curves </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Mass System Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Spring mass system horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Pendulum </li></ul><ul><li>K. E. and P. E. Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Lissajous Figures </li></ul>A PowerPoint Slide show was developed and these simulations were linked at appropriate places Click
- 12. Survey Results Oscillations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14 15
- 13. Difficulties in Oscillations <ul><li>Difficulty in interpretation of potential energy curves </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty to see variation in velocity along the path of oscillator </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in separating out various parameters of oscillation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in interpretation of graphs of position, velocity and acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>Students answers to two similar questions posed in different representations have strikingly different results </li></ul>
- 14. Pretest-Posttest Results <ul><li>Oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>second year undergraduate science (2005-06) and (2006-07) </li></ul>Table shows that the two groups are equivalent. [ t critical =2.36 for df = 126 ] Significant difference between control and experimental group 14.05 S. D. 37.16% Mean 64 N Experimental 16.56 S. D. 37.72% Mean 0.420 0.20 (Not significant ) 64 N Control p t-value (0.01) Pretest Group 10.07 78.71% 0.66 (0.1367 ) 64 13.46 54.22% 1.35 10 –29 14.78 (Significant) 0.25 (0.1748) 64 p t –value (0.01) <g> (s.d.) Posttest
- 15. <ul><li>Conceptual understanding </li></ul>Consistency Interpretation of physics Interpretation of graph Interpretation of formula
- 16. Results <ul><li>The experimental and control group were equivalent at the pretest. </li></ul><ul><li>After treatment the normalized gain in the case of experimental group is significantly high as compared to the control group. The t- value of the comparison of results of control group and experimental group is high and significant at 0.01 levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The treatment given to experimental group is effective </li></ul>
- 17. About Simulations <ul><li>Computer simulations have great potential to advance conceptual change by helping students move from their alternative science conceptions to correct conceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>The information provided in tandem with the simulations was more beneficial than the information provided before the simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>When students use a complex simulation, group learning may be more effective than an individual learning context. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to have more effect, simulations must be combined with some external support, such as text material, assignments, model progression, workbooks etc. </li></ul>
- 18. Thank You AACE and Participants
- 19. Pretest and Posttest <ul><li>15 multiple choice questions on Oscillations </li></ul>Test content <ul><li>Mathematical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the equations </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of graphical representations </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the physics (what happens) </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the consistency of conceptual understanding </li></ul>Student had to choose correct answer as well as give proper reasoning for each question R
- 20. Pretest…. R Oscillations 0.83 Reliability index 0.31 Avg. discrimination index 0.56 Avg. difficulty index Diagnostic Test Index
- 21. Analysis of Data R <ul><li>Actual gain for each students </li></ul>G = %posttest – %pretest <ul><ul><li>Maximum possible gain for each student </li></ul></ul>G max = 100 – %pretest <ul><li>Normalized gain for each student </li></ul><ul><li>Find class average normalized gain < g > with standard deviation </li></ul><ul><li>t – test over average normalized gain at 0.01 level </li></ul>g = %posttest – %pretest 100 – %pretest
- 22. Q1. See the following potential energy curve of simple harmonic oscillator. Out of four points shown on the curve at which point the force acting on the particle is more. (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D Reason : return
- 23. <ul><li>Q 2. Which one of the following figures correctly represents the graph of period T against mass m of the oscillator. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason : </li></ul><ul><li>Q3. An oscillator is oscillating between – 5cm and +5cm through 0 as shown in figure. </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the phase difference between displacement and velocity at x = 4 cm from equilibrium position. </li></ul><ul><li>30 0 (b) 60 0 (c) 180 0 (d) 90 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Reason : </li></ul><ul><li>return </li></ul>
- 24. Q4. We have four oscillators O 1 , O 2 , O 3 and O 4 having masses 10 gm, 15 gm, 20 gm and 25 gm respectively. Suppose they are oscillating along the same path each with amplitude 5 cm as shown in Fig. Which oscillator will take more time to move from position x = 4cm to x = 3cm. (a) O 1 (b) O 2 (c) O 3 (d) O 4 Reason : Q5. See question (4) which oscillator will make more oscillations in one second? (a) O 1 (b) O 2 (c) O 3 (d) O 4 Reason : Q6. Two oscillators O 1 and O 2 with masses 10 gm and 20 gm respectively are oscillating with the same amplitudes 5 cm and along the same path. Both have the same force constant. Let v 1 and v 2 be the velocities of O 1 and O 2 respectively at x = 4 cm from equilibrium position. Then (a) v 1 = v 2 (b) v 1 < v 2 (c) v 1 > v 2 (d) nothing can be said Reason : return
- 25. Q7 : An oscillator of mass 10 gm is oscillating along the straight line with period 2 sec with amplitude 5 cm. Let t 1 be the time taken by the oscillator to go from position 4 cm to 3 cm and t 2 be the time taken by the oscillator to go from position 2 cm to 1 cm. Then which one of the following is correct. (a) t 1 = t 2 (b) t 1 > t 2 (c) t 1 < t 2 (d) Nothing can be said. Reason : Q8 : See the following potential energy curve of an-harmonic oscillator. Out of four points shown on the curve at which point the force acting on the particle is less. (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D Reason : return
- 26. Q9. See following potential energy curves. When particles are moving in these potential, in which potential the particle will perform simple harmonic motion. Reason : Q10. See the potential energy curves in Q.9. In which potential the force acting on the particle will always be constant. (a) a (b) b (c) c (d) d Reason : return
- 27. Q11. See the Fig. below. The spring constants (force constants) k 1 > k 2 . Both the masses are oscillating with the same amplitude on a frictionless surface. Which mass will have maximum velocity at equilibrium position. (a) (b) Mass in (2) (c) Both will have the same velocity. (d) None of the above Reason : Mass in (1) 12. We have spring of spring constant k, length L and mass m. The spring is cut into two equal parts such that each part has spring constant k 1 , length L/2 and mass m/2. Then (a) k 1 = k (b) k 1 < k (c) k 1 > k (d) nothing can be said. Reason : return
- 28. Q13. Which one of the following does not depend on the amplitude of oscillations in SHM (a) velocity (b) frequency (c) energy (d) potential energy Reason : Q14. Which one of the following is independent of displacement from mean position in SHM? (a) velocity (b) energy (c) kinetic energy (d) force. Reason : Q15. If the frequency of oscillator is υ , what will be the frequency of kinetic energy? (a) υ (b) 2 υ (c) 3 υ (d) 4 υ return

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