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    1. 2. Investigating Effect of Computer Simulations in Physics Teaching at Undergraduate Level Author Popat S. Tambade Co-author Dr. B. G. Wagh Submitted to E-Learn 2008 – World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education Prof. Ramkrishna More College, Akurdi, Pune, INDIA K. A. A. N. M. Sonawane College, Satana, Nashik, INDIA [email_address]
    2. 3. Process of learning …….. Expectation from students ……. <ul><li>Have ability to solve standard physics problems </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate them into conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the reasoning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the formalism of physics to objects and events in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Develop functional understanding </li></ul>
    3. 4. Classroom Scenario <ul><li>Write down every equation or the law that the teacher puts on the blackboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorize these, together with the list of formulae at the end of each chapter. </li></ul><ul><li>Do enough rote homework and end-of-the chapter problems to recognize which formula to be applied to which problem. </li></ul>Contd…..
    4. 5. <ul><li>Pass the examinations by selecting the correct formulas for the problems on the examination. </li></ul><ul><li>Erase all information from the brain after the exam to make the room for the next set of the materials </li></ul>Classroom Scenario….
    5. 6. Objectives <ul><li>To identify difficulties in learning physics </li></ul><ul><li>To overcome difficulties in learning physics and simplify concepts in physics </li></ul><ul><li>To develop the computer simulation package on the topics of Oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a tool (diagnostic test) to measure the effect of learning through use of computer simulations and traditional methods </li></ul><ul><li>To induce proper concepts of physics </li></ul>
    6. 7. Research Questions <ul><li>In Oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be able to interpret formulae in physics? </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be able to interpret graphical representations in physics? </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be able to interpret physics in given situations? </li></ul><ul><li>Will students be consistent of conceptual understanding? </li></ul>
    7. 8. Research Work Method <ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li> Students from </li></ul><ul><li>1. Prof. Ramkrishna More College, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>2. Baburaoji Gholap College, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>3. Annasaheb Magar College, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>4. Waghire College, Otur, Pune </li></ul><ul><li>Total 128 students from 2005-06 and 2006-07 </li></ul>Experimental Research work method is used <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Students from second year undergraduate physics affiliated to University of Pune </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic tests </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from the students </li></ul>
    9. 10. Flow chart of design of study Traditional lectures Pretest Control Group Experimental Group Special sessions using computer simulations and Group discussions Posttest Revision by traditional method Data analysis
    10. 11. Interactive Physics Simulation Package <ul><li>IPSP has following simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Stable and Unstable Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy curves </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Mass System Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Spring mass system horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Pendulum </li></ul><ul><li>K. E. and P. E. Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Lissajous Figures </li></ul>A PowerPoint Slide show was developed and these simulations were linked at appropriate places Click
    11. 12. Survey Results Oscillations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14 15
    12. 13. Difficulties in Oscillations <ul><li>Difficulty in interpretation of potential energy curves </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty to see variation in velocity along the path of oscillator </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in separating out various parameters of oscillation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in interpretation of graphs of position, velocity and acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>Students answers to two similar questions posed in different representations have strikingly different results </li></ul>
    13. 14. Pretest-Posttest Results <ul><li>Oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>second year undergraduate science (2005-06) and (2006-07) </li></ul>Table shows that the two groups are equivalent. [ t critical =2.36 for df = 126 ] Significant difference between control and experimental group 14.05 S. D. 37.16% Mean 64 N Experimental 16.56 S. D. 37.72% Mean 0.420 0.20 (Not significant ) 64 N Control p t-value (0.01) Pretest Group 10.07 78.71% 0.66 (0.1367 ) 64 13.46 54.22% 1.35  10 –29 14.78 (Significant) 0.25 (0.1748) 64 p t –value (0.01) <g> (s.d.) Posttest
    14. 15. <ul><li>Conceptual understanding </li></ul>Consistency Interpretation of physics Interpretation of graph Interpretation of formula
    15. 16. Results <ul><li>The experimental and control group were equivalent at the pretest. </li></ul><ul><li>After treatment the normalized gain in the case of experimental group is significantly high as compared to the control group. The t- value of the comparison of results of control group and experimental group is high and significant at 0.01 levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The treatment given to experimental group is effective </li></ul>
    16. 17. About Simulations <ul><li>Computer simulations have great potential to advance conceptual change by helping students move from their alternative science conceptions to correct conceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>The information provided in tandem with the simulations was more beneficial than the information provided before the simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>When students use a complex simulation, group learning may be more effective than an individual learning context. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to have more effect, simulations must be combined with some external support, such as text material, assignments, model progression, workbooks etc. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Thank You AACE and Participants
    18. 19. Pretest and Posttest <ul><li>15 multiple choice questions on Oscillations </li></ul>Test content <ul><li>Mathematical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the equations </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of graphical representations </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the physics (what happens) </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the consistency of conceptual understanding </li></ul>Student had to choose correct answer as well as give proper reasoning for each question R
    19. 20. Pretest…. R Oscillations 0.83 Reliability index 0.31 Avg. discrimination index 0.56 Avg. difficulty index Diagnostic Test Index
    20. 21. Analysis of Data R <ul><li>Actual gain for each students </li></ul>G = %posttest – %pretest <ul><ul><li>Maximum possible gain for each student </li></ul></ul>G max = 100 – %pretest <ul><li>Normalized gain for each student </li></ul><ul><li>Find class average normalized gain < g > with standard deviation </li></ul><ul><li>t – test over average normalized gain at 0.01 level </li></ul>g = %posttest – %pretest 100 – %pretest
    21. 22. Q1. See the following potential energy curve of simple harmonic oscillator. Out of four points shown on the curve at which point the force acting on the particle is more. (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D   Reason : return 
    22. 23. <ul><li>Q 2. Which one of the following figures correctly represents the graph of period T against mass m of the oscillator. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason : </li></ul><ul><li>Q3. An oscillator is oscillating between – 5cm and +5cm through 0 as shown in figure. </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the phase difference between displacement and velocity at x = 4 cm from equilibrium position. </li></ul><ul><li>30 0 (b) 60 0 (c) 180 0 (d) 90 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Reason : </li></ul><ul><li>return </li></ul>
    23. 24. Q4. We have four oscillators O 1 , O 2 , O 3 and O 4 having masses 10 gm, 15 gm, 20 gm and 25 gm respectively. Suppose they are oscillating along the same path each with amplitude 5 cm as shown in Fig. Which oscillator will take more time to move from position x = 4cm to x = 3cm. (a) O 1 (b) O 2 (c) O 3 (d) O 4 Reason : Q5. See question (4) which oscillator will make more oscillations in one second? (a) O 1 (b) O 2 (c) O 3 (d) O 4 Reason : Q6. Two oscillators O 1 and O 2 with masses 10 gm and 20 gm respectively are oscillating with the same amplitudes 5 cm and along the same path. Both have the same force constant. Let v 1 and v 2 be the velocities of O 1 and O 2 respectively at x = 4 cm from equilibrium position. Then (a) v 1 = v 2 (b) v 1 < v 2 (c) v 1 > v 2 (d) nothing can be said Reason : return
    24. 25. Q7 : An oscillator of mass 10 gm is oscillating along the straight line with period 2 sec with amplitude 5 cm. Let t 1 be the time taken by the oscillator to go from position 4 cm to 3 cm and t 2 be the time taken by the oscillator to go from position 2 cm to 1 cm. Then which one of the following is correct.   (a) t 1 = t 2 (b) t 1 > t 2 (c) t 1 < t 2 (d) Nothing can be said. Reason : Q8 : See the following potential energy curve of an-harmonic oscillator. Out of four points shown on the curve at which point the force acting on the particle is less. (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D   Reason : return        
    25. 26. Q9. See following potential energy curves. When particles are moving in these potential, in which potential the particle will perform simple harmonic motion. Reason :   Q10. See the potential energy curves in Q.9. In which potential the force acting on the particle will always be constant. (a) a (b) b (c) c (d) d Reason :   return
    26. 27.   Q11. See the Fig. below. The spring constants (force constants) k 1 > k 2 . Both the masses are oscillating with the same amplitude on a frictionless surface. Which mass will have maximum velocity at equilibrium position. (a)     (b)    Mass in (2) (c)    Both will have the same velocity. (d)    None of the above Reason :       Mass in (1) 12. We have spring of spring constant k, length L and mass m. The spring is cut into two equal parts such that each part has spring constant k 1 , length L/2 and mass m/2. Then (a) k 1 = k (b) k 1 < k (c) k 1 > k (d) nothing can be said. Reason : return
    27. 28. Q13. Which one of the following does not depend on the amplitude of oscillations in SHM (a) velocity (b) frequency (c) energy (d) potential energy Reason :     Q14. Which one of the following is independent of displacement from mean position in SHM? (a) velocity (b) energy (c) kinetic energy (d) force. Reason : Q15. If the frequency of oscillator is υ , what will be the frequency of kinetic energy? (a) υ (b) 2 υ (c) 3 υ (d) 4 υ return