Lecture 9: Customer Discovery


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In this lecture, Poornima covers best practices for identifying who customers are, creating personas, and conducting customer interviews.

You can watch the lecture here: http://youtu.be/MdAyEMPq4cs

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Lecture 9: Customer Discovery

  1. 1. Duke ECE 490L: How to Start New Ventures in Electrical and Computer Engineering Poornima Vijayashanker poornima@femgineer.com Jeff Glass jeff.glass@duke.edu Akshay Raut ar118@duke.edu 1
  2. 2. Review Duke ECE 490L • More on positioning! • Digging into the Competitor • Horizontal vs. Vertical Market • Substitutes • Secondary Markets • Point Tool vs. Integrated Solutions • Customer Discovery 2
  3. 3. Announcements • Quiz 1 results coming soon! • Questions on Lab 2? Duke ECE 490L 3
  4. 4. Idea Summary 4
  5. 5. Agenda Duke ECE 490L • Customer Discovery • Mental Models • Customer Interviews 5
  6. 6. Duke ECE 490L Still no building... 6
  7. 7. Duke ECE 490L Myth of the omniscient founder. Supplemental Reading: The Steve Jobs Way 7
  8. 8. Duke ECE 490L Customer Discovery Validation Customer Creation Business/Company Formation Early Adopter Pricing Product Distribution Mainstream Adopters Money for Marketing Market Research 8
  9. 9. Duke ECE 490L Customer Discovery Validation Customer Creation Business/Company Formation Early Adopter Pricing Product Distribution 9
  10. 10. Test across various user segments. Duke ECE 490L 10
  11. 11. Duke ECE 490L Mental Model of an early adopter. 11
  12. 12. Duke ECE 490L Mental models give you a deep understanding of people’s motivations and thought-processes, along with the emotional and philosophical landscape in which they are operating. Supplemental Reading: Mental Models 12
  13. 13. Duke ECE 490L Mental Model per segment. 13
  14. 14. Duke ECE 490L Understand the differences to bring clarity to design and product implementation. 14
  15. 15. Benefits of Mental Models Duke ECE 490L • Confidence in your design: guide the design of the solution • Clarity in direction: make good user and business decisions • Continuity of strategy: ensure longevity of vision and opportunity 15
  16. 16. Duke ECE 490L How do you know the design is right? 16
  17. 17. Duke ECE 490L Research. 17
  18. 18. Case Study: Frank Gehry Disney Hall Duke ECE 490L • Disney Hall: think about how people listen • Worked closely with acoustician to produce BIG and small sounds • Conductor thinks about on stage • Musician’s relationship to the room 18
  19. 19. Duke ECE 490L Whole experience. 19
  20. 20. Duke ECE 490L Pay attention to the entire spectrum of interactions customer will have, not just a single service or tool. 20
  21. 21. Duke ECE 490L MM captures cognitive intent and emotion, social environment, and cultural traits of a concept. 21
  22. 22. Duke ECE 490L What does that mean? 22
  23. 23. Duke ECE 490L 23
  24. 24. Duke ECE 490L Science + Intuition = communicate product info 24
  25. 25. Purpose of Mental Models Duke ECE 490L • Validate ideas and match them to needs of customers • Mental models capture • Cognitive intent • Emotions • Social and culture traits of a concept • Experience Strategy = Business Strategy + UX Strategy • Jesse James Garrett 25
  26. 26. Duke ECE 490L How do we create a mental model? 26
  27. 27. Duke ECE 490L 1. Learn verbs of a customer. 27
  28. 28. Duke ECE 490L e.g. Yoga studio owner 28
  29. 29. Duke ECE 490L Teach yoga classes. Take attendance. Schedule instructors. Ask students for payments. Owns or manages studio. Performs back office tasks or business partner does. 29
  30. 30. Duke ECE 490L e.g. Yoga instructor 30
  31. 31. Duke ECE 490L Teach yoga classes 1-1. Teach yoga classes at a studio. Teach yoga classes in corporations. May teach full-time or part-time. Take attendance. Ask students for payments. Travel to teach. 31
  32. 32. Duke ECE 490L 2. Create personas. 32
  33. 33. Duke ECE 490L Personas are user profiles that help design and other teams such as sales and marketing get more useful products into the hands of customers. Supplemental Reading: Getting Your Startup Team to Understand Your Customer, About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design 33
  34. 34. Personas Benefit Other Teams Duke ECE 490L • Marketing • Develop positions based on personas • Sales • Communicate how product will meet needs of customers • Engineering • Understand importance of building not for themselves but for the customer by understanding customer’s needs 34
  35. 35. Personas Benefit Other Teams Duke ECE 490L • Focus on end goals & life goals • what a person wishes to accomplish • why a person wishes to accomplish something • Create Segments • task based: people who do similar things but don’t necessarily buy the same product • e.g. teens & seniors are both “movie-goers” • Avoid traditional market segment traps • list distinguishing behavior • group behavior • name groups 35
  36. 36. Avoid Traditional Marketing Segment Traps Duke ECE 490L • List distinguishing behaviors: Sketch out all the ways many types of individuals might behave • Group the behaviors: study these behaviors and put them into groups • Name the groups: assign provisional labels to the groups 36
  37. 37. Duke ECE 490L Multiple user segments, each has a different need. 37
  38. 38. Duke ECE 490L Determining needs will help with design. 38
  39. 39. Duke ECE 490L To determine needs we need to do user research. 39
  40. 40. Duke ECE 490L User Research Types. 40
  41. 41. Duke ECE 490L Data Technique Uses Preferences Opinions, likes, dislikes Survey Focus Group Mood Boards Preference Interview Customer Feedback Visual Design Branding Market Analysis Advertising Campaigns Evaluative What is understood or accomplished with a tool. Usability Test Log Analysis Search Analysis Customer Feedback Interaction Functionality Screen Layout Nomenclature Information Architecture Generative Mental environment in which things get done Non-Directed Interview Mental Model Diary Ethnography Contextual Inquiry Navigation & Flow Interaction Design Alignment & Gap Analysis Contextual Marketing 41
  42. 42. Duke ECE 490L Set goals relating back to customer discovery. 42
  43. 43. Duke ECE 490L Personas come out of interviewing user segments. 43
  44. 44. Duke ECE 490L Collect feedback and categorize customers. 44
  45. 45. Duke ECE 490L Yoga Studio Owner/Manager Yoga Instructor 45
  46. 46. Duke ECE 490L Some needs will be the same. While others have a stark contrast. 46
  47. 47. Duke ECE 490L Results from interview will point out the general cases. 47
  48. 48. Interview Checklist Duke ECE 490L • How many of each audience segment to select • Demographics to select, if applicable • A qualification questionnaire for recruiters to use • Questions to make certain that the candidate is able to carry on a long enough conversation • A schedule with available interview appointments • A list of qualifying candidates 48
  49. 49. 6 Rules for Mental Models Interviews Duke ECE 490L 1. Behaviors and philosophies, not product preferences 2. Open questions only 3. No words of your own 4. Follow the conversation 5. Not about tools 6. Immediate experience 49
  50. 50. Open-Ended Questions Duke ECE 490L • Elicit more info • compared to yes/no • Don’t bias answers • doesn’t distract their thinking • Let’s people direct answers to what they think is important • “Tell me more...” 50
  51. 51. Examples of Open-Ended Questions Duke ECE 490L • How did you do that? • How did you actually get that info? • So is that’s one of the things you’re doing right now? (Encouraging him to tell me more.) • How do you keep up to date on the latest? • Can you mention a couple of examples? • Can you tell me…what are your next steps? 51
  52. 52. Duke ECE 490L Find out as much as possible about the customer. 52
  53. 53. Digging Deeper into the Personas Duke ECE 490L • Where do they hang out? • What do they read? • Who influences them? Or recommends products? 53
  54. 54. Duke ECE 490L Interview results. 54
  55. 55. Duke ECE 490L 3. Comb for tasks. 55
  56. 56. Duke ECE 490L Type of Task Definition Task a phrase setting an action or step to accomplish something. Implied Task a not-so-clear phrase implying an action “Every class students come in and we need to check them in." Third-Party Task a phrase that mentions a task someone else does “My front desk person checks students in.” Philosophy a phrase stating a belief of why tasks are done a certain way “Taking attendance should be fast and easy.” Feeling a phrase describing a person’s feelings “When all students are checked in I know classes run smoothly.” 56
  57. 57. Duke ECE 490L Interest Level Definition Preference a phrase stating a person’s likes or dislikes “I don’t like asking students for money right when they check-in.” Desire a phrase stating what the person wants “I wish students would just pre-pay for classes.” Expectation a belief that something will happen “I think students will know how to pre-pay for classes.” 57
  58. 58. Duke ECE 490L Quote Task Type of Task “I need to stay organized to keep my business on-track.” Would feel business is going well if they were more organized. Desire “I take attendance before each class.” Takes attendance. Task “Tracking attendance and letting students see it keeps them honest about paying on time.” Believes taking attendance keeps students honest. Feeling 58
  59. 59. Duke ECE 490L What’s the point? 59
  60. 60. Duke ECE 490L Customer Discovery Validation Customer Creation Business/Company Formation 60
  61. 61. Duke ECE 490L Tasks What customers do that you might want to design a solution for. Desire, Feelings, Preference, Expectations Characterizes level of need. 61
  62. 62. Duke ECE 490L 4. Match personas to tasks. 62
  63. 63. Duke ECE 490L Yoga Instructor Teaches yoga. Takes attendance. Asks for payment. Yoga Studio Owner Teaches at one studio. Travels to teach yoga. 63
  64. 64. Duke ECE 490L 5. Look for patterns. 64
  65. 65. Duke ECE 490L Track Attendance Inform Students about Membership Status Take Payments Task: Takes attendance before classes. Task: Informs students they are expired. Task: Teaches students yoga. Desire: Get paid on time to stay in business. Desire: Students would pre-pay. Preference: Doesn’t like asking students to pay right when they check-in. Task: Takes payments from students. Desire: Wants to teach more. Preference: Likes interacting with students. Preference: Doesn’t enjoy doing mundane business tasks. 65
  66. 66. Duke ECE 490L 6. Tasks become “stories”. 66
  67. 67. Duke ECE 490L Persona + what is it they are doing = accomplish a goal. 67
  68. 68. Duke ECE 490L As a yoga studio owner, I’d like to take attendance as students check-in to class. Example: 68
  69. 69. Duke ECE 490L As a yoga instructor, I’d like to keep track of the students I teach privately. Example: 69
  70. 70. Duke ECE 490L As a yoga business person, I’d like to keep track of the my students memberships. Example: 70
  71. 71. Duke ECE 490L As a yoga business person, I’d like to get paid on time so that I can stay in business. Example: 71
  72. 72. Duke ECE 490L 7. Stories feed into features. 72
  73. 73. Duke ECE 490L Features fit into product implementation. 73
  74. 74. Duke ECE 490L More details in next lecture! 74
  75. 75. Review Duke ECE 490L • More on positioning! • Digging into the Competitor • Horizontal vs. Vertical Market • Substitutes • Secondary Markets • Point Tool vs. Integrated Solutions 75