DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF AWARENESS ABOUT LAND POLLUTION, WATER
POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION AND NOISE POLLUTION WITH ITS CAUSES...
2
CERTIFICATE OF PROJECT COMPLETION
This is to certify that the Project Titled “Descriptive
analysis of awareness about la...
3
DECLARATION
We hereby declare that this project report
entitled
“Descriptive analysis of awareness about land
pollution,...
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to my teacher
―Mrs.Mugdha bapat‖as well as our ...
5
INDEX
SR.NO TOPIC PAGE NO.
1 CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Purpose
1.3 History
1.4 Introduction of air pollution
1.4 (a...
6
SR.NO TOPIC PAGE NO.
3.5(a) Cases related to noise pollution
4 CHAPTER 4
4.1 Primary data analysis
CHAPTER 5
5.1 Suggest...
7
Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction
Pollution is when something is added to the environment that is harmful or poisonous
to livin...
8
1.3 History
The history of pollution is as old as the life itself. At the very beginning of life on
Earth when man came ...
9
After the invention of machine from printing press to vehicles, the menace of
pollution started enveloping the environme...
10
1.4 Introduction to air pollution
Bad air quality" and "Air quality" redirect here. For the obsolete medical theory,
se...
11
1.4(a) Disadvantages of air pollution
Air pollution affects the health of humans. If polluted air is produced in the
en...
12
1.5 Water Pollution introduction
The most common cause of water pollution in the U.S. is excess levels of nitrogen
and ...
13
1.5(a) Disadvantages of water pollution
Water pollution seriously affects the ecosystem.
Pesticide contamination in the...
14
1.6 Introduction to Land Pollution
Most food produced for animals is grown using a combination of untreated animal
wast...
15
1.6(a) Disadvantages of land pollution
Many activities and experiments caused by mankind which end up contaminating
the...
16
1.7 Noise pollution Introduction
Noise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or
bal...
17
1.7(a) Disadvantages of noise pollution
Effects of noise pollution on human health:
Noise pollution affects health and ...
18
Chapter 2
2.1 Research Methodologies
Quantitative research methods include:
Experiments: random treatment assignments a...
19
2.2 Primary Data
Primary data are those which are collected for the first time and are always given
in the form of raw ...
20
2. It is a good methods for intensive investigation
3. This method gives a satisfactory result provided the scope of in...
21
Choice of Questionnaire: The success of the investigation largely depends upon
the proper choice the questions to be pu...
22
4. Investigation through questionnaire in charge of enumerators: According
into this method enumerators are appointed w...
23
2.3 COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA
The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone other
than t...
24
is just possible that the data might be inaccurate, inadequate or even unsuitable for
the purposes of investigation. He...
25
2.4 Aims and objectives of research methodology
The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the...
26
2.5 Scope of research methodology
The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus,
when ...
27
Chapter 3
Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution ,air pollution,
water pollution and noise pollution wi...
28
Orlando Power station and vehicles (mainly busses and taxis) entering and leaving
Soweto on a daily basis.
The worst po...
29
with high levels of litter and refuse in the Davidsonville settlement; mining dust;
and CBD activities such as commerce...
30
3.2 Cause and effect of air pollution
Causes:
Combustion of fuel is one of the major causes of air pollution in urban a...
31
Effects:
Asthma is a chronic disease, common among children and adults. The
shortness of breath, a prime symptom of thi...
32
3.2(a) Cases related to air pollution
Dr Ravindra Mehta, Consultant Pulmonologist and Chief of Critical Care,
Apollo Ho...
33
the ecology of the kingdom: elevated CO2 concentrations appear to
stimulate sporulation and climate change appears to i...
34
3.3 Cause and effect of water pollution
Causes:
Dumping of industrial wastes, containing heavy metals, harmful chemical...
35
The concentration of bacteria and viruses in polluted water causes increase
in solids suspended in the water body, whic...
36
3.4 Cause and effect of land pollution
Causes:
Increase in urbanization is one of the major causes of land pollution.
C...
37
Effects:
Tonnes and tonnes of domestic wastes are dumped every day. Since people
do not follow proper methods for the d...
38
3.5 Cause and effect of noise pollution
Causes:
Traffic noise is the main source of noise pollution caused in urban are...
39
or different types of horns divert the attention, thus causing harm in the
working standard.
Fatigue caused is another ...
40
Chapter 4
4.1Primary Data Analysis
Q1.What is your age?
Out of the survey of 100 people; 62% of the people were between...
41
Q2. Are you male or female?
Out of the 100 people we surveyed 41% of them were males and 59%
females.
Gender
male
female
42
Q3.What according to you is pollution?
Only 40% of the people actually knew what pollution was and 60% of the
people di...
43
Q4.Which among the four do you think is the major type of pollution?
57% of the people think air pollution is the major...
44
Q5 What according to you are the major causes of pollution?
According to our survey 22 people think transport as the ma...
45
Q6.What according to you are the effects of pollution?
11 people think environmental degradation as the effect of the p...
46
Q7.Would you be willing to or are you already doing something to reduce the
effects of pollution?
Out of 100 there are ...
47
Q8.What should we do to protect nature on individual basis ?
There are maximum number of people who plant trees and lea...
48
Q9. Have you ever mobilized people around you to concern and protect the
nature?
Out of 100 people nearly 42 are such w...
49
CHAPTER 5
5.1 SUGGESTIONS
Pollution is a major concern
" This entire planet is our home. We are the only species that s...
50
How can we help?
The good news is that there is hope. This seemingly difficult situation does not
deter environmental p...
51
Start composting brown leaves in your yard and green scraps from your
kitchen. It will reduce waste while improving you...
52
The following reminder has been sourced from facebook (05.04.13) which I
added to this article because of its relevance...
53
today and everyday a good day for everyone. Allow the earth to have more clean
air. Help control pollution.
"You're not...
54
Keep woodstoves and fireplaces well maintained. You should also
consider replacing old wood stoves with EPA-certified m...
55
5.1(b)How to control noise pollution:
Below are a few things people and governments can do to make our
communities and ...
56
5.1(C) How to prevent land pollution:
Like many other challenges, the best best way to solve problems is to
understand ...
57
Use a drip tray to collect engine oil.
Buy products that have little packaging.
Don‘t dump motor oil on the ground.
Gov...
58
When watering the garden, do it with a bucket and mug instead of using a
hose. Also, it is better to sweep the driveway...
59
5.2 CONCLUSION
5.2(A) Conclusion of air pollution
As we now air is the most important need of living things.
When it be...
60
sufficient, fresh and clean water, the time where clean water is insufficient to the
people and animals, and the time w...
61
PHOTO
GALLERY
62
AIR POLLUTION
63
WATER POLLUTION
64
LAND POLLUTION
65
NOISE POLLUTION
66
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  1. 1. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF AWARENESS ABOUT LAND POLLUTION, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION AND NOISE POLLUTION WITH ITS CAUSES AND EFFECTS AMONG THE CITIZENS NAME: ROLL NO: STUDENTS SIGN: SYBMS-A RESEARCH METHODS IN BUSINESS DEEPIKA GURSHANI 40 POONAM SANKHE 44 MANSI DESHMUKH 45 REEMA PEDNEKAR 46 MAHESHWARI ANNAM 49 SUBMITTED TO: MRS.MUGDHA BAPAT
  2. 2. 2 CERTIFICATE OF PROJECT COMPLETION This is to certify that the Project Titled “Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens“ is an original work and that this work has not been submitted anywhere in any form. Our indebtedness to other works/publications has been duly acknowledged at the relevant places. Date: Signature: (Name of the Supervisor)
  3. 3. 3 DECLARATION We hereby declare that this project report entitled “Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens“ is written by us and is our own effort and that no part has been plagiarized without citations. DATE: SUPERVISOR SIGNATURE:
  4. 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to my teacher ―Mrs.Mugdha bapat‖as well as our principal Mrs.shakuntala singh‖ who gave us the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution with its causes and effects among the citizens― which also helped us in doing a lot of Research and we came to know about so many new things we are really thankful to them. Secondly we would also like to thank our parents and friends who helped us a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. We are making this project not only for marks but to also to increase our knowledge. THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED US!!
  5. 5. 5 INDEX SR.NO TOPIC PAGE NO. 1 CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Purpose 1.3 History 1.4 Introduction of air pollution 1.4 (a)Disadvantage of air pollution 1.5 Introduction of water pollution 1.5 ( a) Disadvantage of water pollution 1.6 Introduction of land pollution 1.6 (a) Disadvantage of land pollution 1.7 Introduction of noise pollution 1.7 (a) Disadvantage of noise pollution 2 CHAPTER 2 2.1 Research methodology 2.2 Primary data 2.3 Secondary data 2.4 Aims and objectives of research methodology 2.5 Scope of research methodology 3 CHAPTER 3 3.1 Analysis 3.2 Causes and effects of air pollution 3.2(a) Cases related to air pollution 3.3 Causes and effects of water pollution 3.3(a) Cases related to water pollution 3.4 Causes and effects of land pollution 3.4(a) Cases related to land pollution 3.5 Causes and effects of noise pollution
  6. 6. 6 SR.NO TOPIC PAGE NO. 3.5(a) Cases related to noise pollution 4 CHAPTER 4 4.1 Primary data analysis CHAPTER 5 5.1 Suggestions 5.1(a)How to control air pollution 5.1(b) How to control land pollution 5.1(c) How to control water pollution 5.1(d) How to control noise pollution 5.2Conclusion 5.2(a) Conclusion of air pollution 5.2(b) Conclusion of land pollution 5.2(c) Conclusion of water pollution 5.2(d) Conclusion of noise pollution
  7. 7. 7 Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Pollution is when something is added to the environment that is harmful or poisonous to living things. Smoke in the air from factories is a type of pollution as it is bad for the lungs when breathed in. Sewage in drinking water is another type of pollution, as it can make people unwell because it contains germs and viruses. People living next to a building site where there is too much noise can become sick as they cannot sleep or relax. This is called noise pollution. 1.2 Purpose Reason for Choosing Pollution: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution .I believe that we have discussed relatively thoroughly when it comes pollution, but I don‘t think we have been as thorough when it comes to the solution for the issue of pollution. I believe it would benefit the class and grasp their attention as to teach them about pollution and how it is affecting biodiversity. Many species, are endangered and going extinct. With pollution, populations are being depleted rapidly. It is also interesting to hear how it affects humans with the tiny amount of available clean water left in the world. I plan on also teaching the class exactly what ways the water , land , air is being polluted, meaning the sources of the pollution, because it will be interesting for them to learn how they can help make a difference or learn how they are currently polluting indirectly or directly. I want to discuss what areas of the world are worst and what areas are the cleanest, so the class can put things in perspective and relate the areas being discussed to their homes. I also plan on awareness them what the Environmental Protection Agency, has planned as goals for the near future to express how serious this ecological issue really is. It is to bring more attention to the problem established to everyone and to aware and find solution on this serious issue
  8. 8. 8 1.3 History The history of pollution is as old as the life itself. At the very beginning of life on Earth when man came to know the use of fire and first time burnt wood to cook the food, the smoke emitted from it and first time the environment of this world got polluted. Stone Age – the start of history of pollution Thereafter, in Stone Age the cutting and trimming of stones to make pottery and weapons created dust which made pollution in the air. Despite that its level was so tiny and was not widely felt by the human beings of that time. You may also like: It‘s never too late; so let‘s solve the pollution problems Metal Age However, in metal age man started intensively using the fire to make various usable items apart from weapons and intense heat emitted huge smokes and first time it was observed that smoke pollutes the air if it keeps on emitting. However, its intensity as compared to machine age was quite less and not worthy of raising concerns. Semi-mechanized Age Thereafter manual system of every activity of life from travelling to cooking food was converted to semi-mechanic way of doing things. During those days wheel was invented which introduced animal carts. Excessive use of donkey and horse carts promoted their breed and wastes of these animals introduced the concept of solid waste. A little progress in living style of people created the concept of civic waste management and in the ea of ancient monarchy a huge lot of workers was assigned to manage the civic waste which otherwise was mismanaged because of rise in waste generation due to increase in population. Industrial revolution
  9. 9. 9 After the invention of machine from printing press to vehicles, the menace of pollution started enveloping the environment into its negative effects. Unplanned industrialization even in developed countries stirred up its spread and vehicular emissions added the pollution in the air. However, after some time the menace of pollution was felt by educated lot but nothing was done practically to contain it. Modern times In the second half of twentieth century the ghost of pollution has affected negatively all types of environment including air, land and water. It also negatively impacted the health of human and other living beings. Thereafter saner people of modern times joined their heads to combat this menace. They adopted various pollution control measures which we discussed in later parts of this e-book. Digital Era In twenty-first century all advanced nations developed several forums and protocols to contain the curse of pollution but they are unable to mitigate it and to bring it to a uniform level all around the world. Its reason is those who polluted the world mostly adopted the precautionary measures first and are now relatively free from it while those who awake later, progressed later and polluted later would be mitigating it later and meanwhile their generations would be suffering from this menace.
  10. 10. 10 1.4 Introduction to air pollution Bad air quality" and "Air quality" redirect here. For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air. For the measure of how polluted the air is , see Air quality index. Not to be confused with Qualities of air. Air pollution from a World War II wartime production plant Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials, or other harmful materials into the Earth's atmosphere, possibly causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Indoor air pollution (see Airlog) and urban air quality are listed as two of the world‘s worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report The term "air pollution" is used to describe substances that are artificially introduced into the air. Air pollution stems from gases and airborne particles which, in excess, are harmful to human health, buildings and ecosystems. Four major impacts determine the classification of pollutants under the traditional policy field Air Pollution
  11. 11. 11 1.4(a) Disadvantages of air pollution Air pollution affects the health of humans. If polluted air is produced in the environment it gets mixed up with the pure air present in the environment and the quantity of fresh air gets reduced and people do not get sufficient oxygen to breath, this leads to many health diseases. Example: lung disease, Asthma, breathing problem etc Destruction of habitats. - dead animals - dead plants - harms the ecosystems - heat waves Also climate change/global warming – droughts - more bugs - more diseases Rise in water from melting glaciers It's harmful for you - asthma - heavy breathing Cancer (it varies) - acid rain The disadvantages of pollution links to problems with other things in our lives People add to the list The pollution cause the: - greenhouse (ozone layer damage) -the multiplication of fatal diseases dangerousness parfois - multiplication of insects and mosquito - the extinction of marine
  12. 12. 12 1.5 Water Pollution introduction The most common cause of water pollution in the U.S. is excess levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, the main source of which is fertilizer runoff23 that occurs when rain carries fertilizer into waterways. Runoff from both synthetic fertilizers and animal waste can poison drinking water and aquatic ecosystems, wreaking havoc on human health24 and wildlife.25 In the Southern U.S. , where there is an abundance of chicken factory farms, as many as one-third of all underground wells fall below EPA safe drinking water standards for nitrate, a form of nitrogen concentrated in chicken waste.26 Excrement from animal waste cesspools can also seep through the soil into nearby groundwater and overflow during storms.27 In 1995, for example, an eight-acre pig-manure lagoon in North Carolina ruptured, spilling 25 million gallons of untreated waste into the New River, which killed about 10 million fish. In California, the nation‘s top dairy-producing state, officials found animal agriculture (specifically dairy operations) to be the largest source of nitrate pollution in more than 100,000 square miles of contaminated groundwater.28 Throughout the U.S., animal excrement from factory farms has contaminated groundwater in 17 states and polluted 35,000 miles of rivers in 22 states.29 Factory farm runoff also causes algal blooms that kill fish by depleting water of its oxygen, contributing to the formation of hundreds of ―dead zones‖ worldwide where sea creatures cannot survive. The largest of these can be found in the Gulf of Mexico and is nearly the size of the State of New Jersey.30 Aquaculture (basically, the factory farming of fish in underwater enclosures) also makes a large contribution to water pollution, especially in the coastal mangrove swamps where these operations are typically located. Like land-based animal agriculture, intensive fish farming maximizes production efficiency by concentrating as many animals into the smallest amount of space possible—and also creates tons of untreated fecal waste that pollutes and de-oxygenates aquatic habitats.
  13. 13. 13 1.5(a) Disadvantages of water pollution Water pollution seriously affects the ecosystem. Pesticide contamination in the ground water causes reproductive damage in the wildlife ecosystem. Discharge of polluted water which contains organic material from sewage, agricultural run-off causes eutrophication. Destroys life in the water based ecosystem which is polluted which in turn disrupts natural food chain. Aquatic life is destroyed due to the non-biodegradable pesticides and chemicals. Water pollution affects the microbial population. There is a steep increase in the BOD levels of water. Water pollution brings and imbalance in the host-parasite relationship in the ecosystem, this affects the food webs and food chain. The organisms that depend on these water bodies are in grave danger. Consumption infected fish by other animals and humans may cause serious illness. Water which has been contaminated by oil spills causes the death of water birds from exposure to cold and air due to feather damage. There is bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of pesticides and hazardous chemicals like organ chlorines like DDT, BHC, etc in animal bodies. Water pollution causes disease like hepatitis in humans on consumption of seafood which is poisoned or contaminated. Drinking contaminated water causes disease like cholera, skin diseases and can also cause cancer, reproductive problems, typhoid and stomach ailments. Heavy metal poisoning in humans due to consumption of contaminated fish interferes with the proper function of the nervous system. Contamination of ground water by pesticides can cause endocrine and reproductive problems to humans and animals.
  14. 14. 14 1.6 Introduction to Land Pollution Most food produced for animals is grown using a combination of untreated animal waste and synthetic fertilizers, both of which contain excessive amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals (such as zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead).19 Even though most of these substances usually act as nutrients that nourish plants, industrial farmers overuse them to increase crop yields, and the remainder that cannot be absorbed into the earth—especially when it is already saturated after heavy rains20 —ends up polluting the soil, while degrading its water retention ability and fertility over time.21 In addition, U.S. farmers use 750 million pounds of some 20,000 different agricultural chemicals every year,22 and those that are used to kill insects and weeds that threaten crop yields end up poisoning natural ecosystems. Plus, as some weeds and bugs have developed resistance to these compounds over the years, chemists have continued to create ever more powerfully-toxic pesticides that are even worse for the environment. The residues of these chemicals are found at every level of the food chain, and— through the process of bioaccumulation—become more concentrated the higher up the chain one looks. Meaning, in a system that runs the gamut from micro- organisms to humans, people who eat animal products get the highest dosage of toxins.
  15. 15. 15 1.6(a) Disadvantages of land pollution Many activities and experiments caused by mankind which end up contaminating the soil and results in soil pollution. Some of the major causes of soil pollutions are: Industrial wastes like harmful chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides. Poor soil management system. Harmful or bad quality soil management system. Poor management and maintenance of septic systems. Leakage from sewage systems. Acid rains. Leakage of fuel from automobiles. Improper waste management techniques. Huge disturbances are caused in the ecosystem due to soil pollution and it also affects the well being of all the living creatures on earth. Some of the most serious disadvantages of soil pollution are. Decreased soil fertility. Decrease in soil yield. Loss of natural nutrients in the soil. Plants cannot survive in polluted soil. Can result in soil erosion due to loss of plants. Causes disturbance in the flora and fauna of the soil. There is an increase in the fertility of the soil making it unfit for vegetation. Crops cannot be grown on polluted soil. Consumption of crops grown on polluted soil can result in serious helath issues. Toxic dust gets created due to soil pollution. Pollution can bring alteration in structure of soil which can lead to death of many organisms.
  16. 16. 16 1.7 Noise pollution Introduction Noise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. The Indoor noise is caused by machines, building activities, music performances, and especially in some workplaces. There is no great difference whether noise- induced hearing loss is brought about by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.
  17. 17. 17 1.7(a) Disadvantages of noise pollution Effects of noise pollution on human health: Noise pollution affects health and behavior of humans. Noise can cause damage to physiological health. Noise pollution causes a wide range of effects can cause trouble to human health. Some of the effects are hypertension, stress, hearing loss, disturbances in sleep and other harmful effects. Hypertension and stress can cause a wide variety of health problems. Unwanted sound interferes with activities like sleep, and conservation. It also disrupts quality life. Frequent exposure to noise can lead to hearing loss. Noise in high levels can cause cardiovascular effects. Moderate exposure of high levels of noise leads increase in blood pressure causing stress and vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure which gives increased incidences of coronary artery disease. Noise is also annoying. Effects of noise pollution on animals: Noise can have deleterious effect of animals. Noise causes changes in the balance of predator and prey detection and avoidance which may eventually lead to death. Certain species of whales have stranded themselves after their exposure to loud military sonar sounds. Marine organisms like the crab are affected due to sounds of the ships and are said to be acclimatized.
  18. 18. 18 Chapter 2 2.1 Research Methodologies Quantitative research methods include: Experiments: random treatment assignments and quasi experiments using nonrandomized treatments. Surveys: which are cross-sectional or longitudinal Qualitative research methods include: Ethnographies which are observations of groups grounded theory which uses multi-staged data collection phenomenological studies which studying subjects over a period of time through developing relationships with them and reporting findings based on research "experiences." case studies which use various data to investigate the subject over time and by activity. Each research method has it's strengths and weaknesses. When designing a research study it is important to decide what the outcome (data) the study will produce then select the best methodology to produce that desired information Methods: The principal stages of the proposed methodology are: 1. Creation of a multivariate hierarchical structural model based on system analysis. 2. Generation of a mathematical formalization for this model. 3. Development of a statistical model for a particular study case based on the mathematical formalization, using the generalized estimating equations technique and time-series analysis. 4. By survey from various people of different age groups 5. Using mathematical formula and pie diagram and graphs 6. Primary data and secondary data 7 .Analyzing the data
  19. 19. 19 2.2 Primary Data Primary data are those which are collected for the first time and are always given in the form of raw materials and originals in character. These types of data need the application of statistics methods for the purpose of analysis and interpretation. While secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone and have gone thought the statistical machines. They are usually refined of the raw materials .when statistical methods are applied on primary their shape and become secondary data. Methods of Collection of Primary Data: The primary data are collected by the following methods. 1. Direct personal investigation. 2. Indirect personal investigation 3. Investigation thought questionnaire. 4. Investigation through questionnaire in the charge if enumerator 5. Investigation through local‘s reports. 1. Direct Personal Investigation: According to this methods the investigator has to collect his information himself personally form the source concerned. It means the investigator should be are the spot where the enquiry concerned. It means the investigator should be at the spot where the enquiry is being conducted, it is also expected that the investigator should be very polite and courteous. Further he should acquaint himself with the surrounding situation and must know their local customs and tradition. Advantages: 1. The information collected by this methods is reliable and accurate
  20. 20. 20 2. It is a good methods for intensive investigation 3. This method gives a satisfactory result provided the scope of inquiry is narrow. Disadvantages: 1. This methods is not suitable for extensive inquiry 2. Its required a lot of expenses and time 3. The bias on the part of investigator can damage the whole inquiry 4. Sometimes the informant may be reluctant to answered the question 2. Indirect Personal Investigation: This method is used when the informants are reluctant to give the definite information. e.g., if a government servant is asked to give the information regarding his income. He will not be willing to give the information for the additional income which he earned by doing part time worked. In such cases what is done? The investigators puts the informant some suitable indirect question which provides him some suitable information. Thus the only difference between the first and the second methods is that in the first methods he investigator puts directs question and collect the information while in the second methods no direct question is put to the informant but only indirect questions are asked. Even then, if it is not possible for the investigator to collect the information by the above methods then the information is collected through indirect sources, i.e. from the persons who have full knowledge of the problem under study. The persons from whom the desired information is collected are known as witnesses. Usually a list of question is prepared which is put before the collected by this method largely depends upon the persons who are selected to give information. Hence it is necessary to take the following precautions for the selection of the informant. 3. Investigation through questionnaire: According to this method a standard list of questions relating to the particular investigation is prepared. This list of questions is called a questionnaire. The data are collected ―By sending the questionnaire to the informants and requesting them to return the questionnaire after answering the questions. ― This method is an important one and is usually used by research workers, non-official bodies and private individuals.
  21. 21. 21 Choice of Questionnaire: The success of the investigation largely depends upon the proper choice the questions to be put to the informants. While preparing a questionnaire the following points should be kept in mind. i. Short and clear: - The questions should be short and clear so as to be easily intelligible to every man. There should be no ambiguity in the questions. If some technical terms are used in the questionnaire, their definitions should be given. ii. Few in number and easy: The questions should be few in number. A large number of the questions would harm the informants because they take much time to answer, with the result they would not pay much attention to ever question and would try to save their akin by giving vague answers. Moreover the questions should be easy to answer. a. Definiteness: The questions should be such the answers of which are definite and exact. Preferably the questions should be such the replies of which are in the form of ―Yes‖ or ―No‖ Such questions should not be framed the replies of which are vague in nature because such replies are of no use to a statistician. b. Corroborating in nature: The questions should be such that their replies check the value replies and truth can be easily verified from them. c. Non-confidential information: The questions framed should not be such which call the confidential information of the informants. This will injure the feelings with the result that they would not give proper answer. d. Logical sequence: The questions framed should be put in some logical order; their replies should also be put in the same order because this would facilities the work.
  22. 22. 22 4. Investigation through questionnaire in charge of enumerators: According into this method enumerators are appointed who go to the informants with the questionnaire and help them in recording the answer. Here the enumerators explain the background, aim and object of the problem under investigation and emphasize the necessity of giving correct answer. They also help the informants in understanding some t4echnical terms of question the concept of which is not clear to the informants. Thus the questionnaire is filled by the informants in the presence and help of the enumerators. 5. Investigation through local reports: According to this method the collection of data is neither through the questionnaire nor through the enumerators but through local correspondents. This method of collecting the data is not reliable and it should be used only at those places where the purpose the investigation is served by rough estimates.
  23. 23. 23 2.3 COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone other than the investigator himself, and as such the problems associated with the original collection of data do not arise here. The secondary data can be collected directly either form published or unpublished sources. The following are the sources of published at from which secondary data can be collected. 1. Official publications, i.e. the publication of the central statistical office, Karachi ,Ministry of Finance , Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Lahore, Industry, etc… the provincial statistical Bureau, etc. 2. Semi-Official publications , etc., the publication issued by the state Bank of Pakistan Railway Board , Board of Economic Enquiry , District councils, Municipalities, Central Cotton Committee, etc 3. Publication of trade-association, chambers of commerce, co-operative societies, and unions. 4. Research publication, submitted by research workers, economists, University bureaus, and other institutions. 5. Technical or trade journals. Sources of Unpublished Data: The secondary data are also available from the unpublished data. Type of material can be obtained from the chamber of commerce, trade associations, labor bureaus and research workers. Scrutiny of Secondary Data: In the words of Bowley, ― It is never safe to take published statistics at their face value without knowing their meaning and limitations and it is always necessary to criticize arguments that can be based on them , ― Thus the data collected by some other person should not be fully depended as they might have pitfalls. Thus it becomes necessary to find out the inconsistencies probable errors and omissions in the data. This necessities the scrutiny of secondary data because it
  24. 24. 24 is just possible that the data might be inaccurate, inadequate or even unsuitable for the purposes of investigation. Hence the secondary data should possess the following qualities: 1. Reliability 2. Suitability 1. RELIABILITY: In order to test the reliability of the data following points should be considered: Who collected the data? The source of collection of the data Is the reliability of the compiler dependable? Is the source of the collection of the data dependable? What was the scope and object of the investigation? Were the data collected by the use of proper methods? Were the statistical units defined in which the compiler collected the data? vi. What was the period of the collection of data? What was the type of inquiry? Was it census or sample? What was the degree of accuracy desired and achieved? .Were the data in comparable form? 2. SUITABILITY: If the data are reliable it does not mean that they are suitable for every investigation. Data which are found suitable for one inquiry might not be suitable for another one. These necessities that the suitability of the data for the inquiry under investigation is very essential.
  25. 25. 25 2.4 Aims and objectives of research methodology The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim or research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies). 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies). 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with with something vise (studies with this object in are known as diagnostic research studies). 4. To test a hypothesis of crucial relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis testing research studies). The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies);
  26. 26. 26 2.5 Scope of research methodology The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted, why particular technique of analyzing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.
  27. 27. 27 Chapter 3 Descriptive analysis of awareness about land pollution ,air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution with it’s causes and effects among the citizens 3.1 Analysis The worst polluted areas are found in a band from east to west through the Johannesburg Central Business District (CBD), where all types of pollution are found. High water pollution levels are due to bad pH and copper levels in industrial effluent from areas such as Industria West, Amalgam, Selby and Droste, continuing eastwards to Benrose, Denver and Heriotdale. High bacterial content is also found in the water due to blocked sewers, waste from informal settlements and the northern areas of the Inner City, which is more densely populated. Dust pollution from mine dumps to the south of the city centre also contributes to the high levels of air pollution. Lastly, noise pollution levels are serious in and around the CBD because of the densely developed built form, and from the high level of activity, hustle and bustle of all forms of vehicular traffic, industries and activities such as nightclubs. High levels of pollution are also found to the south of the CBD from Southgate to Elandspark in the east, mainly due to water, air and noise pollution. The water of the Klip River is badly polluted due to runoff from the mining areas and from large industrial areas like Aeroton, Booysens, City Deep and Electron. Pollution levels are high around Soweto. To the southeast, bacterial and industrial effluent levels in the water are high due to the Dev land industrial area, as well as the sewage works and informal settlements located in the area. Very high levels of air pollution are caused by excessive amounts of coal-burning taking place in and around the Greater Soweto area. Littering, unmanaged waste and sewage, and irregular services, all cause land pollution in informal settlements in Soweto, while landfill sites are also areas of land pollution. Noise pollution mainly emanates from the Dev land industrial area,
  28. 28. 28 Orlando Power station and vehicles (mainly busses and taxis) entering and leaving Soweto on a daily basis. The worst pollution is concentrated to the southeast of Soweto where the Goudkoppies Landfill site, Dev land industrial area, major roads, and the Freedom Park and Goldev settlements are located. High pollution levels are around the N12 in the Nancefield vicinity, as well as in the Mofolo, Diepkloof/Orlando, Dhlamini and Protea areas in Soweto. High pollution levels are found in the east of Lenasia, where excessive coal burning in the Thembelihle settlement is a major cause of air pollution. Inadequate refuse removal and illegal dumping leads to land pollution in the area, while noise mainly comes from vehicles travelling to and from Johannesburg and surroundings, as well as from light industries in the vicinity. Air pollution in Ennerdale is largely influenced by excessive coal burning in informal settlements to the southeast, vehicle emissions from the N1 and major roads, and dust from gravel roads. Illegal dumping and irregular refuse removal causes land pollution, while noise pollution comes mainly from major roads, taxi and bus routes, and some light industries. Poortjie, southwest of Ennerdale, and the Orange Farm area, are affected by moderate to excessive coal burning and dust from gravel roads and open/ agricultural land, which causes air pollution. Orange Farm and Poortjie are plagued by vehicle emissions, littering, illegal dumping and irregular refuse removal, with high noise and land pollution levels along major and national roads. To the south of Roodepoort pollution levels are high in the Fleurhof area. High levels of water pollution are found due to mining activities, the Lea Glen industrial area and a nickel/chrome refinery in the area. Sources of air pollution include the industrial area, mining dust, and moderate to excessive coal burning and vehicular activity. Land pollution mainly includes industrial and residential waste, while noise comes mainly from industries and vehicles on main roads. West of Roodepoort, the Roodepoort West industrial area, CBD activities and excessive coal burning in the Davidsonville settlement, causes air pollution. Land pollution is mainly due to a lack of refuse removal and sewage services, together
  29. 29. 29 with high levels of litter and refuse in the Davidsonville settlement; mining dust; and CBD activities such as commerce and transportation. Vehicle noise is high due to the proximity to roads and combines with noise from industries and mining activities. North of the Johannesburg CBD, polluted areas are found north and south of Randburg, and to the south of Sandton. This consists mainly of: - air pollution (from vehicle emissions, industries and commercial activities in the decentralised CBD‘s); - water pollution (from urban/ residential runoff, blocked sewers and industries); - land pollution (from commercial activities in the CBDs) and - noise pollution (from proximity to roads and large amount of vehicle activity). These forms of pollution overlap in these areas to produce major environmental problems. Pollution levels are high to the northeast of Sandton, and in Alexandra. Industrial activities in the Wynberg / Kew area, as well as moderate to excessive coal burning taking place in Alexandra are the main causes of air pollution. Water quality levels are low due to industrial effluent and inadequate sanitation services in the densely populated informal settlements. Settlements around Alexandra show high levels of litter, as well as inadequate sanitation, sewage and solid waste services, which all combine to cause land pollution. Noise pollution emanates mainly from car, bus and taxi movement, although the Wynberg / Kew industrial area also plays a role. Lastly, in the far northern areas of Greater Johannesburg, pollution levels are high at the Diepsloot and Zevenfontein settlements. Smoke from excessive coal burning causes air pollution, whilst the lack of adequate refuse removal, sewer systems and service provision leads to land pollution. Noise levels are high along the N14 national road and other major roads, and water pollution in the area originates from the lack of environmental education and people‘s ignorance. The causes of air, water, land and noise pollution is consistent throughout the Greater Johannesburg Area. These trends should be addressed through environmental education and planning responces.
  30. 30. 30 3.2 Cause and effect of air pollution Causes: Combustion of fuel is one of the major causes of air pollution in urban areas. Burning of fossil fuels such as natural gas and gasoline leads to the emission of carbon dioxide and other gas, which deteriorates the quality of air, making the air polluted. Increased level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one of the prime causes of air pollution. Power plants exhaust fumes of automobiles, airplanes and other human activities involving the burning of gasoline and natural gas are related to the emission of this greenhouse gas. The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a class of synthetic chemicals used in refrigerants and aerosol propellants, have caused holes in the Earth's ozone layer. The use of these banned chemicals is related with the increasing levels of air pollution. Sulfur dioxide is one of the components of smog, which is related to the contamination of the Earth's atmosphere. This synthetic chemical is the prime cause of acid rain. Air pollution is partially caused by the particulates formed by a variety of substances, such as dust, pollen and other organic materials. Increased road and air traffic is another reason related to the high level of air pollution. Smoke and fumes posseting out of the chimneys of manufacturing companies, contains high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and chemicals. These pollutants, when emitted, look like black clouds spreading across the sky. Smoke released from industries is one of the major factors of air pollution. Pesticides used on crops or even in households cause release of harmful chemicals into the air. Crop dusting, delousing homes and even painting supplies are known to have pollutants responsible for air pollution. Several natural causes such as forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersion, evaporation of organic compounds, and natural radioactivity also contaminate the air.
  31. 31. 31 Effects: Asthma is a chronic disease, common among children and adults. The shortness of breath, a prime symptom of this disease, can be triggered by pollutants present in the air, such as smog. Lung infections can occur when polluted air is inhaled. This can also lead to shortness of breath. Air pollution may influence the development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Air pollution can also lead to lung cancer. Air pollution can result in blockage in the coronary artery or blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This condition is diagnosed as Coronary Artery Disease. High level of pollution in the air can also lead to heart failure. Irregular or abnormal rhythms of heartbeat are often cited as health problems related to air pollution. The long-term health effects of air pollution are deadly. They can cause damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Carbon monoxide emitted from vehicles or from the burning of fossil fuels, can cause headaches, reduce the mental alertness and impair the fetal development or cause death. Sulfur dioxide released from coal-fired power plants, petroleum refineries, etc. can cause irritation in eyes, breathlessness, chest tightness and lung damage. Exposure to ozone (from vehicle exhaust and certain fumes), may cause eye and throat irritation, cough and respiratory problems. It also reduces a human being‘s resistance to colds and pneumonia. Lead is a metallic element, which comes primarily from metal refineries, lead smelters, battery manufacturers and iron and steel industries. Constant exposure to this element can lead to anemia, high blood pressure, brain and kidney damage, cancer and neurological disorders. Particulate matter refers to the tiny particles of soot, dust or other substance such as tiny droplets of liquids. They are emitted by diesel engines, power plants, wood stoves and also found in windblown dust. They are also responsible for several air-borne diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, cancer, heavy metal poisoning, cardiovascular effects and asthma. Radon, a radioactive gas arises from rocks and soil under the house and can accumulate inside the house. Its level is ruled by the outside air and to some extent the gases releases indoors. Being exposed to this gas can increase the risk of lung cancer.
  32. 32. 32 3.2(a) Cases related to air pollution Dr Ravindra Mehta, Consultant Pulmonologist and Chief of Critical Care, Apollo Hospitals said, ―There is an increase in asthma and allergic tendencies in the city owing to the increase in population and air pollution.‖ A paper published recently on fungal triggers of asthma in PLOS Pathogens says that asthma is a complex disease without a single cause, defined by its symptoms. Wheezing, chest tightness, and breathlessness are triggered by airway inflammation. The natural histories of asthma are diverse and involve both genetic and environmental parameters. For example, children with variants of the ADAM33 gene are at risk for asthma, while attendance at day care in the first six months of life and the presence of older siblings appear to protect against asthma. Allergies are intimately associated with asthma. Asthma can result from direct inhalation of allergens, but atopic asthmas are caused by the body‘s interaction with allergens outside of the lungs. It is a public health burden, and the prevalence of asthma is increasing. WHO defines asthma as a chronic disease characterised by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, which vary in severity and frequency from person to person. During an asthma attack, the lining of the bronchial tubes swells, causing the airways to narrow and reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. The causes of asthma are not completely understood. However, risk factors for developing asthma include inhaling asthma ―triggers‖, such as allergens, tobacco smoke and chemical irritants. Asthma cannot be cured, but appropriate management can control the disorder and enable people to enjoy a good quality of life. Asthma is also caused by the presence of fungal spores of Alternaria (fungi) and Cladosporium (fungi), tiny particles that allow fungi to multiply. They are like seeds in plants. ―The diversity of fungal spores in air is vast, but research on asthma focuses on a handful of easily identified, culturable species. Ecologists are developing new tools to probe communities and identify the full complement of fungi in habitats. These tools may enable identification of novel asthma triggers, but scientists involved in public health or medicine rarely interact with mycologists focused on ecology,‖ said Anne Pringle, mycologist at Howard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the above paper. As disease prevalence continues to rise, enabling research on the roles of fungi in asthma makes sense. Pringle said, ―Humans appear to be reshaping
  33. 33. 33 the ecology of the kingdom: elevated CO2 concentrations appear to stimulate sporulation and climate change appears to influence the timing of sporulation. A current hypothesis suggests a connection between the global change and the rise of asthma and allergies.‖ Different species or spore types may have different surface properties or internal metabolisms, and different potentials as causes of asthma. While logic would dictate a systematic search for triggers grounded in what‘s most abundant in the environment, instead research has focused on easily cultured fungi with distinct spore shapes. ―Treatment involves giving inhalers with a mixture of steroid and bronchodilators,‖ said Dr Mehta. ―These cause minimal toxicity, local action and can be used long term. Children respond easily to inhalers,‖ he said. A hospital-based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999 in Bangalore by Dr Paramesh, showed a prevalence of 9 per cent, 10.5 per cent, 18.5 per cent, 24.5 per cent and 29.5 per cent respectively, in 2002.
  34. 34. 34 3.3 Cause and effect of water pollution Causes: Dumping of industrial wastes, containing heavy metals, harmful chemicals, by-products, organic toxins and oils, into the nearby source of water is one of the visible causes of water pollution. Another cause for the contamination of water is the improper disposal of human and animal wastes. Effluents from factories, refineries, injection wells and sewage treatment plants are dumped into urban water supplies, leading to water pollution. A number of pollutants, both harmful and poisonous, enter the groundwater systems through rain water. The residue of agricultural practices, including fertilizers and pesticides, are some of the major sources of water pollution. Untreated pollutants are drained into the nearest water body, such as stream, lake or harbor, causing water pollution. Another major source of water pollution comprises of organic farm wastes. When farm land, treated with pesticides and fertilizers, is irrigated, the excess nitrogen and poisons get mixed into the water supply, thereby contaminating it. Pathogens, sediments and chemical pollutants are other sources of water pollution. The corporeal wastes produced by humans and farmed organisms pollute rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface waters. Effects: A number of waterborne diseases are produced by the pathogens present in polluted water, affecting humans and animals alike. Pollution affects the chemistry of water. The pollutants, including toxic chemicals, can alter the acidity, conductivity and temperature of water. Polluted municipal water supplies are found to pose a threat to the health of people using them. As per the records, about 14000 people perish or incur various communicable diseases due to the consumption of contaminated drinking water.
  35. 35. 35 The concentration of bacteria and viruses in polluted water causes increase in solids suspended in the water body, which, in turn, leads to health problems. Marine life becomes deteriorated due to water pollution. Lethal killing of fish and aquatic plants in rivers, oceans and seas is an aftereffect of water contamination only. Diseases affecting the heart, poor circulation of blood and the nervous system and ailments like skin lesion, cholera and diarrhea are often linked to the harmful effects of water pollution. 3.3(a) Cases related to water pollution Black sea pollution and tourism: In February 1992, members of the Commonwealth of Independent States met in Moscow to review the problem of environmental damage and ecology. These nations agreed to promote environmental protection through the drafting and enforcement of environmental legislation and regulations; harmonize methodologies, procedures and standards of environmental assessment and regulation and make these compatible with international practice; pursue joint environmental research and protection programs, including dismantling of chemical and nuclear weapons; create an intestate ecological information system and a common list of endangered species; form an interstate ecological council composed of the environment ministers of participating states; and finance an interstate ecological fund aimed primarily at rendering disaster assistance. Ukraine was not at this meeting in 1992. This nation has suffered greatly at the hands of Soviet industrialization. It contained many chemical plants which damaged the environment. The land, air, and seas in the Ukraine are seriously damaged. Sulfides and chlorates make up the bulk of dangerous contaminates. The number of rivers have declined from 40,000 to 25,000 as a direct result of ecological misuse. Salt is constantly dumped into Ukraine's rivers, causing severe illness to those that must use it. Ukraine does not wish to participate in the actions of the other CIS nations to clean up the region. This may cause legal problems for the agreement. Ukraine's unwillingness to participate points to the increasing significance of the soverignty issue in the CIS. The other CIS states are willing to clean up their environments, the Ukraine, however, has put the issue on the "back burner."
  36. 36. 36 3.4 Cause and effect of land pollution Causes: Increase in urbanization is one of the major causes of land pollution. Construction uses up forestland. This leads to the exploitation and destruction of forests. There is more demand for water. Reservoirs are built resulting in the loss of land. The disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, including containers, bottles and cans made of plastic, used cars and electronic goods, leads to the pollution of land. Agricultural wastes including the waste matters produced by crop, animal manure and residues of the farm land are one of the major causes of land pollution. The pesticides and fertilizers used by farmers to increase the crop yield, leaches into the nearby land areas and pollutes them. The process of mining leads to the formation of piles of coal and slag. When these wastes are not disposed through proper channel, they are accumulated and contaminate the land. Industrial wastes are major contributors of land pollution. Dumping of toxic materials such as chemicals and paints makes the areas surrounding the industries, look very filthy. Improper treatment of sewage leads to the accumulation of solids, such as biomass sludge. These solid wastes overflow through the sewage, making the entire area look dirty. Burning of solid fuels leads to the formation of ashes, which is yet another cause of land pollution. Although domestic and industrial wastes are collected and recycled or burnt in incinerators, a large amount of rubbish is left untreated. These are then dumped into grounds, leading to land pollution. Garbage dumped by people makes the streets unhealthy, unfit and dirty to reside in. The waste matter usually consists of leftover food, fruit and vegetable peels and other non decomposable solid materials such as glass, cloth, plastic, wood, paper etc.
  37. 37. 37 Effects: Tonnes and tonnes of domestic wastes are dumped every day. Since people do not follow proper methods for the disposal of such wastes, it leaves the places look dirty and makes them unhealthy. Land pollution indirectly affects the respiratory system of human beings. Breathing in polluted dust or particle can result in a number of health problems related to the respiratory system. Skin problems are often diagnosed due to land pollution. It is said that the improper disposal of household wastes leads to allergic reactions on the skin. Land pollution has been found as one of the leading causes for birth defects. Pregnant women living in unhealthy and dirty environment can incur breathing problems and a number of diseases, which may affect the health of the baby as well. 3.4(a) Cases related to land pollution Krishna and Govil in 2004 collected soil samples from the Pali Industrial area, present in the western state of Rajasthan. Their data revealed that the soil in the study area is significantly contaminated with high concentrations of heavy elements like Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and V. Krishna and Govil also did a similar study in 2007 and collected soil samples from the industrial area of Surat city, present in the western state of Gujarat. Their data revealed that the soil in the study area is significantly contaminated with high concentrations of heavy elements like Ba, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, V and Zn. Similar studies have been done in area around Varanasi (Sharma et al. 2007). In this study, soil samples of major irrigation sites in sub-urban areas of Varanasi were taken and analyzed for heavy metal contamination. Samples of irrigation water and portion of vegetables being grown were also collected. Apart from concentration of Cd, rest of the heavy metals was present within the Indian standards. Lokeshwari and Chandrappa (2006) did a similar study in and around the city of Bangalore, where they assessed the heavy metal contamination of vegetation and soil due to irrigation with sewage-fed lake water on the agricultural land. The results showed significant amount of heavy metals, above the Indian Standard limits in both the soil as well as the vegetation samples.
  38. 38. 38 3.5 Cause and effect of noise pollution Causes: Traffic noise is the main source of noise pollution caused in urban areas. With the ever-increasing number of vehicles on road, the sound caused by the cars and exhaust system of autos, trucks, buses and motorcycles is the chief reason for noise pollution. With the low flying military aircrafts soaring over the national parks, wasteland and other vacant areas, the level of noise pollution has drastically increased in these previously unaffected zones. People living beside railway stations put up with a lot of noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles and switching and shunting operation in rail yards. This is one of the major sources of noise pollution. To meet the demands of the basic necessity of living, the construction of buildings, highways and city streets causes a lot of noise. Pneumatic hammers, air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks and pavement breakers are the major sources of noise pollution in construction sites. Though not a prime reason, industrial noise adds to the noise pollution. Machinery, motors and compressors used in the industries create a lot of noise which adds to the already detrimental state of noise pollution. Plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners and fans create a lot of noise in the buildings and add to the prevailing noise pollution. Household equipments, such as vacuum cleaners, mixers and some kitchen appliances are noisemakers of the house. Though they do not cause too much of problem, their effect cannot be neglected. Effects: Deafness, temporary or permanent, is one of the most prevalent effects of noise pollution. Mechanics, locomotive drivers, telephone operators etc all have their hearing impairment. The first and foremost effect of noise is a decrease in the efficiency in working. Research has proved the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction. Too much of noise disturbs the rhythms of working, thereby affecting the concentration required for doing a work. Noise of traffic or the loud speakers
  39. 39. 39 or different types of horns divert the attention, thus causing harm in the working standard. Fatigue caused is another effect of noise. Due to lack of concentration, people need to devote more time to complete their task, which leads to tiredness and fatigue. Noise pollution acts as a stress invigorator, increasing the stress levels among people. Sometimes, being surrounded by too much of noise, people can be victims of certain diseases like blood pressure, mental illness, etc. Noise pollution indirectly affects the vegetation. Plants require cool & peaceful environment to grow. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops. Animals are susceptible to noise pollution as well. It damages the nervous system of the animals. Noise indirectly weakens the edifice of buildings, bridges and monuments. It creates waves, which can be very dangerous and harmful and put the building in danger condition. 3.5(a) Cases related to noise pollution “Police case against Shiv Sena for noise pollution” The Mumbai Police has filed a case against members of the Shiv Sena who organized a rally at Shivaji Park on Dusshera. The Bombay High Court had ruled that the party would be permitted to go ahead with its annual rally at Shivaji Park, provided the speakers did not exceed the 50- decibel limit. The Sena agreed to that in court. But at the rally, Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray had mocked the Bombay High Court saying "Is my volume within 50 decibels. No one can contain or stifle the Shiv Sena's roar." In an editorial in its mouthpiece, Samana, the party today said, "Loudspeakers blaring out 'azaan' atop mosques in Bhendi Bazar and Behrampada areas disturb sleep and children's studies. Action should be taken against them also."
  40. 40. 40 Chapter 4 4.1Primary Data Analysis Q1.What is your age? Out of the survey of 100 people; 62% of the people were between the age of 15 to 25, 21% of the people were between the age of 26 to 40, 11% of the people were between the age of 41 to 55 and 6% of the people were in the age group of 55 and above. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 15 to 25 26 to 40 41 to 55 55 and above Series 1 Series 1
  41. 41. 41 Q2. Are you male or female? Out of the 100 people we surveyed 41% of them were males and 59% females. Gender male female
  42. 42. 42 Q3.What according to you is pollution? Only 40% of the people actually knew what pollution was and 60% of the people did not know what pollution is. Whereas the right answer is; Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. People know that pollution is harmful but they don‘t really know what it actually is. knowledge about pollution people who know people who don’t know
  43. 43. 43 Q4.Which among the four do you think is the major type of pollution? 57% of the people think air pollution is the major type of pollution, 25% answered water pollution, 10% answered noise pollution and only 7% think land pollution as major threat this is according to the survey of 100 people. major type of pollution air polllution water polllution noise polllution land polllution
  44. 44. 44 Q5 What according to you are the major causes of pollution? According to our survey 22 people think transport as the major cause of pollution, 3 people answered residential land commercial buildings, 25% of people think industrialization as the major cause of pollution and 10, 3, 19 and 14 people think globalization, agriculture, deforestation and waste and waste water respectively. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Series 1 Series 1
  45. 45. 45 Q6.What according to you are the effects of pollution? 11 people think environmental degradation as the effect of the pollution, 24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Effects effects
  46. 46. 46 Q7.Would you be willing to or are you already doing something to reduce the effects of pollution? Out of 100 there are 77 people who are willing or are already doing something and 23 people are inactive Active and Deactive people yes no
  47. 47. 47 Q8.What should we do to protect nature on individual basis ? There are maximum number of people who plant trees and least number of people go for other ways to protect the nature 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 plant trees travel by public transport save water turn off lights and fans when not in use recycling others Series 1
  48. 48. 48 Q9. Have you ever mobilized people around you to concern and protect the nature? Out of 100 people nearly 42 are such who are concerned,27people are are such who are not at all concern and 17 are such who are planning to to take some initiative. Q10. How to encourage people to do something for environment ? BEST ANS:- Start doing something on your end first as well said ―CHARITY BEGINS AT HOME‖ and then spread awareness about it. Fines and penalties must be charged for throwing garbage at public places and strict laws should be made that one person, one plant compulsory, activates should be carried out at school level as well Environmental subjects theoretically and practically should be included in the syllabus. The students should not jus do this for marks but they should also understand the practical importance of it Advertising, street plays and various seminars and awareness campaign Mobilized People Yes No I am planning to
  49. 49. 49 CHAPTER 5 5.1 SUGGESTIONS Pollution is a major concern " This entire planet is our home. We are the only species that systematically destroy our own habitat."- Marianne Williamson Pollution prevention is an exceptionally major global concern because of the harmful effects of pollution on the person‘s health and on the environment. Environmental pollution comes in various forms, such as: air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, etc.. Everyone is a stakeholder as we are all inhabitants of this one and only mother earth. Each person has something to contribute to advance an effective pollution prevention awareness initiatives. Environmental protection is caring for ourselves, loving our children and ensuring a sustainable future for generations to come. "If we heal the earth, we heal ourselves." You and I should therefore accept personal responsibility for the success of the environmental protection programs of our respective community by cooperating and actively participating in making the atmosphere pollution free. Help stop pollution today. Although on an individual basis we can help combat pollution in our own immediate environment, efficient control can be best institutionalized through legislation. Thus, most countries have already addressed the issue by passing some form of pollution prevention measures. Averting the onset of pollution in any area, i.e. be it on air, water or land, could be the start and the simplest preventive solution to the problem. This calls for a conscientious effort to adopt good practices or habits by the people, the passage and the proper implementation of appropriate government laws and the strict compliance especially by potential industrial pollutants. If there are no pollutants, there will be no pollution. And yet, this is easier said than done. Certain bad habits are entrenched and industrial development somehow carries with it the concomitant burden of pollution. The cost to business and its commercial ramifications make this rather simple preventive approach quite complicated and more difficult to implement.
  50. 50. 50 How can we help? The good news is that there is hope. This seemingly difficult situation does not deter environmental protection advocates to pursue their dream for a more pollution-free earth. Kudos to Greenpeace and all similar organizations all over the world as they bear for us the campaign torch on environmental issues. Everyone can help by self education and by adopting good and healthy practices. It is also important that we help raise awareness about the significance of environmental issues, their dire consequences and what can be done. ―One person alone cannot save the planet‘s biodiversity, but each individual‘s effort to encourage nature‘s wealth must not be underestimated.‖- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Every action or inaction of any person in regard to her or his surroundings has an effect- be it good, neutral or bad- on the environment. Nature already provides for our needs.Whatever we do to it gets back to us. If we are friends of the earth, it will also be friendly to us. By becoming aware and doing the right action, we choose to be part of the solution. What comes to mind now to serve as reminders include the following: Stop smoking or at least follow the ―No Smoking‖ sign. Use unleaded gasoline in your cars. Keep your car properly maintained to keep it in good running condition to avoid smoke emissions. Share a ride or engage in car pooling. Instead of using your cars, choose to walk or ride a bicycle whenever possible. With this eco-friendly practice, you will also be healthier and happier by staying fit. Never use open fires to dispose of wastes. Adopt the 3Rs of solid waste management: reduce, reuse and recycle. Inorganic materials such as metals, glass and plastic; also organic materials like paper, can be reclaimed and recycled. This takes into account that the proven solution to the problem of proper waste management (especially in third world countries) is proper disposal (in waste bins for collection and not in the street where it could fall into drains), waste segregation and collection, and recycling.
  51. 51. 51 Start composting brown leaves in your yard and green scraps from your kitchen. It will reduce waste while improving your yard and garden soils. Reconnect with nature. Live green by using green power supplied abundantly and freely by wind and the sun. Hang your laundry to dry to minimize use of gas or electricity from your dryers. Enjoy fresh air from open windows to lessen the use of air conditioning system. Patronize local foods and goods. In this manner, transporting goods and foods prepared with GMOs which uses fuel from conventional energy sources will be minimized. Use eco-friendly or biodegradable materials instead of plastic which are made up of highly toxic substances injurious to your health. Create your green space. Value your garden. Plant more trees and put indoor plants in your homes. They clean the air, provide oxygen and beautify your surroundings. Thus, care for them and by protecting them, especially the big trees around and in the forest, you protect yourself and your family, too. Have a proper waste disposal system especially for toxic wastes Take very good care of your pets and their wastes. Never throw, run or drain or dispose into the water, air, or land any substance in solid, liquid or gaseous form that shall cause pollution. Do not cause loud noises and unwanted sounds to avoid noise pollution. Do not litter in public places. Anti-litter campaigns can educate the populace. Industries should use fuel with lower sulphur content. Industries should monitor their air emissions regularly and take measures to ensure compliance with the prescribed emission standards. Industries should strictly follow applicable government regulations on pollution control. Organic waste should be dumped in places far from residential areas. Say a big "NO" to GMOs or genetically modified organisms. Genetically engineered crops are not only bad for the environment since they require massive amount of fungicides, pesticides, and herbicides; but GMO altered foods are also health risks and negatively impact farmers' livelihood. Help stop pollution. Join the Earth Day celebration every April 22nd and consider making it an everyday practice for the rest of your earthly life.
  52. 52. 52 The following reminder has been sourced from facebook (05.04.13) which I added to this article because of its relevance: MANDATORY REMINDER FROM CNN- NASA reports that by the next 10 months, earth gets hotter by 4 degrees from now. Himalayan glaciers are melting @ rapid rate. Our climate is changing drastically & it's getting worst. We must help fight Global Warming by doing the following steps: 1) Plant more trees 2) Don't waste water 3) Use cloth bag and don't burn plastic Consider these . . . Breathing is life. We know that we will survive without food for several weeks and without water for few days, but without oxygen, we will die in a matter of minutes. The oxygen, the air we breathe sustains us. So, let us make
  53. 53. 53 today and everyday a good day for everyone. Allow the earth to have more clean air. Help control pollution. "You're not going to make me have a bad day. If there's oxygen on earth and I'm breathing, it's going to be a good day." ~Cotton Fitzsimmons "Negative thinking destroys your brain cells and causes global warming." Source: The Scientific Institute of Get Over It! ―We have a moral and spiritual bond to the planet that God made the source of all living things that our own survival depends upon. Many urban dwellers have lost their spiritual bond to the earth when they lose a connection to the natural environment. They can lose their inner peace too.– Fr. Shay Cullen‖ Final thoughts Let me leave you with the following excerpts from Eckhart Tolle's "The Power of Now". ". . . The pollution of the planet is only an outside reflection of an inner psychic pollution: millions of unconscious individuals not taking responsibility for their inner space." "Are you polluting the world or cleaning up the mess? You are responsible for your inner space; nobody else is, just as you are responsible for the planet. As within, so without. If humans clear inner pollution, then they will also cease to create outer pollution. So here are few tips and suggestions to control pollutions 5.1(A) How to control air pollution: We make choices everyday that can help reduce air pollution. Below are a few ideas that you can take to help clean our air. At Home Conserve energy - turn off appliances and lights when you leave the room. Recycle paper, plastic, glass bottles, cardboard, and aluminum cans. (This conserves energy and reduces production emissions.)
  54. 54. 54 Keep woodstoves and fireplaces well maintained. You should also consider replacing old wood stoves with EPA-certified models. Plant deciduous trees in locations around your home to provide shade in the summer, but to allow light in the winter. Buy green electricity-produced by low-or even zero-pollution facilities. Connect your outdoor lights to a timer or use solar lighting. Wash clothes with warm or cold water instead of hot. Lower the thermostat on your water heater to 120F. Use low-VOC or water-based paints, stains, finishes, and paint strippers. Test your home for radon-a dangerous, radioactive gas that is odorless and tasteless. If the test shows elevated levels of radon, the problem can be fixed cost effectively. Choose not to smoke in your home, especially if you have children. If you or your visitors must smoke, then smoke outside. Buy Smart Buy ENERGY STAR products, including energy efficient lighting and appliances. They are environmentally friendly products. Choose efficient, low-polluting models of vehicles. Choose products that have less packaging and are reusable. Shop with a canvas bag instead of using paper and plastic bags. Buy rechargeable batteries for devices used frequently. Drive Wise Plan your trips. Save gasoline and reduce air pollution. Keep tires properly inflated and aligned. In the summertime, fill gas tank during cooler evening hours to cut down on evaporation. Avoid spilling gas and don't "top off" the tank. Replace gas tank cap tightly. Avoid waiting in long drive-thru lines, for example, at fast-food restaurants or banks. Park your car and go in. When possible, use public transportation, walk, or ride a bike. Get regular engine tune ups and car maintenance checks (especially for the spark plugs). Use energy-conserving (EC) grade motor oil. Ask your employer to consider flexible work schedules or telecommuting. Report smoking vehicles to your local air agency. Join a carpool or vanpool to get to work.
  55. 55. 55 5.1(b)How to control noise pollution: Below are a few things people and governments can do to make our communities and living laces quieter: Construction of soundproof rooms for noisy machines in industrial and manufacturing installations must be encouraged. This is also important for residential building—noisy machines should be installed far from sleeping and living rooms, like in a basement or garage. Use of horns with jarring sounds, motorbikes with damaged exhaust pipes, noisy trucks to be banned. Noise producing industries, airports, bus and transport terminals and railway stations to sighted far from where living places. Community law enforcers should check the misuse of loudspeakers, worshipers, outdoor parties and discos, as well as public announcements systems. Community laws must silence zones near schools / colleges, hospitals etc. Vegetation (trees) along roads and in residential areas is a good way to reduce noise pollution as they absorb sound. Noise producing industries, railway stations, aerodrome, etc. should be located far away from the residential areas. We should play various music systems such as stereos, television, etc. at low volume. We should not use loud speakers during night. Even during time they should be used at low volumes Laws should be framed so that the persons producing unnecessary noise are punished
  56. 56. 56 5.1(C) How to prevent land pollution: Like many other challenges, the best best way to solve problems is to understand it. This means learning about it (like what you are doing now) is the greatest step forward. Here are a few other tips on how you can help reduce land pollution: People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering. Discuss with friends and family and talk about it Reuse any items that you can. Items like clothing, bottles, wrapping paper and shopping bags can be used over and over again, rather than buying new things. The greatest prevention to land pollution is in the three ‗R's‘ … Reduce Waste, Re-use things and Recycle things. This is true even for governments. They can also use the three ‗R‘ rule to minimize the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. After the three 'R's, remember to turn the rest of the garbge into compost. Personal litter should be disposed properly. We can separate household waste at home for recycling. More than half of our household waste could be recycled or re-used but once it is mixed up, it becomes more difficult to separate different components for recycling. This is also true for waste we make at school or hospitals. Buy biodegradable products. Store all liquid chemicals and waste in spill-proof containers. Eat organic foods that are grown without pesticides. Look out for fertilizer or pesticide free products when you go to the market. Don‘t use pesticides if you can.
  57. 57. 57 Use a drip tray to collect engine oil. Buy products that have little packaging. Don‘t dump motor oil on the ground. Governments can also ensure that there are incentives for people to recycle and re-use things. 5.1(D) How to control water pollution Don‘t dispose paints, oils, polish and any cleaning products in the toilet, sink or down the drain. You should also store them properly, so that these types of products do not come in contact with water, even accidentally. Do not throw trash in any water body or near those places. If you litter in any such place, then make sure that you collect them and throw them in the bin. You should also ensure that other people also do not spread litter. Otherwise, the litter will end up in the sewers and ultimately in the seas and lakes. Adopt a recycling lifestyle. You should also use environment-friendly household products that can be recycled. Such products ensure minimal wastage and thus help in keeping the environment clean and unsoiled. For your garden and plants use organic fertilizers and pesticides. Also don‘t overwater the lawns and gardens. In this way pollutants cannot get into the systems due to runoffs. Maintain your vehicle so as to prevent any leakages. Oils and other toxic fluids like antifreeze from automobiles are also a major cause of water pollution. Ensure that your town has proper sewage treatment plants so that most of the household and industrial wastes can be treated instead of dumping them in the rivers or lakes. Avoid water wastage. Make sure that there are no drips and leakages in the house plumbing. Saving water will ultimately lead to the reduction of water that flows into the sewage treatment. Instead of washing your car in the driveway, it is better to send the car to a commercial car wash. In this way the pollutants from the car do not enter the storm water drains. Every three to five years, inspect the septic system to check if the waste seeps out.
  58. 58. 58 When watering the garden, do it with a bucket and mug instead of using a hose. Also, it is better to sweep the driveway instead of hosing it down. In this way, along with saving water you will also prevent the polluted water from running to drains or nearby water source. Clean the pet waste so that you do not leave it in the open. Pet waste is also a form of water pollution. Always use laundry detergents that have low levels of phosphate, as phosphate is a major water pollutant.
  59. 59. 59 5.2 CONCLUSION 5.2(A) Conclusion of air pollution As we now air is the most important need of living things. When it becomes polluted, the life of humans, plants and animals will be in danger. Air pollution means the presence of harmful substances in the air which impure our environment. Air Pollution gives rise to serious health hazards and responsible for various types of life threatening diseases. Hence it is utmost important that proper attention should be given in controlling and minimizing those activities which causes this pollution and also appropriate restriction should beput in place in using those means which contributes towards it.So, save our environment from any pollutions that can damageliving things life. 5.2(B) Conclusion on land pollution The growth rate of population is very high, and it is needed to improve the quantity of food grains to meet sufficient food grains for survival. The land pollution is not only affecting the agricultural production but also affecting in the life of human being, people are getting incurable disease, due to the use of polythene people are having cancer. Land pollution is caused mainly by the human being. There are also other reasons of land pollution. Now we need to take care of the land we need to bring awareness among people, that all should know the value of land and its use or importance. Land is like a mother who carries nourishes and Provides everything that we need. So it is our responsibility to take care of it 5.2(C) Conclusion on water pollution Aren‘t we aware of the different problems occurring in our nature, especially in different bodies of water? Water pollution is the cause of our undisciplined actions and irresponsibility. We, humans are only creating problems that consequently we will also carry the burden of these problems. We all know that water pollution can affect our health badly and seriously. It can cause such sicknesses and diseases that will badly affect our health. We all know how important water is. Water is essential to our body. Neither or every living thing can‘t survive without water. And so therefore, wes hould keep, protect, save, and help prevent our waters from being polluted ,we should act as early as now, we should save rivers, seas and oceans, and other bodies of water because we will also bare the burden of this problem. We should not wait for the time until people are competing just to get
  60. 60. 60 sufficient, fresh and clean water, the time where clean water is insufficient to the people and animals, and the time where in our sources of water are diminishing or until the time where there are totally no sources of water. And so, let us be disciplined and responsible enough to save, protect and conserve not only sources of water but also our mother nature because our nature provides and helps us in our daily lives. Let‘s just realize how important our mother nature is. It is our only source of living. Let us not destroy it nor pollute it. Let us act for a change. We need and we should help save and conserve our mother nature, especially the different bodies of water. Absolutely, there are many simple ways in how we can help. Change ourselves before we construct changes in our nature. Act right now! 5.2(D) Conclusion on noise pollution: The earth is polluted with several polluted materials. We need to be careful to reduce the pollution across the globe, because this is our world and we have the responsibility to save the world. We have to prevent the sources from which the pollution is scattering in the environment. The government of several nations is stepping up to reduce this pollution and making all new acts, we as a responsible citizen have to obey those rules and help them preventing the pollution. If the general public does not obey the rule, no one is going to die except us. So we need to be careful and responsible to save the environment, save the earth. We should try to low the volume of TV, radio or DVD players. We should not cross the limit of blowing the loudspeakers in the public places. We should not blow horns of vehicles in the sensitive areas like hospitals, schools, college, other educational or health organizations. If somebody is feeling that he/she having some problem with ear or heart, he/she must go to a specialist for a medical check-up at the initial stage.
  61. 61. 61 PHOTO GALLERY
  62. 62. 62 AIR POLLUTION
  63. 63. 63 WATER POLLUTION
  64. 64. 64 LAND POLLUTION
  65. 65. 65 NOISE POLLUTION
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