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# AI Lesson 35

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### AI Lesson 35

1. 1. Module 12Machine Learning Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
2. 2. Lesson 35Rule Induction and Decision Tree - I Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
3. 3. 12.3 Decision TreesDecision trees are a class of learning models that are more robust to noise as well as morepowerful as compared to concept learning. Consider the problem of classifying a starbased on some astronomical measurements. It can naturally be represented by thefollowing set of decisions on each measurement arranged in a tree like fashion. Luminosity Mass <= T1 > T1 <= T2 > T2 Type C Type A Type B12.3.1 Decision Tree: Definition• A decision-tree learning algorithm approximates a target concept using a tree representation, where each internal node corresponds to an attribute, and every terminal node corresponds to a class.• There are two types of nodes: o Internal node.- Splits into different branches according to the different values the corresponding attribute can take. Example: luminosity <= T1 or luminosity > T1. o Terminal Node.- Decides the class assigned to the example.12.3.2 Classifying Examples Using Decision TreeTo classify an example X we start at the root of the tree, and check the value of thatattribute on X. We follow the branch corresponding to that value and jump to the nextnode. We continue until we reach a terminal node and take that class as our bestprediction. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
4. 4. X = (Luminosity <= T1, Mass > T2) Luminosity <= T1 > T1 M as s <= T2 > T2 Type C Type B Assigned Class Type ADecision trees adopt a DNF (Disjunctive Normal Form) representation. For a fixed class,every branch from the root of the tree to a terminal node with that class is a conjunctionof attribute values; different branches ending in that class form a disjunction.In the following example, the rules for class A are: (~X1 & ~x2) OR (X1 & ~x3) x1 0 1 x x 0 1 0 1 B A C12.3.3 Decision Tree ConstructionThere are different ways to construct trees from data. We will concentrate on the top-down, greedy search approach:Basic idea: 1. Choose the best attribute a* to place at the root of the tree. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
5. 5. 2. Separate training set D into subsets {D1, D2, .., Dk} where each subset Di contains examples having the same value for a* 3. Recursively apply the algorithm on each new subset until examples have the same class or there are few of them. Illustration: t2 Class P: Poisonoushumidity Class N: Non- t3 poisonous t1 size Attributes: size and humidity. Size has two values: >t1 or <= t1 Humidity has three values: >t2, (>t3 and <=t2), <= t3 Suppose we choose size as the best t2 size t3 <= T1 > T1 t1 ? P Class P: poisonous Class N: not-poisonous Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
6. 6. Suppose we choose humidity as the next best t2 size t3 <= T1 > T1 t1 humidity P >t2 <= t3 > t3 & <= t2 N P NSteps:• Create a root for the tree• If all examples are of the same class or the number of examples is below a threshold return that class• If no attributes available return majority class• Let a* be the best attribute• For each possible value v of a* • Add a branch below a* labeled “a = v” • Let Sv be the subsets of example where attribute a*=v • Recursively apply the algorithm to Sv Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur