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  3. 3. HARDNESS OF WATER The hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium minerals that are naturally present in the water. The usual signs of a hard water supply are scaling inside kettles, poor lathering of soaps and scum. It is often referred to as soap eating water sample.
  4. 4. TYPES OF HARDNESS A. B. TEMPORARY HARNESS: Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions(CO32-, HCO3-). The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime PERMANENT HARDNESS: Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content)that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent hardness of water can be removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column. Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium Hardness
  5. 5. EFFECTS OF HARD WATER With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca Hardness is defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of soap. # Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. # In boilers, the deposits from the hard water impair the flow of heat into water, reducing the heating efficiency and allowing the metal boiler components to overheat. Which can lead to the failure of the boiler. # In swimming pools, hard water is manifested by a cloudy appearance to the water
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably simple process that utilizes very basic physical, biological, and chemical principles to remove contaminants from water.  Use of mechanical or physical systems to treat wastewater is generally referred to as primary treatment, and use of biological processes to provide further treatment is referred to as secondary treatment.  Advanced secondary treatment usually involves applying chemical systems in addition to biological ones, such as injecting chlorine to disinfect the water. Tertiary treatment methods are sometimes used after primary and secondary treatment to remove traces of chemicals and dissolved solids. 
  7. 7. METHODS OF RECYCLING WATER • Water that has been poured in cups and not drank or water bottles with water in them already can be re-used.  Simply boil the water to kill any germs and can be used for drinking water. If this method does not sound kosher, the water could also be used to water house plants. And the plastic bottles can be used in the garden as miniature water irrigation systems. • Re-use water that drains out of flower pots. Depending on the size of the pot, simply place a plastic plate or bucket under the flower pot and any water that drains out can be re-used in the garden. • Save kitchen water. Water used to clean dishes can be dumped in the toilet bowl for flushing. Water used to cook vegetables or pasta with can be into the compost pile or in garden.
  8. 8. How Can Water Recycling Benefit Us? • • • • Water recycling provides enormous environmental benefits Water recycling decreases the extraction of water form sources that may be dwindling and may stop being viable as habitats for valuable and endangered wildlife. Recycling wastewater can decrease the discharge of effluents that may damage and pollute the ecosystems of the sensitive bodies of water. Recycled water can be used to create new wetlands or to enhance and improve the quality of existing ones. Water recycling can reduce and prevent pollution by leaving damaging pollutants at the treatment plant.
  9. 9. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? Sustainable development is development that meets the needs and aspirations of the current generation without compromising the ability to meet those of future generations Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. It is important because it emphasizes towards a greater drive to equality and elevation of poverty. It shows the importance of economic, social and environmental factors.
  10. 10. GROUNDWATER WHAT IS GROUNDWATER ? Gr oundwater is water that exists in the por e spaces and fr actur es in r ock and sediment beneath the Ear th's surface. It originates as r ainfall or snow, and then moves thr ough the soil into the Gr oundwater system, w her e it eventually makes WAYS TO PROTECT AND CONSERVE GROUNDWATER • Dispose of chemicals pr oper ly. • Take used motor oil to a r ecycling center. • Limit the amount of fer tilizer used on plants. • Run full loads of dishes and laundr y. • Take shor t shower s. • Abandon all wells that ar e not needed.
  12. 12. WHY IS WATER CONSERVATION NECCESARY? • Conserving water can also save energy which reduces your carbon footprint and helps the country become more energy independent. •  One of the reasons is to prevent water pollution and avert using huge amounts of money to recycle, clean and purify the water. • Conserving the water prevents water shortages and helps build a better defense against future drought years.
  13. 13. RAINWATER HARVESTING Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, filtering and storing water from roof tops, paved and unpaved areas for multiple uses . The surplus water after usage can be used for recharging ground water aquifer through artificial recharge techniques. This can also result in improving the quality of the ground water e.g. lower fluoride content in ground water. Rainwater harvesting mechanisms are designed after assessing the site conditions such as incident rainfall, subsurface strata and their storage characteristics, infiltration test and by building suitable structures to collect and store rainwater.
  14. 14. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Watershed management is an adaptive , comprehensive, integrated multi resource management planning process that seeks to balance healthy ecological, economic, and cultural/social conditions within a watershed. Watershed management provides a framework for integrated decision-making  to help: assess the nature and status of the watershed; identify watershed issues; define and re-evaluate short and long-term objectives, actions and goals; assess benefits and costs; and implement and evaluate actions.
  15. 15. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN Narmada Bachao Andolan is the most powerful mass movement, started in 1985, against the construction of huge dam on the Narmada river. The proposed Sardar Sarovar Dam and Narmada Sagar will displace more than 250,000 people. Narmada Bachao Andolan or save Narmada movement is a Non Governmental Organisation(NGO) that mobilised people, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam built across the Narmada river in Gujarat. Narmada is the India's largest west flowing river, which supports a large variety of people with distinguished culture and tradition ranging from the indigenous (tribal) people inhabited in the jungles here to the large number of rural population.
  16. 16. HISTORY OF THE DAM It is a multi crore project that will generate a big revenue for the government. The Narmada Valley Development plan is the most promised and most challenging plan in the history of India. The proponents are of the view that it will produce 1450 MW of electricity and pure drinking water to 40 million people covering thousand of villages and towns. Some of the dams have been already been completed such as Tawa and Bargi Dams. But the opponents says that this hydro project will devastate human lives and bio diversity by destroying thousand of acres of forests and agricultural land. On the other hand it will overall deprive thousands of people of their livelihood. They believe that the water and energy could be provided to the people through alternative technological means, that would be ecologically beneficial.
  17. 17. Led by one of the prominent leader Medha Patkar, it has now been turned into the International protest, gaining support from NGO'S all around the globe. Protestors are agitating the issue through the mass media, hunger strikes, massive marches, rallies and the through the on screen of several documentary films. Although they have been protesting peacefully, but they been harassed, arrested and beaten up by the police several times. The Narmada Bachao Andolan has been pressurizing the world bank to withdraw its loan from the project through media. The strong protests through out the country not only made impact on the local people but has also influenced the several famous celebrities like film star Aamir Khan , who has made open efforts to support Narmada Bachao Andolan. He said he only want that those who have been rendered homeless should be given a roof.