HARDNESS OF WATER
The hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium
and magnesium minerals that are naturally present in the
water. The usual signs of a hard water supply are scaling
inside kettles, poor lathering of soaps and scum. It is
often referred to as soap eating water sample.
TYPES OF HARDNESS
Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by
the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals When
dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cations
(Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions(CO32-, HCO3-).
The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard.
However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate
and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be
reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of
Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content)that cannot
be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is
usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or
magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out
as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent
hardness of water can be removed using a water softener, or
ion exchange column.
Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium
EFFECTS OF HARD WATER
With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap
scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the
surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate
(the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium
stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component
2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca
Hardness is defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water
sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic
property of water that prevents the lathering of soap.
# Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing.
# In boilers, the deposits from the hard water impair the flow of
heat into water, reducing the heating efficiency and allowing the
metal boiler components to overheat. Which can lead to the failure
of the boiler.
# In swimming pools, hard water is manifested by a cloudy
appearance to the water
Treatment of wastewater is actually a
remarkably simple process that utilizes
very basic physical, biological, and
chemical principles to remove
contaminants from water. Use of
mechanical or physical systems to treat
wastewater is generally referred to as
primary treatment, and use of
biological processes to provide further
treatment is referred to as secondary
treatment. Advanced secondary
treatment usually involves applying
chemical systems in addition to
biological ones, such as injecting
chlorine to disinfect the water.
Tertiary treatment methods are
sometimes used after primary and
secondary treatment to remove traces
of chemicals and dissolved solids.
METHODS OF RECYCLING WATER
• Water that has been poured in cups and not
drank or water bottles with water in them
already can be re-used. Simply boil the water to
kill any germs and can be used for drinking
water. If this method does not sound kosher, the
water could also be used to water house plants.
And the plastic bottles can be used in the garden
as miniature water irrigation systems.
• Re-use water that drains out of flower pots.
Depending on the size of the pot, simply place a
plastic plate or bucket under the flower pot and
any water that drains out can be re-used in the
• Save kitchen water. Water used to clean dishes
can be dumped in the toilet bowl for flushing.
Water used to cook vegetables or pasta with
can be into the compost pile or in garden.
How Can Water Recycling Benefit Us?
Water recycling provides enormous
Water recycling decreases the extraction
of water form sources that may be
dwindling and may stop being viable as
habitats for valuable and endangered
Recycling wastewater can decrease the
discharge of effluents that may damage and
pollute the ecosystems of the sensitive
bodies of water.
Recycled water can be used to create new
wetlands or to enhance and improve the
quality of existing ones.
Water recycling can reduce and prevent
pollution by leaving damaging pollutants at
the treatment plant.
WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
Sustainable development is
development that meets the needs and
aspirations of the current generation
without compromising the ability to
meet those of future generations
Sustainable development ties together
concern for the carrying capacity
of natural systems with the social and
economic challenges faced by
humanity. It is important because it
emphasizes towards a greater drive to
equality and elevation of poverty. It
shows the importance of economic,
social and environmental factors.
Gr oundwater is
water that exists in
the por e spaces
and fr actur es in
r ock and sediment
beneath the Ear th's
r ainfall or snow,
and then moves
thr ough the soil
system, w her e it
WAYS TO PROTECT AND
• Dispose of chemicals
pr oper ly.
• Take used motor oil to
a r ecycling center.
• Limit the amount of
fer tilizer used on
• Run full loads of
dishes and laundr y.
• Take shor t shower s.
• Abandon all
ar e not needed.
WHY IS WATER CONSERVATION
• Conserving water can also save energy which reduces
your carbon footprint and helps the country become
more energy independent.
• One of the reasons is to prevent water pollution and
avert using huge amounts of money to recycle, clean and
purify the water.
• Conserving the water prevents water shortages and helps
build a better defense against future drought years.
Rainwater harvesting is the process of
collecting, filtering and storing water from
roof tops, paved and unpaved areas for
multiple uses . The surplus water after usage
can be used for recharging ground
water aquifer through artificial recharge
techniques. This can also result in improving
the quality of the ground water e.g. lower
fluoride content in ground water. Rainwater
harvesting mechanisms are designed after
assessing the site conditions such as incident
rainfall, subsurface strata and their storage
characteristics, infiltration test and by
building suitable structures to collect and
Watershed management is an adaptive , comprehensive,
integrated multi resource management planning
process that seeks to balance healthy ecological,
economic, and cultural/social conditions within a
Watershed management provides a framework for
integrated decision-making to help: assess the nature
and status of the watershed; identify watershed issues;
define and re-evaluate short and long-term objectives,
actions and goals; assess benefits and costs; and
implement and evaluate actions.
NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN
Narmada Bachao Andolan is the most powerful mass
movement, started in 1985, against the construction of huge
dam on the Narmada river. The proposed Sardar Sarovar
Dam and Narmada Sagar will displace more than 250,000
people. Narmada Bachao Andolan or save Narmada movement
is a Non Governmental Organisation(NGO) that mobilised
people, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights
activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam built across the
Narmada river in Gujarat. Narmada is the India's largest
west flowing river, which supports a large variety of people
with distinguished culture and tradition ranging from the
indigenous (tribal) people inhabited in the jungles here to
the large number of rural population.
HISTORY OF THE DAM
It is a multi crore project that will generate a big revenue for
the government. The Narmada Valley Development plan is the
most promised and most challenging plan in the history of India.
The proponents are of the view that it will produce 1450 MW of
electricity and pure drinking water to 40 million people covering
thousand of villages and towns. Some of the dams have been
already been completed such as Tawa and Bargi Dams. But the
opponents says that this hydro project will devastate human lives
and bio diversity by destroying thousand of acres of forests and
agricultural land. On the other hand it will overall deprive
thousands of people of their livelihood. They believe that the
water and energy could be provided to the people through
alternative technological means, that would be ecologically
Led by one of the prominent leader Medha Patkar, it has now been
turned into the International protest, gaining support from NGO'S
all around the globe. Protestors are agitating the issue through
the mass media, hunger strikes, massive marches, rallies and the
through the on screen of several documentary films. Although they
have been protesting peacefully, but they been harassed, arrested
and beaten up by the police several times. The Narmada Bachao
Andolan has been pressurizing the world bank to withdraw its loan
from the project through media. The strong protests through out
the country not only made impact on the local people but has also
influenced the several famous celebrities like film star Aamir Khan ,
who has made open efforts to support Narmada Bachao Andolan. He
said he only want that those who have been rendered homeless
should be given a roof.