Environment Friendly Automobiles


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This presentation describes the various types of eco-friendly automobiles with their pros and cons

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  • Toyota prius- made by toyota motor corporation. First sale in japan 1997. gud sale in 2000.Honda insight- production 1999-2006.Ford escape-ford motor company. Introduced in 2000.Honda civic- introduced in japan in end of 2001.
  • Environment Friendly Automobiles

    2. 2. MEMBERS • • • • • Nikita Piyush Plash Pooja Prabhjot B120010261 B120010286 B120010291 B120010293 B120010294 2
    3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Particulars Introduction Types Electric vehicle Hybrid vehicle Compressed air vehicle Improving conventional vehicle Comparison Advantages Disadvantages India’s contribution Conclusion References Page no. 04 05 06 11 19 23 27 28 29 30 31 32 3
    4. 4. Introduction • Environment friendly automobiles are those that produces less harmful impacts to the environment rather than comparable vehicles running on gasoline or diesel. • This can be powered by alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. • Green vehicles include vehicles types that function fully or partly on alternative energy sources other than fossil fuel or less carbon intensive than diesel. 4
    5. 5. TYPES • • • • Electric vehicle Hybrid vehicle Compressed air vehicle Improving conventional vehicle 5
    6. 6. ELECTRIC VEHICLE An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or for propulsion. These type of vehicles came into existence in the mid–19th century. Three main types of electric vehicles exist • Directly powered from an external power station • Powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source • Powered by an on-board electrical generator. 6
    7. 7. EV-Directly powered from an external power station Direct connection to generation plants as is common among electric trains, trolley buses, and trolley trucks Shatabdi Express Connector between the generator source and the vehicle. 7
    8. 8. EV- Powered by stored electricity These systems are powered from an external generator plant (nearly always when stationary), and then disconnected before motion occurs, and the electricity is stored in the battery of the vehicle until needed. On an energy basis, the price of electricity to run an EV is a small fraction of the cost of liquid fuel needed to produce an equivalent amount of energy (energy efficiency). A three wheeler to be introduced in Delhi
    9. 9. EV- Powered by on-board generator They are powered by regenerative fuels such as solar energy using solar cells or rechargeable energy storage system(RESS) which store energy for delivery of power and is also rechargeable. The Tokai Challenger covered the 2998 km with an average speed of 100.54 km/h. 9
    10. 10. TYPES • • • • Electric vehicle Hybrid vehicle Compressed air vehicle Improving conventional vehicle 10
    11. 11. HYBRID VEHICLE A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Engine type : • Hybrid electric-petroleum vehicles • Continuously outboard recharged electric vehicle (COREV) • Hybrid fuel (dual mode) • Fluid power hybrid 11 • Electric-human power hybrid vehicle
    12. 12. HV - Hybrid Electric-Petroleum vehicles A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (generally gasoline or Diesel engines, powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries to power the vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the Toyota Prius, Ford Escape Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. Ford escape hybrid Toyota Prius Honda Insight 12
    13. 13. HV - COREV Continuously outboard recharged electric vehicles (COREV) can be recharged while the user drives. The COREV establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanism . The COREV's batteries are recharged by this process—on the highway—and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged. 13
    14. 14. HV - Hybrid fuel (dual mode) In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or fuels, using the same engine to be hybrids, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles: • Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank — typically gasoline and ethanol • Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels. 14
    15. 15. HV - Fluid power hybrid Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles use an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels via hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. In most cases the engine is detached from the drivetrain merely only to change the energy accumulator. There are 2 types of hybrids available: • Petro-air hybrid • Petro-hydraulic hybrid 15
    16. 16. HV - Electric-human power hybrid • A human-electric hybrid vehicle is a hybrid vehicle, whose drivetrain consists of a human being and an electric motor(and one or more electricity-storage device(s) such as a batteries). • It can have characteristics of a bicycle or other lightweight human operated vehicles with the addition of faster acceleration and regenerative braking, allowing a higher average velocity, especially in hilly terrain. 16
    17. 17. TYPES • • • • Electric vehicle Hybrid vehicle Compressed air vehicle Improving conventional vehicle 17
    18. 18. COMPRESSED AIR VEHICLE • A compressed-air vehicle (CAV) is powered by an air engine, using compressed air, which is stored in a tank. • Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it in the engine to drive pistons with hot expanding gases, compressed-air vehicles use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons. 18
    19. 19. LIQUID-NITROGEN VEHICLE • A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank. • Traditional nitrogen engine designs work by heating the liquid nitrogen in a heat exchanger, extracting heat from the ambient air and using the resulting pressurized gas to operate a piston or rotary engine. 19
    20. 20. HYDOGEN VEHICLE • A hydrogen vehicle uses hydrogen as its fuel for motive power. • Chemical energy of hydrogen is converted into mechanical energy in these type of vehicles. 20
    21. 21. TYPES • • • • Electric vehicle Hybrid vehicle Compressed air vehicle Improving conventional vehicle 21
    22. 22. IMPROVING CONVENTIONAL VEHICLE(ICV) A conventional vehicle can become a greener vehicle by mixing in renewable fuels or using less carbon intensive fossil fuels. Biodiesel is the lowest emission fuel available for diesel engines. Diesel engines are the most efficient car internal combustion engines. Types of fuel used are: • Biofuel • Compressed natural gas(CNG) • Ultra low sulphur diesel • Ethanol 22
    23. 23. ICV-Biofuel • A biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. 23
    24. 24. ICV-Compressed natural gas • CNG is a fossil fuel substitute for petrol, diesel fuel, or LPG. CNG may also be mixed with biogas, produced from landfills or wastewater, which doesn't increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere. • CNG is made by compressing natural gas (methane), to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored in hard containers at a pressure of 200–248 bar. 24
    25. 25. ICV-Ultra low sulphur diesel • Ultra-low-sulphur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulphur content. • ULSD has a lower energy content due to the heavy processing required to remove large amounts of sulphur from oil. Volkswagen Jetta TDI 25
    26. 26. ICV-Ethanol • Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol C2H5OH is the same alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. • It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. • Most ethanol used for fuel is being blended into gasoline at concentrations of 5 to 10 percent. • Produced renewably from agricultural crops or from recycled wastes and residues. • Ethanol is a renewable energy source because the energy is generated in the presence of sunlight, which cannot be depleted. 26
    27. 27. Electric Vehicle Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Cell LPG/CNG Petrol Diesel Air Pollution Zero Medium Zero Medium Medium High Low Medium Low Medium Medium Medium Excellent Poor Poor Poor Excellent Good Medium Poor Good Good High Medium Medium Medium Medium Noise Pollution Infrastructur Good e Availability Safety Good Low Vehicle Degradation 27
    28. 28. ADVANTAGES • When we are driving an eco friendly vehicle , we are reducing the amount of emissions and pollution in the environment individually. • They are also helping to protect the ozone level which protects all living things including human beings , animals and plants on the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays that come from the sun. • The different gases that are emitted are unseen and can get into our body without anyone knowing it which can cause a multitude of health problems. By driving an eco friendly car, we can help to eliminate many of these health problems. 28
    29. 29. DISADVANTAGES • Eco friendly automobiles are not great on the highways as they tend to have less power and slower acceleration. • An issue for such automobiles is that sometimes they become much expensive to maintain as they are more complicated than internal combustion engines. • Some people think that these cars are not as safe as the vehicles running on gasoline or diesel. • Mechanics also have less experience with these vehicles. 29
    30. 30. INDIA’S CONTRIBUTION An Indian company, Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles Private Limited, formerly known as the Reva Electric Car Company, based in Banglore founded in 1994 is involved in designing and manufacturing of electric vehicles. Future green vehicles to be manufactured in India are: • Reva • Tata Indica Vista Electric • Hybrid Maruti Swift • Mahindra Scorpio Hybrid • Toyota Prius Hybrid 30
    31. 31. CONCLUSION • The study establishes the knowledge of ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY AUTOMOBILES. • Over the last few years eco friendly cars have become very popular as they are economical and pollution less. • Pollution has always been a problem in INDIA , so these automobiles can help the cause. • Something should be done so that more of these vehicles come on roads. 31
    32. 32. REFERENCES • • • • • • www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/greenvehicle www.endingtheviolence/info www.ehow.com/facts www.fueleconomy.gov/biodiesel www.greenriverheart.net www.consumerenergycenter.org/transportation/eth anol • www.getupforchange.org/rti 32