Research shows that students at all levels see assessment as something that is done to them on their classwork by someone else. Beyond “percent correct”, grammatical or math errors, students have little knowledge of what is involved in evaluating their classwork. As Paulson, Paulson and Meyer (1991) stated, "The portfolio is something that is done by the student, not to the student." Portfolios can provide structure for involving students in developing and understanding criteria for their own and other students’ work. Portfolio process is an effective way to get our learners to take a second look…reflect on how they could improver future work.encourage evidence-based learningencourage reflection, self-evaluation, and critical thinkinghelp learners to make connections between learning experiencesencourage learners to organize, plan, and select best workenable learners to take ownership of their own learningimprove learners' IT skillsprovide opportunities for feedback from and collaboration with peers and teachersfacilitate life-long learning Research also shows that students benefit from an awareness of the processes and strategies involved in collecting, selecting and evaluating their work according to criteria established by both the student and teacher. Portfolios can serve as a vehicle for enhancing student awareness of these strategies for thinking about and producing work—both inside and beyond the classroom.
Today we will take a few minutes to consider and overview the stages of portfolio development. Stage One: Is pf development and assessment consistent with my own personal teaching philosophy, am I willing to begin a new process of evaluating student work. Stage Two: What area of teaching/learning will we focus on, how will it effect our schedules, how will be determine criteria for selections and assessing selections, where will we keep the first cut, collection of students’ work? Stage Three: How will we introduce this to the students and what level of involvement will they have in the criteria for selection and assessment of work entries?Stage Four: Evaluate and Reflect --What did we learn? What would we do differently? How could we begin to expand?
Think about the extent to which you are committed to helping students move into increasing positions of power in relation to their own learning. And how will you know the students are learning? Which leads to thinking about the relationship between assessment and instruction—Portfolios are learner-centered, with an emphasis on meaning making, informing curriculum and one part of a multi faceted evaluation process.Is portfolio assessment consistent with your beliefs about literacy and assessment?
Begin on a limited basis, such as focusing on only writing, (or specific writing content, i.e. report writing, summaries, copying LEAs, financial literacy skills, work readiness) or a math area, or only literacy “practices” in students lives. The with the student decide the “range of things that can be collected. (photos, audios, realia) A short term portfolio can help build confidence for future refinement and expansionIntroduce at the beginning of a term. Some specific activities that should be integrated into the instructional process on a regular basis are: journal writing, collecting materials for folders, making audio or video tapes, maintaining teacher observation notes. i.e. materials can be moved at the end of a unit, or periodically throughout the Unit or term.Decided by the students and negotiated with the teacher, based on student goal, transitional benchmarks or on a broader set of questions. “ What are my favorites and why?” “What am I most focused and interested in improving?’ As a skill, reflection is not something that can be mastered in one or two attempts. Developing good reflective skills requires instruction and modeling, lots of practice, feedback and reflection. As many of you have probably encountered, when students are first asked to respond to prompts such as "I selected this piece because..." they may respond with "I think it is nice." Okay, that's a start. But we would like them to elaborate on that response, and aligned with the criteria they have established with the teacher. They need to learn how to effectively identify strengths and weaknesses, to set realistic goals for themselves and their work, and to develop meaningful strategies to address those goals. Students often have become dependent upon teachers, to evaluate their work. They need to learn self-assessment.Students may reflect individual or in teams to help each other apply their criteria and develop their portfolios. Can write an overview or notes for each entry. Can make a presentation for the class or can meet individually with teacher. As the process develops you may try many ways to do this. (reflection handout)Assessing the contents of the portfolio may involve referring to students goals or a learning contract. (such as the individual ed plan in your handouts) or a checklist or rubric developed earlier by the students by the teacher or both. The criteria for assessment should reflect the purpose of assessment i.e. examine specific achievements, general progress or process. Student’s and teacher’s reflections are central to this process. Be careful not to translate literacy achievements into a list of skills. Portfolios should reflect the development of new literacy tasks and practices.
Incorporate into Orientation. It is important to discuss the overall process as well as the specific activities that are involved.Will need two folders, one a repository for all possible entries, and the second the actual portfolio. Can include drafts, evidence of new literacy practices, reflections on the process of reading, wiriting, and other artifacts of literacy development. Can also include teacher’s observations and assessments of student’s work.Although you have decided on the broad guidelines for the criteria, Students need to apply those criteria guidelines to their own individual criteria.that have been set. If the are choosing their “best’ work, what constitutes “best”?. Students may attach a reflection sheet (in handouts) to each entry.Decorate, personalize may be part of this process. Choosing pieces for pf sometimes takes more time that expected. Need enough time for students to reflect on their work and if possible to work together with others to make their decisions about what to include.Negotiated between the teacher and learner, and related to the curriculum and to student’s goals. Assessment can involve students and even outside programs who have been involved in the literacy practices students are learning. Assessment results in a narrative evaluation about the progress or process. Not into GLE’s or SPLs but as a meaning based app
Reflect: examine if your goals for assessment were met through this process. Involve the students in this. Talk about use of time, clarity of understanding, and ways they would recommend changing the process the next time. In addition, consult with administrators or others who may need assessment info: To what extend were their needs met and how might the process be improved to be more responsive to their needs. Return to the planning stage and revise your decisions based on the new info you have gathered.
In an ePortfolio we can collect, select, reflect, direct, build, and publish a wide range of digital artifacts using electronic technology as the container.
Collect select reflect, digitize
Collect, Select, ReflectSTAGES OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT ANDDEVELOPMENT IN THEABE/ESOL CLASSROOMPRESENTED BY PATTY BALL AND JANET PIRACHA, NE SABES
Stages of Portfolio Development Stage Four: Evaluate the process and revise Stage Three: for future use. Implement portfolio Stage Two: Plan assessment for process of portfolioStage one: Decide assessmentwhether portfolioassessment Iconsistent withyour teachingphilosophy
STAGE ONE: Is portfolio assessment for me?Clarify your beliefs about Literacy• How do these beliefs influence how you work with students?Clarify the purpose of assessment• What is the relationship between assessment and instruction?
STAGE TWO: Planning for the portfolio process of collecting, selecting and assessing.Decide the content areas and the types ofmaterials you and the learners will collect.Decide on a schedule for developing portfolios.Decide on the criteria for choosing materials tomove from folder to portfolio.Develop a process for moving material fromfolder to portfolio.Develop criteria and process for assessingportfolios.
STAGE THREE: Implement portfolio assessment Introduce the concept to your students at the beginning of instruction as an integral part. Create folders and journals: ways to capture the process and the product of learning. Apply the criteria for moving materials from folders to portfolios. Move materials from folders to portfolios Assess the portfolios
STAGE FOUR: Evaluate the process and revise for future use.
Do You Need to DigitizeIts not about the technology. A portfolio doesn’t have to be digital butpictures, video and audio change the whole experienceStudents love creating videos and finding and adding picturesThey can often talk about what and how they are learning much betterthan they can write it, so recording their reflections creates a rich pictureof their learningAudiences love seeing the growth over time that video and picturescapture so well
Benefits of e-PortfoliosThey can be shared and accessed and displayed anywhereMedia rich - can incorporate videos, pictures and other multi-media (audio)Interactive – allow students/instructors to post comments, reflectionseasy to maintain, change, and updateImprove learners IT skills (aid in employability)Guide students to develop desired attributes, outcomes or skillsFacilitate communication and collaboration
Other BenefitsAllows individuals to store digital evidence—text,screen capture, photos, video and/or audio—oftheir lifelong, learning journey in a format thatcan be reused for a variety of purposesIdea is to capture content through the use of thepersonal device they carry with them e.g., amobile phone or tablet or similar technology
Different needs pull e-Portfolio efforts in different directions How do we move as a Are teachers prepared? agency to authentic Are students motivated? assessment? Are these portfolios How do we foster OF learning or reflective thinking FOR learning? and learning? Or both?How do wecapitalize on Are ePortfoliosstudents use of accessible?Web 2.0 tools? Can we supportDoes the tool do ePortfolios?what we need itto do? Does the tool work, period?
ConsiderationsBoth a process and a productResources available: hardware, software, scanners, digital cameras,digital video, audio filesLevel of technology: what skills are both you and your studentscomfortable/somewhat proficient with, but also what are willing to learnThe tools should allow the learner to feel in control of the process,including the "look and feel" of the portfolio.
Learner’s Authentic VoiceAs learners create their own electronicportfolios, their unique "voice" should beevident from navigating the portfolios andreading the reflections on the screen.In an electronic portfolio, the ability to addmultimedia elements expands thedefinition of "voice" within that rhetoricalconstruct
Voice = AuthenticityMultimedia expands the "voice" in an electronicportfolio (both literally and rhetorically)Personality of the author is evidentGives the reflections a uniquenessGives the feeling that the writer is talkingdirectly to the reader/viewer
ToolsThe tools used to develop the portfolio should beaccessible to a learner throughout their chosen careerDependence on propriety software that is notaccessible to a learner after they leave a program,may not, in the long term, provide the skillsnecessary to maintain the e-portfolio as a lifelongprofessional development tool
Personal WebSpace―Rather than limit people to the e-Portfolio model, why not develop a model providing a personal Web space for everyone, for their lifetimes and beyond?‖ ―Educause ’04‖
Things You Can UseWikis – wikispaces/pbwikisGoogle sitesFolio for MePowerPointwww.livebinders.com -http://www.livebinders.com/edit/index/285385http://www.livebinders.com/edit/index/343319
References Helen Barrett Presentation on ePortfolios Creating Student ePortfolios with Google Sites Helen Barrett Portfolio Samples, explanations, reviews - last updated March 7, 2012 - 33 tools to date) Tools and Samples ePortfolios: a portal site EPortfolios - Penn State (video) PBWorks - evolving list of tools Wikispaces - Creating e-Portfolios