The highest structure in Kaifeng, the Northern Song's capital, was a pagoda. Although pagodas don't appear in this scroll, they dominated the skyline of many cities during the Song dynasty, as they had in the Tang dynasty. Like the spires of Europe's cathedrals and churches, the city pagoda was often the first thing the traveler would see as he approached a city or town. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/intellectual/buddhism/buddhism.htm
03 Song Dynasty Outline
Sui Dynasty around the year 600 AD
“History and Culture of the Song Dynasty” Compiled by Robert Ponzio Chair, Fine Arts Oak Hall SchoolMap 960–1279 AD
The Grand Canal China’s ancient “Super Highway” helped keep the culture unified.
Advances in Agriculture New developments in irrigation and rice cultivation, especially the introduction of new strains of Rice from Champa (Vietnam), spectacularly increased rice yields. As a result the population, which had never before exceeded 60 million, grew to 100 million by 1127. Many Song Dynasty agricultural techniques are still in use today
Vibrant Market Economy The basic unit of payment was copper coins strung on a string, but these were heavy and cumbersome for use in large-scale transactions. The Song solution was to print paper money — Helping to grease the wheels of trade. Marco Polos report of this was met with incredulity in the West.
The Silk Road • The Silk Road - A Vast Network of Trade Routes During the first millennium B.C.E. through the middle of the second millennium C.E., a vast network of trade routes known as the "Silk Road" linked the people and traditions of Asia with those of Europe. These historic routes served as a major conduit for the transport of• Important scientific knowledge, technological innovations and material goods migrated between East and West and resulted in the first global exchange of scientific and cultural traditions.
“The Spring Festival Along the River” A Hand Scroll by Zhang Zeduan
Advancement in the Arts: CeramicsEwer, Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), 11th–12th century; Yaozhou ware ChinaStoneware with incised, carved, and reliefdecoration under glaze; H. 8 1/4 in. (21 cm)Gift of Mrs. T. Samuel Peters, 1926 (26.292.73)
Calligraphy Scroll for Zhang Datong, dated 1100 Huang Tingjian (Chinese, 1045–1105) Handscroll; ink on paper; 34.1 x 552.9 cm The Art Museum, Princeton University Gift of John B. ElliottPoem Written in a Boat on the Wu River, Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), ca. 1100Mi Fu (Chinese, 1052–1107) ChinaHandscroll; ink on paper; 44 columns in running-cursive script; 12 1/4 in. x 18 ft. 3 1/4 in. (31.1 x 557 cm)Gift of John M. Crawford Jr., in honor of Professor Wen Fong, 1984 (1984.174)
Painting Summer Mountains, Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), 11th century Attributed to Qu Ding (Chinese, active ca. 1023–ca. 1056) ChinaHandscroll; ink and pale color on silk; 17 7/8 x 45 3/8 in. (45.4 x 115.3 cm) Ex coll.: C.C. Wang Family, Gift of The Dillon Fund, 1973 (1973.120.1)
Emperor Huizong was also a great painter and calligrapher who invented the "Slender Gold" style. Auspicious CranesSong Dynasty 1082 – 1135
Great Advances in Science, Math and Medicine “The Golden Age of Mathematics” occurred under the Song. Advances were also made in medicine, as the first autopsy was performed in about 1145 AD on the body of a Southern Chinese captive. Chinese Armillary
Shen Kuo (Kua) Born: 1031 - Died: 1095 Scientist, Mathematician, General, Diplomat, Financial Officer, Geologist, Meteorologist, Astronomer, and Engineer. In 1086 he created a book “The Dream Pool Essays” or Meng Xi Bi Tan within which he attempted to compileall of the scientific knowledge of his day He also documented within it theknowledge of the common people, the creative inventions and innovations created by those who were not of the literati. This book still survives today.
Shen Kuo formulated an hypothesis for the process of land formation: Observed fossil shells in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean. Inferred that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt.
Inventor of Navigation Compass He discovered that the compasses do not point north, but to a magnetic north pole. That was the decisive step to make them useful for navigation. Mariners compass, with a floating magnetized needle pointing north and south.South Facing Chinese Compass. model of the first A further refinement in the box compassinstrument known to be a compass. The spoon is of (to the right) is from about 1200 CE, and ismagnetic loadstone, and the plate is of bronze much more suitable for navigation.
Printing Press w/ Movable TypeInvented by Pi Sheng between 1041 and 1048, and apage printed from it.Movable type was not invented by JohannGutenberg, in 1423 as is universally believed in theWest.This reproduction was made from the detaileddescription by Shen Kuo which survives from 1086.
Confucianism •Provided a philosophy for people to live by, a convincing account of the natural and human world, and a theoretical framework for state and society. • Emphasizes self-cultivation as a path not only to self-fulfillment but to the formation of a virtuous and harmonious society and state. Learning to be a better and wiser person goes hand in hand with service to the larger social body.Ask me about: Mencius vs. Xunxi!
Public School SystemConfucius taught:•All people possessed the samepotential•Education was the correctivemeans to ensure ethicalbehavior.•Confucius made education available to students from all classes.•Education in China has been an equalizing force from ancient times. It became ameans by which individuals from even the humblest backgrounds could rise to greatheights.•The ethics of Confucius which informed the curriculum, was a powerful mechanismfor implementing the ethical and social norms of Chinese society.
The Examination System Since the Sui Dynasty (581-617), passing a series of examinations led to office in the civil service. It was only in the Song, however, that the examination system came to be considered the normal ladder to success.•Exams based on a command of Confucian texts.•Honesty was ensured by identifying papers by number rather than the candidates name.•Examination taking could become a lifetime endeavor.•Competition was keen from the start, but became intolerable by the end of the Song Dynasty. Those successful at passing the exams are known as The Literati (or The Gentry)
Cell Used by Students Taking the Imperial Exams
A Gift from Emperor Huizong•He was also one of the three Chinese emperors to prohibit Buddhism.
BuddhismChinese, Northern Song Dynasty Guanyin, 11th centurywood with polychrome and gilt 39 inches high The Iron Pagoda, Kaifeng
Women of the Song• Under the Song, many women gained rights to own property, the ability to inherit, and to control their childrens education.• Women also ran businesses and oversaw family budgets.
Foot Binding While foot binding was finally outlawed in 1911,it was not until the Chinese Cultural Revolution of the 1940s and 50s that it was genuinely obliterated.
Song ShipbuildingThe Song were world leaders in ship-building including water- tight compartments and stern-post rudders.Their ships contained as many as Typical four decks, six masts, a dozen Viking Ship sails and held 500 sailors. 1000 AD
The Song period improvements in speed, adaptability to marine conditions, and steadiness.A strong navy of an attacking army could come right up to a riverside city.If a ships deck was high enough, soldiers could step from it to the top of the citys wall.
"Sea Hawks," as the type of ship above was called, had floating boards on each side to stabilize the ship. (it is difficult to distinguish the oars from these boards.) Song ships were also strengthened with iron in the hull. Some had several decks to keep the ship steady.Song battleships were equipped with fire-bomb catapults and incendiary arrows that usedgunpowder. Sometimes protected stations on upper decks were created for crossbowmen who also played the role of watchmen.
"Whirlwind" The Military catapultThe Song possessed superior militarily technology ratherthan military skills.Determined to keep power out of the hands of the militaryleaders, Song rulers reduced the status of its military men.No longer could officials move between the civil andmilitary services.Some soldiers were tattooed to keep them from deserting. "Bamboo fire hawk" "Thunderbolt-ball" Raised "flower" and ball bombs
Flame Throwers & Canons"Fire-spurting lances" were also invented duringthe Song. Bamboo was used as a barrel to hold thegunpowder, though by the Song, metal barrelswere also used. Some had narrow barrels andcould be held by one person. Others weremounted on wooden frames and can beunderstood to precede the modern cannon; thesewere called eruptors.
Emperor Huizong’s System of Tributes•Huizong neglected the army, and Song Chinabecame increasingly weak and at the mercy offoreign enemies.•Emperor Huizong extended a system of tributeswhere gold, silk, grains and other goods wereoffered in exchange for peace.•It didn’t work, the Song was invaded in 1126. Theenemy crossed the Yellow River and came in sightof Kaifeng, the capital of the Song empire.•Stricken with panic, Huizong abdicated his throneto his son (who became Emperor Qinzong) & fled.•He was captured and spent the last 8 years of hislife as a captive. The man who once had been the most powerful ruler on earth and had lived in opulence and art, died a broken man in far-away Northern Manchurian prison in 1135 at the age of 52.
In 1126, The Song was invaded by a semi-nomadic people from northeast Asia, (the Jurchens).They captured the capital at Kaifeng and founded their own Jin dynasty in the north. The Songcourt reestablished itself in Hangzhou, where it continued to rule for another 150 years as the Southern Song dynasty.
"Lady Liang" ( 梁氏 )"The Heroic and Valiant Lady of Yang" ( 英烈杨国夫人 ).General Liang Hongyu (1102–1135)Liang and her force fought a fiercecampaign against the invading Jurchenforces, winning battle after battle.On October 6, 1135, she died a heroic deathin battle. As she led a raid on a Jurchensupply line with a small elite cavalry force.They unwittingly walked into an ambush andwere outnumbered 10 to 1. In the midst ofbattle, Liang was mortally wounded when herAbdomen was slashed.With about 3 feet of intestines dangling outside her belly. She realized this would be her finalbattle. She used all her remaining strength to push her intestines back into her belly and wrappedthe wound with a long scarf around her waist, charged forward and said to her followers… "Today is the day I die for my country!" Her body rests in Suzhou.
Yue Fei • Days after his birth, flooding of the Yellow River destroyed Yue Feis village. • His father drowned in the floods, but not before he had ensured the survival of his wife and son by floating them downstream in a jar. • Yue Fei became proficient in warfare at an early age. As a young man narrowly escaped execution after killing the Prince of Liang in a martial arts tournament. • He did not join the fight against the Jurchen invaders until he was 23.
The ultimate. loyalty. is to serve. Your Country. The Most Famous Tattoo in Chinese History Yue Fei : Famous general of the Southern Song Dynasty.While serving as a soldier defending the Jin from the North, his commanding FieldMarshal went over to the enemy. In disgusted, Yue Fei returned home to care for hismother.His mother was displeased, and lectured him that a soldiers first duty is loyalty to hiscountry. To be sure that this would never be forgotten, she tattoo the words on his back!Yue Fei went back and led another army to defend the country.
Famous Bad Guy! Qin Gui• born 1090 - died 1155Chief counselor to the Southern SongEmperor. He maintained external security bysigning a peace with the Jurchen inthe north and internal security byundermining the power of leadinggenerals, notably Yue Fei, who hadargued for war with the Jurchen. Qin Gui had Yue Fei Killed. Qin Gui is remembered as China’s greatest traitor.
Yue Fei’s “No Spitting” Temple and Tomb• Yue Fei was only 39 at the time he was executed.Yue Fei was soon cleared of the groundless charges and a temple wasbuilt in his memory by West Lake in Hangzhou.Before Yue Feis tomb are four cast-iron kneeling figures, with chestsbare and hands bound behind their backs to kneel forever before thetomb.
Mongols (Yuan dynasty, 1279-1368)- after defeating the Jurchen in the early 13thcentury, The Mongols went on and fully defeated the Song to control all of China.
Hangzhou Capitol City of theSouthern Song 1125- 1279AD West Lake
Marco Polo Marco Polo (1254-1324), The famous Venetian traveled on the Silk Road. His journey through Asia lasted 24 years. He reached further than any of his predecessors, beyond Mongolia to China. He became a confidant of Kublai Khan (1214-1294). Hetraveled the whole of China and returned to tell the tale, which became the greatest travelogue.
Global Artistic & Education Outreach Robert Ponzio Oak hall
Global Artistic & Education Outreach Robert Ponzio Oak hall