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- 1. Basic Gates and FunctionsIntroductionBoolean functions may be practically implemented by using electronic gates. Thefollowing points are important to understand. Electronic gates require a power supply. Gate INPUTS are driven by voltages having two nominal values, e.g. 0V and 5V representing logic 0 and logic 1 respectively. The OUTPUT of a gate provides two nominal values of voltage only, e.g. 0V and 5V representing logic 0 and logic 1 respectively. In general, there is only one output to a logic gate except in some special cases. There is always a time delay between an input being applied and the output responding.Logic gatesDigital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates. These gates are theAND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR gates. The basic operations aredescribed below with the aid of truth tables.AND gateThe AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputsare high. A dot (.) is used to show the AND operation i.e. A.B. Bear in mind that thisdot is sometimes omitted i.e. ABOR gateThe OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more of itsinputs are high. A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation.
- 2. NOT gateThe NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input atits output. It is also known as an inverter. If the input variable is A, the invertedoutput is known as NOT A. This is also shown as A, or A with a bar over the top, asshown at the outputs. The diagrams below show two ways that the NAND logic gatecan be configured to produce a NOT gate. It can also be done using NOR logic gatesin the same way.NAND gateThis is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate.The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low. The symbol is anAND gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.NOR gateThis is a NOT-OR gate which is equal to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. Theoutputs of all NOR gates are low if any of the inputs are high.The symbol is an OR gate with a small circle on the output. The small circlerepresents inversion.
- 3. EXOR gateThe Exclusive-OR gate is a circuit which will give a high output if either, but notboth, of its two inputs are high. An encircled plus sign ( ) is used to show the EORoperation.EXNOR gateThe Exclusive-NOR gate circuit does the opposite to the EOR gate. It will give alow output if either, but not both, of its two inputs are high. The symbol is an EXORgate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.The NAND and NOR gates are called universal functions since with either one theAND and OR functions and NOT can be generated.Note:A function in sum of products form can be implemented using NAND gates byreplacing all AND and OR gates by NAND gates.A function in product of sums form can be implemented using NOR gates byreplacing all AND and OR gates by NOR gates.
- 4. Table 1: Logic gate symbolsTable 2 is a summary truth table of the input/output combinations for the NOT gatetogether with all possible input/output combinations for the other gate functions. Alsonote that a truth table with n inputs has 2n rows. You can compare the outputs ofdifferent gates.Table 2: Logic gates representation using the Truth table

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