Scott Fogler - Globalization and Cooperation: Chemical Engineers Working to Solve Problems in the Next Decade
ChE Next DecadeIf we don’t know where we are, how do we know which way to go?So… let’s first look at where we
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The Expectations for Engineers in theNext 10 Years Understanding the critical issues in Energy, Water, Health, Sustainability and the Environment Knowledge of bio-science and nano-science and their applications. Ability to work and communicate across cultures and across generations.
The Expectations for Engineers in theNext 10 Years Understanding the critical issues in Energy, Water, Health, Sustainability and the Environment Knowledge of bio-science and nano-science and their applications. Ability to work and communicate across cultures and across generations. Critical Thinking Skills-Root Cause Analysis Creative Thinking Skills
Today’s Students and Graduates andthe Workplace Millennials“There is a generational tidal wave coming that’s threatening to shake up workplaces throughout the world” --J.G. Sujansky
“As a group, Millennials are unlike any other youth generations in living memory. They are more numerous, better educated and more ethnically diverse” --J.B. Gardner
Working with the MillennialsThe L’Oreal Study showed that Millennials around the world share same attributes. E.g., Malaysia, India, Australia, France, Argentina, Canada, U.K. and China. Saturday Soccer Games
Every generation brings somethingnew to the workplace based on thecharacteristics of that generation.The generation characteristics that Iam going to list are generalizationsand of course there are manyvariations among individuals.
Generations in a GlanceBaby Boomers Generation X Millennials(YOB: 1946-1964) (YOB: 1965-1981) (YOB: 1982-2000)78 million people 51 million people 76 million people Today’s graduates Accept the rules Question the rules Argue with the rules Passionate about Pragmatic/practical Individualisticcareers Defined by the PC Defined by the Internet Spirit in workplace Join organizations Don’t join organizations Focus on company Multi-task like no othergrowth generation
Working with the Millennials Key Characteristics of Millennials What Millennials Want Managing the Millennials
Working with the MillennialsKey Characteristics of Millennials – 1Their job does not define who they are.Expect immediacy in everything they do.Feel they can get anything they want off theInternet.Multi-task like no other generation –Look at CNN; hear comments, read text bottom of screen and listen to music at same time.
Working with the MillennialsKey Characteristics of Millennials– llConnected via technology and notoverwhelmed by informationtidal wave.Communicate through Social networkingAltruistic Interests
Working with the MillennialsWhat Millennials WantContinual feedbackTo take pride in their companyFlexible work scheduleSocialization and extracurricular opportunitiesWork to be funThe latest technologyTo work at a job where they can directly makea differenceCareer-growth opportunities, they want tolearn
Working with the MillennialsManaging the Millennials – IHelp them view the company as a placewhere they can feel productive, learn, and becontinuously challengedProvide more coaching than previousgenerationsShow them how their contribution is valued
Working with the Millennials Managing the Millennials – 1l Be direct in what you want them to doAvoid phrases like “One thing you might consider in your design is … “One suggestion might be …Because Baby boomers and X’s know “suggestion” means “do it”! Millennial’s “I thought it was only a suggestion and did not get to it.”
Ph.D. topics will changeOld: Continuum theory for linking non- linear reactions AIChE J. 34 p 1519, 1988 A B C DMillennials want to work on meaningful problemsNew: Develop a cartridge device to remove arsenic from ground water Develop a sustainable factory to make… Design an insulin pump the size of a
Why Research Millennial’sCharacteristics Millennials are NOT joining organizations such as AIChE We needed to make it something of greater value not only to them but to all our members
Engaging Millenials in AIChE What Millennials Want Career-growth opportunities, want to learnAIChE’s ChemE on Demand Live and Archived Webinars Keynote Speeches at National Meetings
Webinar Categories Business Subjects Career Advice Leadership Outreach Technical Subjects Chemical Engineering Practice Energy and Sustainability Research Areas Safety Overview Areas How to …
Recent Webinars Research and chemical engineering practice: “Ionic Liquids” “Storage and Flow of Bulk Solids” Business skills: “How to deal with difficult people” Career advice: “ Advice for graduates on their first job” How to topics: “How to design a viscoelastic pump”
There are now over 100 archived Webinars available to AIChEmembers on the AIChE Website ChemE-on-Demand
AltruisticMillennials Want to work onproblems that will help society Health: Personalized Medicine Energy Environmental Issues Water supply and contamination
Impact Areas for New ChE’sHealth: PersonalizedMedicineEnergyEnvironmental IssuesWater supply and contamination
Personalized Medicine: Nanotargeting November 9, 2011 ChE Professor Mark E. Davis
The “Crowded Planet” Energy demand will triple by 2050
P rojected Oil C onsumption 140 120 Oil Consumption (Million Bbl/Day) 100 3 Co u n trie s 80 60 China 40 In d ia 20 USA 0 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050Calc’d from UN population data
Energy and the Future World Oil Consum ption and Production 150 Production Million Bbls per Day 100 Consum ption 50 US, China, India Requirement 0 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 Co nsumptio n data fro m EIA , 7/07 John C. Chen
Energy and the Future Alternative Energy Sources for World (Balance needed after alternatives) 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 Terawatts 20.00 Fossil Nuclear 15.00 Balance needed Renew ables 10.00 5.00 0.00 2005 1 2 3 4 2025 5 6 7 8 9 2050 10Ref: Intern. Energy Outlook, EIA, June 2008 John C. Chen
Nuclear Power Scale of Effort Additional nuclear capacity, 2005 to 2050: Primary energy from nuclear + 2.56 TW Nuclear power generating capacity + 1.91 TW Nuclear plants of 1200 MW size = 1.91TW/0.0012TW = 1591 plants Installation rate = (365 days/yr x 45 years)/1591 = 10.3 Days/Plant Therefore a plant would have to be built every 10.3 days to meet the growing demand from 2005 to 2050.
Solar Energy Earth receives 174,000 TW 1 hour sun = 1 year of energy consumption World Energy Consumption 16TW approx in 2010 Types Solar Thermal Fields Solar Thermal Solar Chemical Solar Voltaic Water Splitting
Solar Thermal The solar furnace at Odeillo in the French Pyrenees- Orientales can reach temperatures up to 3,800 degrees Celsius.
Vision – Modular Solar Field Design Individual modules producing syngas link to a central downstream process to produce liquid fuels
Solar Thermal -Reactors Primary concentrator c Reactor a heliostat
Solar Thermal – Heating Home Water Absorbs λ=400 to 750nm Solar radiation heats the collector along with the water contained inside The heat exchanger releases solar heat to the water in the The hot water buffer storage tank circulates between the collector and the buffer storage Cold water return tankUnlike other solar-based energy alternatives, solar thermal energy does not convert the solar energydirectly into electricity
Solar Voltaic Solar voltaic cells produce direct current electricity from sunlight Chemical Engineers are working on Solar Voltaic Surface materials (Mono- and Poly-Crystalline Si, amorphous Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 A 1 KW photovoltaic system prevents: 150 lbs of coal from being mined per month 300 lbs of CO2 from entering atmosphere
Solar Voltaic The largest photovoltaic power plant in the world: the Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada, 97 MW) World Wide 0.018 TW
Solar Chemical Processes that harness solar energy by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction Dimerization of Anthracene
Hydrogen and Fuel CellsH 2 → 2H + + 2e− 1 2 O 2 + 2H + + 2e− → H 2 O
HydroelectricAll water flow on planetcombined wouldproduce 4.6 TW 1.6 TW is technicallyfeasible 0.9 TW is economic 0.6 TW is alreadyinstalled
Hydroelectric Power Linked turbines could span rivers Spin like lawn-mower blades Prototypes developed at Oxford Ross McAdam/Dept. of Engineering Science/University of Oxford
Wind Energy All potential wind combined: 2-3 TW Worldwide there are now many thousands of wind turbines operating Windspire: first vertical turbine able to start in slow winds without motor Relatively bird friendly
Fuels from Renewable Biomass MustIncrease 1st generation: food crops NO !!!! Fermentation of corn, sugar cane, etc. 2nd generation: plant waste Uses non-food part of crops and other waste Cellulosic ethanol 3rd generation: plants grown specifically for fuel Algae, jatropha, switchgrass
The Technological Challenges There is no single technological solution DifferencesVehicles: Efficiency, - regions - resources RenewablesBiofuels. Hydrogen - markets - preferences - technologies - needs - timing - infrastructuresEfficiency in the buildingsand in the industry Bio-fuels Gen 4 Nuclear CO2 capture and storage Advanced power networks
Much Greater Focus on Conservation: Individually and in IndustryMicrosoft Launches Home Energy-Monitoring Software.The Wall Street Journal (6/25, Sweet) reports that Microsoft Corp. hasannounced “plans to launch new Internet software to help consumersgauge how much electricity they use and figure out how to cut back.”Microsoft “will initially partner with four utilities...to provide those utilities’residential customers who opt into the program detailed usageinformation on the use the program to estimate the energy efficiency -- orinefficiency -- of their homes and appliances.” The software, called Hohm,can also “estimate the carbon dioxide emissions associated with theelectricity customers use” Said Batterberry, “The goal is to helpconsumers save on their energy bills.”
Challenges of a “Crowded Planet” How will we grow our energy supply in a sustainable way? How will food, water and health care be available to all? How do we deal with the conflicts of the “haves” and “have nots” of society?
Shaping the FutureEmphasize Critical and Creative thinkingskills
Teach More Critical ThinkingSocratic Questioning is the Heart of Critical Thinking Have our students practice asking the Six Types of Socratic Questions, e.g., (3) Questions that probe assumptions (4) Questions that probe reasons and evidence (6) Questions that probe implications and consequence Have our Students Practice the 7 Seven Types of Critical Thinking Actions:Predicting, Analyzing, Information Seeking, Applying Standards, Discriminating, Transforming Knowledge, dL i lR i
Teach Techniques that Enhance Creativity Osborn’s Vertical Thinking DeBono’s Lateral Thinking Other People’s Views Random Stimulation Futuring Cross Fertilization TRIZPrepare assignments that give the students practice touse these techniques, such as assigning more open-ended homework problems as opposed to singleanswer problems.
Shaping the Future Emphasize Critical and Creative thinking skills Cross generational and cross cultural interactions Energy for sustainability Biofuels and Carbon Capture Clean water for all
R. W. Paul’s 6 Types of Socratic Questions1) Questions about the question The purpose of this question is to find out why the question was asked, who asked it and why the question or problem needs to be solved.2) Questions for clarification The purpose of this question is to find missing or unclear information in the problem statement question.3) Questions that probe assumptions The purpose of this question is to find out if there are any misleading or false assumptions.4) Questions that probe reasons and evidence. The purpose of this question is to find out motive assertion, and/or justification and observations to support an assertion.5) Questions about viewpoints and perspectives The purpose of this question is to learn how things are viewed or judged and to consider things not only in a relative perspective, but also as a whole.6) Questions that probe implications and consequence The purpose of this question is to understand the inferences or propositions and the end results if the inference action is carried out.
Teach More Critical Thinking Teach the Six Types of Socratic Question Socratic Questioning is the Heart of Critical Thinking Have the Students Practice the 7 Types of Critical Thinking Actions Predicting: envisioning a plan and its consequences. Analyzing: separating or breaking a whole into parts to discover their nature, function, and relationships. Information Seeking: searching for evidence, facts, or knowledge by identifying relevant sources and gathering objective, subjective, historical, and current data from those sources. Applying Standards: judging according to established personal, professional, or social rules or criteria. Discriminating: recognizing differences and similarities among things or situations and distinguishing carefully as to category or rank. Transforming Knowledge: changing or converting the condition, nature, form, or function of concepts among contexts. Logical Reasoning: drawing inferences or conclusions that are supported in or justified by evidence.
November 8, 2011“Today’s kids must learn to work harder.” --Michelle Rhee President & CEO Student’s First Former Chancellor, DC Public Schools
Michelle Rhee said:“We’ve lost the American competitive spirit. If you look at how we’re raising our kids today and the culture that we are creating, we are spending so much time trying to make children feel good about themselves, that we’ve lost sight of putting the time in that it takes to actually make them good at something. I have two little girls. They play soccer. They suck at soccer. However, if you were to go into their rooms today, you would see trophies and medals and ribbons and plaques. You would think just based on that, that Im raising the next women’s U.S. Olympic Soccer stars. I feel that is actually not doing a good service to our children because were not teaching them that in order to be great at something, you have to put the time in. You have to put the effort in Its about discipline Its
Millennials Want to Work in Areas ofChemical Engineering That Will Have Impact Energy Versus
The Solar Toilet: Sewage into Power According to World Health Organization estimates, 2.6 billion people, about 40% of the worlds population, do not have access to sanitation
Solar Toilet Overview Clean Water Treated Waste Water Waste Water
Solar Toilet: How it Works Waste water from porta-toilets is stored in a tank before being sent to an electrochemical reactor Waste WaterPorta-toilets in Urinal and Sitting Toilet Forms Storage Tank
Solar Toilet: How it Works Sunlight powers an electrochemical reaction with human waste in water Solar Panel Waste Water Storage Tank Electrochemical reactor
Solar Toilet: How it Works Power: for a light or a self-cleaning mechanism Microfiltration Unit H2(g) TreatedClean Water Waste Water Fuel Cell O2(g)Waste Water fromStorage Tank Electrochemical reactor