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Etimoloxías Latinas

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Concepto de Etimoloxía e exemplos de evolucións semánticas do latín ás linguas romances e tamén dentro do propio latín

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Etimoloxías Latinas

  1. 1. ETYMOLOGIAE LATINAE
  2. 2. A etimoloxía é a disciplina que estudia a orixe das palabras, así como os cambios de significado que se van producindo ó longo da historia das palabras. Eses cambios non tan regulares e previsibles como os fonéticos, pero si que se poden observar certos patróns. Nas seguintes diapositivas verás, en xeral, cómo algunhas palabras ampliaron o seu significado e outras o restrinxiron. Nestes procesos entra sempre en xogo unha capacidade intelectual humana: a asociación de ideas
  3. 3. O antigo plural latino pasou a ter un significado colectivo e, polo tanto, máis xeral Latín LIGNA palabra patrimonial derivada: LEÑA (“madeira cortada”) significado orixinal: “ madeiros ” derivados cultos : LIGNITO, LIGNÍVORO
  4. 4. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de conceptos: a limpeza considérase fermosa Latín PVLCHRVM palabra derivada: PULCRO (“limpo”) significado orixinal: “ fermoso ” outros derivados: PULCRITUDE
  5. 5. Produciuse unha restricción no significado: en latín o senso era máis xeral Latín PVLLVM palabra patrimonial derivada: POLO/POLLO (“cría da galiña”) significado orixinal: ” pequeneiro” outros derivados: POLLINO, POLLASTRE
  6. 6. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de conceptos: se buscamos algo é porque o queremos Latín QVAERERE palabra patrimonial derivada: “ QUERER” significado orixinal: “ buscar ” outros derivados: QUERENCIA
  7. 7. Produciuse unha ampliación no significado de focus , que en latín era máis específico Latín FOCVM / IGNEM palabras patrimoniais derivadas: FUEGO, FOGAR/HOGAR significados orixinais: “ lume do fogar / lume (en xeral)” derivados cultos: FOGO, FOCO, IGNÍFUGO, IGNÍVORO
  8. 8. Produciuse ampliación do significado: en latín o senso era máis específico Latín CASA palabra patrimonial derivada: CASA significado orixinal: “ chabola” outros derivados: CASERÍO, CASEIRO
  9. 9. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de conceptos: os mártires morrían dando testemuño da súa fe Latín MARTYR palabra derivada: MÁRTIR significado orixinal (a través do grego): “ testemuña” outros derivados: MARTIRIO
  10. 10. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de conceptos: un día no que non se traballa é motivo de ledicia Latín FESTA palabra patrimonial derivada: FESTA/FIESTA significado orixinal: “ día non laborable” derivados cultos: FESTIVO FESTIVIDADE FESTIVAL
  11. 11. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de conceptos: chamamos “parvo” a quen consideramos “de mente pequena Latín PARVVM palabra patrimonial derivada: PARVO significado orixinal: “ pequeno ” derivados cultos: PÁRVULO
  12. 12. Produciuse unha ampliación de significado: en latín o senso era máis específico Latín CABALLVM palabra patrimonial derivada: CABALO significado orixinal: “ cabalo capado” outros derivados: CABALGAR, CABALETE, CABALEIRO
  13. 13. Produciuse unha perda de conciencia do sufixo deminutivo Latín AVOLVM palabra patrimonial derivada: AVÓ / ABUELO significado orixinal: variante cariñosa de “avó” derivados cultos: ABOLENGO
  14. 14. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de ideas (de concreto a abstracto), xa en latín: para podar é preciso pensar ben qué ramas cortar Latín PVTARE palabra patrimonial derivada: PODAR significados orixinais: “ limpar”, “podar”; “ pensar” derivados cultos PUTATIVO
  15. 15. Produciuse un cambio de significado por asociación de ideas (de concreto a abstracto): sinalar algo a alguén é, en certo modo, ensinarlle Latín DOCERE / INSIGNARE palabra patrimonial derivada: ENSINAR/ ENSEÑAR significados orixinais: “ ensinar” / “ sinalar” derivados cultos: DOCENCIA, DOCTOR
  16. 16. Engadiuse un significado abstracto a partir do concreto (xa en latín): dar ordes é, en certo modo, organizar Latín ORDINARE palabra patrimonial derivada: ORDENAR (“poñer en orde” e “mandar”) significado orixinal: “ poñer en orde” outros derivados: ORDENANZA, ORDINAL
  17. 17. Engadiuse un significado concreto, xa no latín e o grego, a partir do abstracto primario Latín ECCLESIA palabra patrimonial derivada: IGREXA / IGLESIA significado orixinal (a través do grego: “ asamblea” derivados cultos: ECLESIÁSTICO
  18. 18. Os dous significados actuais proceden de metonimias: o todo pola parte (“lista de nomes”) e a parte polo todo (“soldo”) Latín NOMINA palabra actual derivada: NÓMINA (“lista de nomes” e tamén “soldo” significado orixinal: “ nomes” outros derivados: NOMINAL, NOMINACIÓN
  19. 19. Perdeuse a conciencia do sufixo: o que en latín era un deminutivo, pasa a ser palabra base nas linguas romances Latín GENVCVLVM palabra patrimonial derivada: XEONLLO/ HINOJO significado orixinal: “ xeonllo pequeno” derivados cultos: XENUFLEXIÓN
  20. 20. Produciuse, xa en latín, unha restricción do significado: designa un tempo meteorolóxico concreto Latín TEMPESTATEM palabra patrimonial derivada: TEMPESTADE significado orixinal: “ tempo (meteorolóxico)” outros derivados: INTEMPESTIVO
  21. 21. O significado ampliouse moito, xa que “ser” é un concepto moi extenso, mentres “estar sentado” é moi concreto Latín SEDERE palabra patrimonial derivada: SER significado orixinal: “ estar sentado” derivados cultos: SEDE, SEDENTE
  22. 22. A segunda palabra sustituíu á primeira no léxico patrimonial, por asociación de conceptos: unha broma pretende ser divertida Latín LVDVS / IOCVS palabra patrimonial derivada: XOGO/ JUEGO significados orixinais: “ xogo”/“broma” derivados cultos: LÚDICO. LUDOPATÍA, LUDOTECA
  23. 23. Igual que no caso se SEDERE , o seu senso fíxose moito máis xeral Latín STARE palabra patrimonial derivada: ESTAR significado orixinal: “ estar de pé” derivados cultos: ESTÁTICO
  24. 24. O cambio prodúcese aquí por asociación de conceptos: as cousas marabillosas son dignas de admiración Latín MIRABILIA palabra patrimonial derivada: MARABILLA / MARAVILLA significado orixinal: “ cousas admirables” outros derivados: MARABILLOSO
  25. 25. Nova asociación de conceptos: os habitantes das aldeas tardaron máis en acoller o cristianismo, e por iso “aldeán” converteuse para os cristiáns en sinónimo de “non crente en Cristo” Latín PAGANVS palabra patrimonial derivada: PAGÁN/PAGANO significado orixinal: “ aldeán” outros derivados: PAGANISMO
  26. 26. Os dous sensos están moi próximos, polo que se asocian facilmente: se non arrimamos a algo ou alguén, enténdese que “chegamos” Latín PLICARE palabra patrimonial derivada: CHEGAR/LLEGAR significado orixinal: “ achegar”, “ arrimar” outros derivados: CHEGADA

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