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Alternate Reality Games for Enterprise Education: Bridging the reality gap between simulation and authentic experience


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This was the presentation I gave at IEEC 2010

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Alternate Reality Games for Enterprise Education: Bridging the reality gap between simulation and authentic experience

  1. 1. Alternate Reality Games<br />for Enterprise <br />Education<br />Image modified from<br />Bridging the reality gap between simulation and authentic experience<br />Simon Brookes<br />Portsmouth Centre for Enterprise<br />IEEC 2010 - Cardiff<br />
  2. 2. One of the most fundamental challenges for Enterprise educators?<br />"I believe that the spirit of enterprise can be taught, but characteristics such as intuition and appetite for risk are harder to learn in a lecture hall. It is necessary to get into the mindset of an entrepreneur to understand their constitution."<br />John Macaulay - Recent MBA Graduate<br /><br />
  3. 3. The Entrepreneurial Mindset?<br /><br />Domain Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Business Finance<br />Marketing<br />Sales<br />Business Management<br />Communication<br />Leadership<br />Team working<br />Networking<br />Behaviours<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Proactivity<br />Risk taking<br />Implementing<br />Opportunity spotting<br />Adaptability<br />Self efficacy<br />Determination<br />Enthusiasm/motivation<br />Challenging<br /><br />
  4. 4. The Entrepreneurial Mindset?<br /><br />So how do we promote the development of this in “class”?<br />Domain Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Business Finance<br />Marketing<br />Sales<br />Business Management<br />Communication<br />Leadership<br />Team working<br />Networking<br />Behaviours<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Proactivity<br />Risk taking<br />Implementing<br />Opportunity spotting<br />Adaptability<br />Self efficacy<br />Determination<br />Enthusiasm/motivation<br />Challenging<br /><br />
  5. 5. The Entrepreneurial Mindset?<br /><br />Domain Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Business Finance<br />Marketing<br />Sales<br />Business Management<br />Communication<br />Leadership<br />Team working<br />Networking<br />Behaviours<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Proactivity<br />Risk taking<br />Implementing<br />Opportunity spotting<br />Adaptability<br />Self efficacy<br />Determination<br />Enthusiasm/motivation<br />Challenging<br /><br />
  6. 6. The Entrepreneurial Mindset?<br /><br />That’s easy peasy!<br />Domain Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Business Finance<br />Marketing<br />Sales<br />Business Management<br />Communication<br />Leadership<br />Team working<br />Networking<br />Behaviours<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Proactivity<br />Risk taking<br />Implementing<br />Opportunity spotting<br />Adaptability<br />Self efficacy<br />Determination<br />Enthusiasm/motivation<br />Challenging<br /><br />
  7. 7. The Entrepreneurial Mindset?<br /><br />Domain Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Business Finance<br />Marketing<br />Sales<br />Business Management<br />Communication<br />Leadership<br />Team working<br />Networking<br />Behaviours<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Proactivity<br />Risk taking<br />Implementing<br />Opportunity spotting<br />Adaptability<br />Self efficacy<br />Determination<br />Enthusiasm/motivation<br />Challenging<br /><br />
  8. 8. The Entrepreneurial Mindset?<br />?<br /><br />That’s more difficult!<br />Domain Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Business Finance<br />Marketing<br />Sales<br />Business Management<br />Communication<br />Leadership<br />Team working<br />Networking<br />Behaviours<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Proactivity<br />Risk taking<br />Implementing<br />Opportunity spotting<br />Adaptability<br />Self efficacy<br />Determination<br />Enthusiasm/motivation<br />Challenging<br /><br />
  9. 9. THINK IN ACTION<br />Active Learning<br />Experiential Learning<br />Practice Based Learning<br />Learning by Doing<br />
  10. 10. As enterprise educators, what tools/techniques can we employ that <br />will encourage students to think in action?<br />
  11. 11. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />
  12. 12. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />
  13. 13. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />
  14. 14. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  15. 15. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Case Study<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  16. 16. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Role-play<br />Case Study<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  17. 17. Enterprise Towers<br />As real as an authentic experience?<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Simulation (inc. Computer)<br />Role-play<br />Case Study<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  18. 18. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Simulation (inc. Computer)<br />The problem is one of immersion!<br />Role-play<br />Case Study<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  19. 19. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Reality Gap<br />Simulation (inc. Computer)<br />Role-play<br />Case Study<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  20. 20. Enterprise Towers<br />AUTHENTIC EXPEREINCE<br />Authentic Experience<br />Authentic Learning Activities (ALA)<br />Simulation (inc. Computer)<br />Role-play<br />Case Study<br />Standard Lecture<br />
  21. 21. The Dark Knight Alternate Reality Game<br /><br /><br />
  22. 22. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />Trans-media story telling<br />Alternate Reality Gaming (ARG) is an experience that encourages players (you!) to interact with a fictional world using the real world to do it.<br /><br />Emails from characters<br />Mobile phones in cakes<br />Magazine adverts<br />TV adverts<br />Websites and blogs<br />Projections on buildings<br />Hidden Packages <br />
  23. 23. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />Every effort invested in making the fictional world seem real<br />
  24. 24. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />Blur the boundary between fiction and reality<br />
  25. 25. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />Deep levels of engagement with, and immersion into, the fictional (simulated) game world<br />
  26. 26. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />“[It’s like] getting yourself hooked on intellectual crack cocaine. You look at your score online and start to dream of glory. Because the game isn’t just about solving puzzles, it is much more than that”<br />Perplex City players (Mosely, 2008)<br />
  27. 27. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />“I would describe myself as addicted to perplex city. I like to consider myself a citizen in fact!”<br />Perplex City players (Mosely, 2008)<br />
  28. 28. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />You find yourself at the end of the game, waking up as if from a long sleep. Your marriage or relationship may be in tatters. Your job may be on the brink of the void, or gone completely. You may have lost a scholarship, or lost or gained a few pounds. You slowly wake up to discover that you have missed the early spring unfolding into the late summer….yet now here we are, every one of us excited at blurring the lines between story and reality. The game promises to become not just entertainment, but our lives”<br />Andrea Phillips, Cloudmakers Recovery Guide, July 2002<br />
  29. 29. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />Problem based (Goal oriented)<br />Knowledge acquisition and application (from physics to philosophy)<br />Collaborative<br />
  30. 30. Alternate Reality Game Features<br />Self-directed play – players influence story<br />Rewards (leaderboards, prizes, community recognition) <br />Regular delivery of new content<br />
  31. 31. Puzzles<br />Collaboration<br />Communication<br />Teamwork<br />Research <br />Enquiry<br />Competition<br />Leadership<br />Application<br />Risk-taking<br />Determination<br />Empathy<br />Action<br />Proactivity<br />Confidence<br />Motivation<br />Drive<br />Challenging<br />Innovation<br />Alternate Reality Game Mindset<br />
  32. 32. Puzzles<br />Collaboration<br />Communication<br />Teamwork<br />Research <br />Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Enquiry<br />Competition<br />Leadership<br />Application<br />Risk-taking<br />Determination<br />Empathy<br />Action<br />Behaviours<br />Proactivity<br />Values/Beliefs/Attributes<br />Confidence<br />Motivation<br />Drive<br />Challenging<br />Innovation<br />Alternate Reality Game Mindset<br />
  33. 33. Puzzles<br />Collaboration<br />Communication<br />Teamwork<br />Research <br />KNOWING<br />Enquiry<br />Competition<br />Leadership<br />Application<br />Risk-taking<br />Determination<br />Empathy<br />Action<br />Proactivity<br />DOING<br />Confidence<br />Motivation<br />Drive<br />Challenging<br />Innovation<br />Alternate Reality Game Mindset<br />
  34. 34. Puzzles<br />Collaboration<br />Communication<br />Teamwork<br />Research <br />KNOWING<br />Enquiry<br />Competition<br />Leadership<br />Application<br />Risk-taking<br />Determination<br />Empathy<br />Action<br />Proactivity<br />DOING<br />Confidence<br />Motivation<br />Drive<br />Challenging<br />THICKLY AUTHENTIC SIMULATION*<br />Alternate Reality Game Mindset<br />*Shaffer, D. (2005)<br />Wisconsin-Maddison University<br />
  35. 35. Thickly Authentic Simulation<br />As close to a real life scenario/environment as is possible. <br />
  36. 36. Taught units based upon ARG principles:<br />Authentic Learning Activities (ALAs)<br />
  37. 37. Enterprise in Context<br /><ul><li>Existing level one, 10 Credit unit
  38. 38. Simple simulation
  39. 39. Students given printed brief
  40. 40. Work in small groups
  41. 41. Role-play managers of failing company
  42. 42. Task is to revive a poorly performing company
  43. 43. Basic marketing, business finance and personnel issues</li></li></ul><li>Enterprise in Context<br />“….getting yourself hooked on intellectual crack cocaine....” ?<br />
  44. 44. Enterprise in Context (ALA)<br /><ul><li>Level one, 20 Credit unit
  45. 45. 12 week, thickly authentic simulation
  46. 46. Work in small groups
  47. 47. Role-play employees of a turn-around company
  48. 48. Task is to revive a failing company
  49. 49. Basic marketing, business finance and personnel issues</li></li></ul><li>How to build an ALA<br />Don’t move students too far away from their own reality.<br />Step One<br />Invent a realistic scenario with a narrative and characters<br />Start with the learning outcomes - “How might these we achieved in a professional environment?”<br />Interactive where possible. How? Where are the touch-points?<br />
  50. 50. How to build an ALA<br />Phoenix UK Ltd Undergraduate Training Programme<br />
  51. 51. How to build an ALA<br />Step Two<br />Create a realistic, rich, interactive environment (the game world) <br />
  52. 52.
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  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
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  60. 60.
  61. 61. How to build an ALA<br />Step Three<br />Create detailed plan (storyboard) for “delivery” of the simulation. Don’t forget assessment! <br />
  62. 62. How to buildanALA<br />Setting the scene is important. What are the expectations?<br />Step Four<br />Immerse the students within the game world<br />Begin interaction with characters very early.<br />Stay in character for duration <br />
  63. 63. The Cast and Interactions<br />Phoenix UK Ltd<br />Simon Brookes<br />Managing Director<br /><br />
  64. 64. The Cast and Interactions<br />Phoenix UK Ltd<br />Simon Brookes (MD)<br /><br />Mike summers (Finance Director) <br /><br />Marie-Anne James (Marketing Director) <br /><br />
  65. 65. The Cast and Interactions<br />Salter & Son<br />Craig Salter (MD)<br />craig.salter@salter&<br />Barry Scott (finance)<br />b.scott@salter&<br />Christine Parker (Marketing)<br />c.parker@salter&<br />
  66. 66. The Cast and Interactions<br />Others<br />Mike Winters <br />Previous Client<br />Teresa Dale<br />Market Research Consultant<br />
  67. 67. Delivery Model<br />ENVIRO-NMENT<br />CLIENT<br />ACTION<br />ACTION<br />Problem Based<br />Emails<br />Conference calls<br />Posted packages<br />Virtual (websites)<br />Real (field work)<br />REFLECTION ON ACTION<br />REFLECTION ON ACTION<br />STUDENT<br />Peer learning in groups<br />Teamwork peer assessment<br />Group assessment<br />Seminars<br />“master classes”<br />Interviews<br />ACTION<br />ACTION<br />REFLECTION ON ACTION<br />REFLECTION ON ACTION<br />PEERS<br />EXPERTS<br />
  68. 68. Conference Call<br />Craig Salter introduces the company<br />
  69. 69. Conference Call<br />Students ask the client questions<br />
  70. 70. Conference Call<br />Students ask the client questions<br />
  71. 71. Assessment<br />1. Company Turnaround Report<br />2. Retail “best practice” presentation (to client)<br />3. Short Answer Tests (email)<br />4. Teamwork Peer Assessment<br />
  72. 72. Leaderboard<br />
  73. 73. Leaderboard<br />
  74. 74. Leaderboard<br />
  75. 75. Leaderboard<br />What do points mean?<br />
  76. 76. Evaluation<br />
  77. 77. Immersed Students<br />Hi Simon,<br />Just a quick confirmation of receipt & to say I am really looking forward to getting my teeth stuck into this project.<br />Kind regards<br />OmidNikroo<br />
  78. 78. Immersed Students<br />Simon,<br />Great, yes I got in fine, and saw that David already had some points up, which has spurred me on to getting my answers in asap. I am working on them now and they should be with you shortly.<br />There's no greater motivation than a bit of competition! (great idea with the leader board by the way, I know that a some of the other student have really been encouraged to work even harder to try and finish on top).<br />Regards<br />
  79. 79. Immersed Students<br />Hi Simon,<br />I was just wondering if it would be possible at this stage for our group to get into contact with Mr. Salter directly. We just wanted to ask him a few more questions about the business in general so we can get a little more of an idea about the business as a whole. If we could get an email address or a telephone number that would be great, if not we'd be more than happy to direct our questions through you.<br />All the best,<br />Charlie Nicholls<br />PUTP<br />Phoenix UK Ltd.<br />+44 7889 141074<br /><br />
  80. 80. Immersed Students<br />
  81. 81. Immersed Students<br />Hello Barry,<br /> <br />Firstly I would like to state that the following only applies if agreed upon by Craig himself, hence his inclusion in this email.<br /> <br />Following my recommendation to Christine about the business workshop last week, I promised to keep an eye out for further opportunities that could benefit yourselves.<br />A great opportunity has been presented by Porthampton City Council in which they have been presented with a £300,000 grant to invest into the local industry and businesses such as yourself.<br />I have linked the article from the Council website (HERE) for your further perusal. There is plenty of time before the deadline for applications, but it is always beneficial to be prompt with showing interest in these offers as they do not come about often.<br />
  82. 82. Focus Group<br />What are your feelings for Salter & Son?<br />“We cared about them – they mattered to us”<br />When you were communicating with the characters, how did you feel?<br />They were client - sympathy for redundancy - angry with Craig - Barry was too stupid<br />(disagreement in group) - felt need to be sensitive about accusations – some students were defending the characters as if they were real people!<br />
  83. 83. Focus Group<br />Did your engagement with the unit change over the 12 week period?<br />Peer assessment had an impact of increased involvement later<br />Work load of other courses impacted later involvement (felt this courses was more evenly<br />distributed)<br />
  84. 84. Focus Group<br />What were the unit highlights – what did you enjoy most?<br />Team work - (early start was a low) - interactivity & detail (esp. conference call) - lecture in<br />bed!<br />
  85. 85. Focus Group<br />What was the least enjoyable part of the unit?<br />Email questions got a bit repetitive and predictable (maybe) - more randomness?<br />
  86. 86. Focus Group<br />Is the leaderboard a good idea?<br />yeah yeahyeah!!<br />Peer assessment component was good - prize maybe less important<br />
  87. 87. Unit Assessment<br />
  88. 88. Unit Assessment<br />The best part of the unit was: <br /><ul><li> The incentive as well as "roleplaying" in the virtual environment
  89. 89. Working with Salter and Sons
  90. 90. Leaderboard & interactivity
  91. 91. Understanding and discovering the work that goes into turning a business around.
  92. 92. The interactivity Roleplaying/hypothetical company
  93. 93. Seeing what it is like consulting a business </li></li></ul><li>Unit Assessment<br />One aspect/aspects that I had problems with: <br /><ul><li> Excessive paperwork
  94. 94. Arriving on time
  95. 95. Trying to keep up with responding to emails </li></li></ul><li>Unit Assessment<br />General comments:<br /><ul><li> Was good fun
  96. 96. Very well set-up and executed unit
  97. 97. Simon you are a good teacher
  98. 98. V. Good :-)
  99. 99. Thought it was a fun and creative way of getting us to take initiative
  100. 100. Enjoyed the originality of the unit </li></li></ul><li>EHGI Questionnaires <br />Sarah Cooper - Edinburgh<br />Tony Ward - York<br />
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  102. 102. "Tell me and I will forget; show me and I may remember;<br />involve me and I will understand"<br />Confucius<br />
  103. 103. Contact me<br />Twitter: @pompeysie<br />Blog:<br />Email:<br />Image modified from<br />
  104. 104. References<br />McGonigal, J. (2003) A Real Little Game: The Performance of Belief in Pervasive Play. Retrieved August 31st 2010, from<br />Moseley, A. (2008). An alternative reality for Higher Education? Lessons to be learned from online reality games. Paper presented at ALT-C 2008, Leeds, UK.<br />Shaffer, D. (2005) Epistemic Games. Retrieved 31st August 2010, from<br />Wirth, W., hartmann, T., Bocking, S., Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., Holger, S., Saari, T., Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Gouveia, F., Biocca, F., Sacau, A. Jancke, L., Baumgartner, T., & Jancke, P. (2010). A Process Model for the Formation of Spatial Presence Experiences. Media Psychology, 9, 493-525.<br />Image modified from<br />