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  1. 1. 5 조 송정환
  2. 2. 1. Introduction - Dental caries : multi-factorial, highly transmissible disease of dental tissues - Fluoride : identified as one of the protective factors - constant presence of low levels of fluoride in the mouth inhibits de-mineralization and enhance re-mineralization - Fluoridation of milk is recommended where fluoride conc. in drinking water is suboptimal - Fluoridated milk provided children experienced significantly less dental caries
  3. 3. * Object of this study - Investigating whether increase 1) The concentration of fluoride in milk 2) The volume of fluoridated milk alters re-mineralizing efficacy* Hypothesis - increasing the fluoride conc. and volume of fluoridated milk would increase its remineralization efficacy
  4. 4. 2. Materials and method 2.1 Preparation of de-mineralizing and re-remineralizing sln. 1) De-mineralizing sln. : 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM NaH2PO4, 0.15M KCl, pH 4.4 2) Re-mineralizing sln. : 1.5 mM CaCl2, 0.9 mM NaH2PO4, 0.15 M KCl at pH 7.0 3) F- milk : Milk was mixed with 100 ppm and 500 ppm F- sln. to make 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 250 ppm fluoridated milk sln.
  5. 5. 2.2 Lesion formation 1) Extracted 3rd molar were cleaned 2) The teeth were painted with acid resistant nail varnish leaving window on the buccal and/or lingual surface 3) Immersed in de-mineralizing sln. (10 ml/tooth) for 96hr to produce artificial lesion 4) sectioned longitudinally to produce 100-150 ㎛thickness 5) 375 sections were selected 6) Polarized light microscopy (PLM) and micro-radiography (MRG) were used to analyse the lesion depth andmineral content of the lesion
  6. 6. 2.3 The pH cycling model 1) The section were placed in the pH cycling system for 20 days at room temp. 2) Each cycle involved 4h of demineralzation, 6 h of fluoride milk treatment followed by 14 h of remineralization
  7. 7. 2.4 Evaluation technique 2.4.1. Polarizing light microscopy - evaluate the body of the lesion in the enamel sample 2.4.2. Microradiography - X-ray - changes in mineral content and lesion depth by using computer software
  8. 8. 3. Results 1) No statistically significant difference amongst pre-treatment lesion depth between the groups 2) The post-treatment lesion depths differed significantly between groups : 15.53 % reduction ~ 43.71 % increase
  9. 9. 3) All test groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the lesion depth after treatment with fluoridated milk4) Significant increase in the lesion depths for tests with plain milk and DI water5) No significant difference in percentage of lesion depth reduction when F- milk was doubled6) Significant relationship between [F-] and lesion depth change and no significant relationship with volume
  10. 10. 7) ΔZ values for all test groups : statistically lowered after treatment with fluoridated milk8) Significant increase in ΔZ for Plain milk and DI water
  11. 11. 9) PLM photomicrographs - treatment groups showed a decrease in lesion depth
  12. 12. 10) Microradiographs - changes of mineral content after pH cycling
  13. 13. 4. Discussion 1) The caries protective effect of fluoride in milk on early enamel carious lesion was shown by significant decrease in the lesion depth and ΔZ values 2) When volume was doubled, there was no significant differences on overall remineralization efficacy
  14. 14. 5. Conclusion 1) Fluoridated milk appears to have a protective effective on early enamel carious lesion 2) 2.5 ppm fluoride milk provided similar remineralization potential to that of higher fluoride conc. in milk 3) Increasing the volume of fluoridated milk has little effect on its remineralizing efficacy