Trinity Presentation 3rd Century


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Trinity Presentation 3rd Century

  1. 1. rd 3 Century Doctrine from Schismatics quot;I know only one God, Jesus Christ, and apart from Him no other who was born or could suffer… It was not the Father who died but the Son.“ – Bishop Zephyrinus or Rome
  2. 2. Hermeneutics Alexandria Antioch Allegorical Literal •Plain, Historical •Plain Sense United the Two •Typological Sense Testaments •Spiritual Sense •Typological Only for the History was God’s Spiritual plan unfolding
  3. 3. School at Alexandria Pantaenus (d. ca. 200) Established catechetical school in 180 Former Stoic philosopher who converted Sought to reconcile faith and philosophy Pressed for the conversion of philosophers to Christianity No works remain, only quotes by Clement and later historians. Went to India as a missionary preacher
  4. 4. Clement of Alexandria 150-211/216 •Divided Christians into two categories •Simple – unlearned, uneducated, physical •Relied on faith and a literal meaning •Gnostic – educated, spiritual, mystic •Sought ‘deeper’ meanings •Must seek philosophical understanding of the bible •Referred to Plato as divine, nearly inspired •Taught Christian universalism •Doctrine later declared erroneous by Rome (1748) •Doctrine of God, Logos and Sprit •God is unchangeable (impassible) •Logos and Spirit are created beings •Divided the Logos-Son from the Logos within God •Made the Logos-Son a creature •Christ gave gnosis as the cure to sin
  5. 5. Origen Excepted Clement’s division of Christians and universalism Taught that even demons would be reunited with God Platonic in thinking that the spirits imprisoned in the body will be purified by fire Sought symbolic truths in every letter of the Scriptures Used the exegesis of Heracleon (Valentinus) on John Believed that the word of God was an organic Logos Taught a hierarchal structure of the Trinity Taught three separate hypostases One only in harmony of wills (symphonia) God was a perfect unity God is unknowable, transcendent Logos was one of many emanations of the Father Borrowed Plato’s Logos as rational principle The Son is divine, only as He participates in the Father An image of first rank Spirit proceeds from the Son Has power in the Saints alone Divine, but not Deity. First Textual Critic for New Testament and Septuagint Believed that some of the Pauline Corpus was pseudonymous
  6. 6. Schism in Rome 199-235 •Zephyrinus, Bishop of Rome, 199-217 •Recognized by Rome as carrying the Tradition of the Church •Believed in the unity of the Godhead and the Godhead of Jesus Christ •Believed in one God, Jesus Christ •Denied Patripassianism in that the Son died, not the Father •Regarded the rising Logos doctrine as ditheism •Protected Sabellius •His actual views were recorded by opponents •Believed that God revealed Himself in different modes, or manifestations •Modern Scholarship aligns Sabellius with Irenaeus •God was one Person •Sabellianism lasted until 5th century in Rome and Asia Minor
  7. 7. •Hippolytus, Schismatic ‘Antipope’ •Wrote against Noetus as means to Zephyrinus •Believed that the Father died because the Son was the Father •Called Christ the one God •Smyrna Church condemned Noetus in 180 •Noetus’ disciple, Cleomenes, influenced Zephyrinus •Declared Heraclitus as the progenitor of all heresies •Doctrine of the Godhead •Three personages •The Father •First writer to apply parental rule to Father •Son •Preincarnate Word •Incarnate Son •Spirit •Reconciled with Rome before his death in 236
  8. 8. Montanism •Montanism •Began early 2nd Century •Founded in Hierapolis (Papias) •Focused on the holy Spirit •Spirit was just now being given to the Church •Montanus claimed to be the Word of God •Claimed new revelations •The belief that the prophecies of the Montanists superseded and fulfilled the doctrines proclaimed by the Apostles •Died out in 8th century •Sect of Sabellian-Montantists existed in 5th century Rome
  9. 9. Schism from Africa •Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (Tertullian) •Orthodox until 200 then Montanist (Schism) •Never reconciled with Rome •Not mentioned in Nicene Debates •Had a strong distaste of Greek Philosophy •Introduced new theology into the church during Montanist phase •Trinity •tres Personae, una Substantia •Damasus, Bishop of Rome (366-384) redefined statement to reflect Nicene formula •Consubstantia (One Person) •God is indivisible, distinct only in manifestation •Word (Reason) was always with the Father •Generation from Eternity •Preincarnate Word •Incarnate Son •Spirit proceeded from the Son
  10. 10. •Praxeas •Unknown •Believed to be associated with Rome •Some Scholars believe him to be Irenaeus others Callistus, Bishop of Rome •Name found as a corrector of Noetus •Opposed by Tertullian •Prevented Rome from falling to the ‘New Prophecy.’ •Christ was the Father incarnate, Jesus died only in His humanity as the Son •Jesus was the name of the flesh; Christ was the divine
  11. 11. Tertullian’s Formula quot;tres Personae, una Substantia“ – Three Persons, One Substance Latin Greek Substantia Hypostasis (Person) (Person) Personae Prosopon (Face) (Face) For the Father is the entire substantia, but the Son is a derivation and portion of the whole. Against Praxeas 9
  12. 12. Cyprian of Carthage •Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage •Defended against Rome’s ascendency to power •Accused Stephen of breaking tradition and assuming power •Fault against Roman Baptism •Rome baptized in the Name of Jesus Christ •Believed that the Church was one single unit •No Salvation outside the church •Church united through the Bishops •Refused Doctrinal Development
  13. 13. Dyo-Dionysius Dionysius of Rome ,Grecian by birth, was Pope Dionysius of Alexandria, named elected bishop in 259, after the martyrdom of 'the Great', was the Pope of Sixtus II in 258. The office had been vacant Alexandria from 248 until his death on for nearly a year due to difficulty in electing a November 17, 265 after seventeen new bishop during the violent persecution years as a bishop. He was the first which Christians faced. When the persecution Pope to have the title quot;the Greatquot; had begun to subside, Dionysius was raised to attached to his name (before a Bishop the office of Bishop of Rome. Emperor of Rome even). We have information Valerian I, who had led the persecution, was on Dionysius because during his captured and killed by the King of Persia in lifetime, Dionysius wrote many 260. The new emperor, Gallienus, issued an correspondence letters. Only one edict of toleration, bringing the persecution original letter survives to this day, the of Christians to an end and giving the Church remaining letters are found re-written legal status. On the protest of some of the in the works of Eusebius. faithful at Alexandria, he demanded from the bishop of Alexandria, also called Dionysius, explanations concerning his doctrine regarding the relation of God to the Logos, which was satisfied.
  14. 14. D. Of Rome to D. of Alexandria •“Next, I may reasonably turn to those who divide and cut to pieces and destroy that most sacred doctrine of the Church of God, the Divine Monarchy, making it as it were three powers and separated substances (hypostaseis) and three deities. I am told that some among you who are catechists and teachers of the Divine Word, take the lead in this tenet, who are diametrically opposed, so to speak, to Sabellius’s opinions; for he blasphemously says that the Son is the Father, and the Father the Son, but they in some sort preach three Gods, as dividing the sacred Monad into three substances (hypostaseis) foreign to each other and utterly separate. •For it is the doctrine of the presumptuous Marcion, to sever and divide the Divine Monarchy into three origins,—a devil’s teaching, not that of Christ’s true disciples and lovers of the Saviour’s lessons. •For if He came to be Son, once He was not; but He was always, if (that is) He be in the Father, as He says Himself, and if the Christ be Word and Wisdom and Power (which, as ye know, divine Scripture says), and these attributes be powers of God. •Neither then may we divide into three Godheads the wonderful and divine Monad
  15. 15. Paul of Samosata •Paul of Samosata (200-275) •Godhead •Jesus was a mere man, but became God after baptism •Man-become-God by the Logos •Removed in 269 by a synod of Antioch •Reinstalled by the Queen of Syria