Day4 am resourcing-training_and_development[1]

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Day4 am resourcing-training_and_development[1]

  1. 1. Resourcing (Recruitment) Resourcing Planning Contract of EmploymentOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 1
  2. 2. Planning for Human Resources  Vision of the organisation  Where are we now? – current resources  Where do we want to go? – future needs  How will we get there? – recruit and train  Depends on the supply and demand of people  Appropriate skills and cultural approachOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 2
  3. 3. •Technology •Economics •Materials •Market •Systems •Availability of Capital •Methods of working HR/ Manpower Planning “The process of determining a company‟s future requirements for people of different categories of skill knowledge and hence the identification of the need for recruitment training of redundancy” •Monetary policy •Population trends •Legislation •Education •Ecology •Social mobility •Political •SocialOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 3
  4. 4. Employee Profile Plan, where are we now?  As part of planning process, analyse the profile  Age  Gender  Skills and qualifications  Part time or full  Identify the risks and characteristics  Turnover analysis  Particular skill shortagesOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 4
  5. 5. Demographic Changes – UK Example  Skill shortage  Especially managers, professional and technical  Ageing work force over last 10 years  2.3 million more aged 25 to 64  1.3 million fewer aged below 25  Fewer male employees available  An opportunity to recruit more women  A resource and economic benefitOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 5
  6. 6. Recruiting People  In addition to traditional methods  Use outsourcing services, the Internet and conduct telephone interviews  What will be the impact of new processes and new technology?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting more women?OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 6
  7. 7. Outsourcing  Some companies use an external service  Recruitment and interview service  Advice on pay, pay structures and rewards  Implementation of employee motivation schemes  Assessment service and training needs analysis  Management of training and coaching  Departing employees supportOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 7
  8. 8. Resource Policy  Qualification or culture driven  Internal promotion versus external recruitment  Job specification versus person specification  Specific or broad skills  Cost cutting by reducing workforce  Succession planning  Who and how to selectOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 8
  9. 9. Variables of Job Design Job Rotation Job Enrichment Job EnlargementAutonomousworking groupsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 9
  10. 10. Job Design (2) Mass Production Task Monotony Low Morale specialisation and Boredom and Output Lean Production Job rotation & Variety Increased Morale Enlargement and OutputOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 10
  11. 11. Who should write the JD? The Job Holder The Line Manager The Job Analyst Knows the job well Knows the job well (as Knows the organisational but may not have well as the job holder?) context (culture and other requisite writing jobs) skills May not correctly Able to assess the Knows requirements of identify the relative relative importance of job descriptions for importance of tasks tasks with regard to various uses organisational objectives May wish to inflate May not have requisite Professional expertise in the importance of writing skills or time gathering information and the post drafting employment documentationOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 11
  12. 12. Person Specifications Rodger’s 7 Point Fraser’s 5-fold Foot & Hook (2006) Plan (1952) Framework (1978)  Physical make-up  Impact on others  Physical characteristics  Attainments  Qualifications & experience  Temperament  Qualification &  General intelligence  Emotional adjustment experience  Special aptitudes  Motivation  General intelligence  Interests  Innate abilities  Special aptitudes  Disposition  Interests  Circumstances  CircumstancesOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 12
  13. 13. The Recruitment Process Job analysis Job description Job specification Review the job Request for Advertisement(s) references Completed application and reports Forms from applicants Re–advertise References Short list of candidates Preparation for interview Medical report Selection interview Special tests Selection Re–offer Induction / training Offer Candidate accepts Candidate rejectsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 13
  14. 14. Selection Interviews: Interviewer Errors  Halo effect  Making snap decisions  Hiring in one‟s own image  Stereotyping  Making assumptions  Gathering insufficient or irrelevant information  Contrast effectOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 14
  15. 15. Eliminating Interviewer Errors  Structure interviews  to gather sufficient information  More than one interviewer  Trained interviewers  Allow sufficient time for interviewsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 15
  16. 16. Characteristics of Psychological Tests  Professionally developed & checked for reliability and validity  Administered & scored in a standardised manner  Test maximum performance and habitual performance  Scores can be compared to norms for relevant populationsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 16
  17. 17. Administrative Procedures The successful candidate:  Offer the position to the successful candidate.  Secure his or her acceptance of the position.  Agree the details of the appointment.  Confirm the details in writing.  Check essential qualifications.  Initiate new employee processes.OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 17
  18. 18. Terms of Employment A contract of employment exists, even if there is no actual written agreement  Express, written agreement  Implied, verbal agreement  Subject to Working Time RegulationsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 18
  19. 19. Contracts of Employment UK Example  A contract is an agreement between two parties enforceable by law, express or implied  Subject to statutory law  Must be reasonable  Subject to collective agreements or staff handbooks  Must give notice of any changes  Require formal protest if not agreedOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 19
  20. 20. Contents of Written Statement UK  Employers name and  Rules about absence, date employment began illness and sick pay  Your name, job title and  Length of notice from you place of work, or a job and from your employer description  Collective agreements  Your pay and when paid  Pension scheme details  Hours and place of work  Disciplinary rules  Holidays and pay  Grievance proceduresOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 20
  21. 21. Typical Staff Handbook Contents  Conduct, disciplinary rules and grievance  Equal opportunities policy  Performance review procedure  Sickness and absence and holiday  Disability discrimination policy  Family friendly policies  Health and safety statement and policy  E-mail and Internet policyOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 21
  22. 22. Retention Problems – UK Example  Recruitment and retention remain major UK challenges  Two thirds of employers have encountered problems in filling vacancies  Difficulties in retaining staff  80 percent of organisations with retention problems have been searching for ways in controlling itOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 22
  23. 23. Ending Employment – UK Example  Under the terms of the contract of employment, an employee may leave the company and the employer may terminate employment for:  Lack of capability or qualifications  Misconduct  Redundancy  Statutory bar  Some substantial reason, such as a security riskOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 23
  24. 24. Discrimination – UK Example  Unlawful discrimination is unethical, illegal and it can be very expensive  Disability Discrimination Act  Equal Pay Act  Race Relations Act  Sex Discrimination Act  Employment Equality (Age) RegulationsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 24
  25. 25. HR Development Training and Development Learning ApproachesOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 25
  26. 26. Learning and Development Meaning  Learning is the process by which a person constructs new knowledge, skills & capabilities  Learning & development imply a combination of the following:  Education  Training  Learning  Application of cultural philosophy in pursuit of people‟s developmentOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 26
  27. 27. Skill Shortage Survey EMTA Engineering and Marine Training Authority survey of 4,200 companies 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 al ft er t s en ra le ic t Sa pu m hn C e om ec ag T C an MOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 27
  28. 28. Skill Shortages Existing work force plan Restructure groups and teams Needs analysis for training and learning Implementation, step-by-step with „early adopters‟ (See next slide) New recruits induction into an „early adopter team‟  On-going culture Continuous improvementOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 28
  29. 29. Training and Learning  Contributes to cultural development  Enhances current skill levels  Training  Concerned with job-specific skills or behaviours  Investors in People (IIP)  Learning  Something we do continuously  Mostly unstructured and unconsciousOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 29
  30. 30. Education and Philosophy  Educare (Latin verb, educãre) - to bring out Gain and retain intellectual skills ie; to understand concepts and how they may be transferred into a wide range of contexts Outcomes depend on the starting point People learn different things from the same educational experience  Philosophy (paradigm) Search for understanding values Concepts of fundamental beliefsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 30
  31. 31. Development  A conscious efforts to control what we learn and how we learn „We are able to develop people in such a way as to change most of their values and beliefs about the way they behave and work together‟ Masaaki Imai Kaizen: The Key to Japans Competitive SuccessOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 31
  32. 32. Learning Model Pedler et al Facts you know Areas of ignorance you can you can do use something about CONSCIOUS Facts you know Facts you know you you dont know A B know KNOWLEDGE IGNORANCE Facts you know Facts you C D but you dont dont know know you know you dont know UNCONSCIOUS Facts you have Areas of ignorance but could you need to use more discoverOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 32
  33. 33. The Basic Learning Cycle Kolb Concrete Experiences Testing implications Observations of concepts in new and situations reflections Formation of abstract concepts and generalisationsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 33
  34. 34. Forms of Learning  Adaptive learning  Learning from the past Reflecting on what has happened Analysing  Generative learning  Options for the future New ways of looking at the world A creative approachOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 34
  35. 35. Learning Approaches  Learning cycle for adults is different from children‟s learning at school  Adult learning based on personal experience  Learning episodes in short, separate periods  Individual support from coaching and mentoring is appropriateOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 35
  36. 36. Small Group Activities (SGA)  SGA includes shop floor groups formed by five or six people  Quality improvement  Cost reduction  Total productive maintenance  Production process improvement  Recreational and social enhancementsOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 36
  37. 37. Computer and E-Learning  Information systems can be used to great advantage to enable development and empowerment but many organisations find it difficult to implement  A tool for training at „off-peak‟ times  Shared information and knowledge  Internal and external customers communication  Source of shared knowledge from the InternetOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 37
  38. 38. Barriers to Learning  Training is seen as a cost and not an investment  Development is not possible without learning  Attitude of, „we want payback, and soon‟  Lack of strategic thinking  Development is an ingredient of performance  Fear and suspicion of change  Difficulty of change affects managers and all other people in the organisationOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 38
  39. 39. The Managers Role in Learning Senge  Provide creative tension  i.e. challenging targets  Act as a designer  Context of the objectives  Processes for improvement  Manager as teacher  A guide, coach and mentor  Provide a good role modelOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 39
  40. 40. A Learning Organisation  Encourages members to learn and develop to their full potential by „learning to learn‟  Extends this learning culture to customers, suppliers and other stake holders  Makes human resource development strategy central to business policy  Is where learning and working are synonymousOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 40
  41. 41. Loops of Learning Argyris and Schon  What we do  Single Loop Learning What we already do Rules to do things better  Double Loop Learning Developing and asking why?  Triple Loop Learning Strategic purposeOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 41
  42. 42. Pedagogy vs. Andragogy Learners Knowles (1990)  Pedagogy: The process of teaching children  Andragogy: The process for teaching adults.  Experience acquired by adults over the years is an asset for learning Consideration Pedagogy learners Andragogy learners The learner Dependent personality Increasing self-reliant Role of learner’s To be built on Resource for learning experience Readiness to learn Determined by age Developed from life tasks Orientation Subject oriented Task or problem-centred Motivation By external rewards Internal incentives/ curiosityOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 42
  43. 43. Management Training  An area of HRM that deals with what managers know and how they use what they know  The major distinguishing feature between high & low growth firms is the education, training & experience of senior managers in people management - MacRae (1991)OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 43
  44. 44. Training Techniques Technique Suitability Disadvantages Lecture Suitable when a large amount of Lack of participation from the information needs to be given to a large audience. number of people at the same time. Role Play A small group acts out real work The role play may not be taken situation. seriously or trainees are too nervous to perform the role. Group Useful when there are varying opinions Trainees may wander too far Discussion about issue, or a range of ways in which from the subject. a situation could be handled.OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 44
  45. 45. Training Techniques & Suitability (2) Technique Suitability Disadvantages Video/Film Used to show a real situation. Little involvement from the audience. Project Setting a task to show case The project has to be about trainees creativity/initiative. something that will interest the trainees. Case Study A case study provides the It may sometimes seem easy & opportunity to examine a trainees may not fully appreciate that situation in detail yet be in real-life situation there may be removed from the pressure of more complex issues to take into the real work situation. accountOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 45
  46. 46. Training Techniques & Suitability (3) Technique Suitability Disadvantages Computer Allows trainee to work at their own The tool might not be user- pace through a series of exercises friendly. -based using computerised training tool. Guided A series of recommended reading. Trainee may not be encouraged to research further. reading In-tray Trainees are given a series of files, The content of the in-tray may Exercise memos &letters similar to real work not be realistic. situation and they need to decide on the appropriate action to take.OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 46
  47. 47. Systematic Training Model Identify learning needs Plan training programmes Techniques Facilities Locations Trainers Implement training Evaluate trainingOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 47
  48. 48. Training Needs Analysis (TNA)  An effective way to identify any gap between the skills the business needs & those possessed by employees.  It is the process of data collection about:  Existing employees‟ capabilities  The organisational demands for skills,  The analysis of the implications for changes in capability of new & changed roles.  The challenge is to obtain complete & accurate TNA data – 5W & 1HOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 48
  49. 49. Training Needs Analysis A thorough training needs analysis exercise comprises 6 types of analyses. 1. Context - Analysis of the business needs; 2. User - Analysis of potential participants & trainers involved in the process; 3. Work - Analysis of the tasks being performed; 4. Content - Analysis of documents, laws, procedures used on the job; 5. Suitability - Analysis of whether training is the solution; 6. Cost-benefit - Analysis of the ROI of training. http://www.trainingneedsanalysis.co.uk/articles/tna_boradview.htmOB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 49
  50. 50. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) The systematic maintenance, improvement & broadening of knowledge & skill & the development of personal qualities necessary for the execution of professional & technical duties throughout the practitioner‟s working life - (ARB, 2005).OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 50
  51. 51. Employees & CPD  Employees are responsible for controlling & managing their own development.  Employees should decide for themselves their own learning needs & how to fulfil them  Learning targets should be clearly articulated & should reflect the needs of employers as well as the employees needs.  Learning is most effective when it is acknowledged as an integral part of all work activity rather than an additional burden - CIPD (2000)OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 51
  52. 52. The Need for CPD The reasons why employees engage with CPD include the need to:  Keep up to date („maintenance‟),  Remain competent & valued organisational members („survival‟),  Enhance labour market mobility Sadler-Smith et al (2000)OB & HRM Session 05-am, Resourcing, Training and Development, slide 52

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