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Reações Químicas

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Reações Químicas

  1. 2. REAÇÕES DO COTIDIANO 1 reação de oxidação de uma maça cortada 2 azedamento do vinho 3 fotossínteses 4 automóveis em movimento 5 movimentação dos músculos 6 queima da vela 7 incêndios 8 acender o fogo 9 fermentação da massa do pão 10 aparecimento da ferrugem.
  2. 3. EXEMPLOS <ul><li>São transformações que ocorrem entre substâncias, com o surgimento de novos produtos. </li></ul><ul><li>Queima de uma vela </li></ul><ul><li>Combustão de gasolina </li></ul><ul><li>Chama de fogão </li></ul>
  3. 4. PRODUTO C Reagente A Reagente B
  4. 5. Algumas reações ocorrem somente sob determinadas circunstâncias: Algumas reações ocorrem somente sob determinadas circunstâncias: fornecimento de calor presença de luz ou eletricidade
  5. 6. As reações químicas costumam ocorrer acompanhadas de alguns efeitos que podem dar uma dica de que elas estão acontecendo. Vamos ver quais são estes efeitos? SAÍDA DE GASES FORMAÇÃO DE PRECIPITADO
  6. 7. MUDANÇA DE COR ALTERAÇÃO DE CALOR
  7. 8. REPRESENTAÇÕES DAS REAÇÕES <ul><li>São representadas graficamente por equações químicas: </li></ul><ul><li>Sinais que aparecem com freqüência: </li></ul><ul><li>>ou< { Indicam o sentido da reação. </li></ul><ul><li>Indica que houve precipitação (deposição no </li></ul><ul><li>fundo do recipiente) de substância produzida </li></ul><ul><li>na reação. </li></ul><ul><li>∆ Letra grega delta – indica que as substâncias foram aquecidas. </li></ul>
  8. 9. REPRESENTAÇÕES DAS REAÇÕES Indica que a reação ocorre para direita Indica que a reação ocorre para esquerda Indica que a reação ocorre nos dois sentidos > <
  9. 10. REPRESENTAÇÃO DAS REAÇÕES Indica que houve liberação de gás a seta é colocado a direita e/ou acima da substância 2H2O2  2H2O + O2
  10. 11. REAGENTES E PRODUTOS <ul><li>2NaBr + Cl 2 ---> 2NaCl + Br 2 </li></ul><ul><li>REAGENTES PRODUTO </li></ul><ul><li>P 4 + 5 O 2 ==> 2 P 2 O 5 </li></ul><ul><li>8 H 2 S + 8 Cl 2 ==> S 8 + 16 HCl </li></ul>
  11. 12. Estas reações são também conhecidas como reações de composição ou de adição.Neste tipo de reação um único composto é obtido. SÍNTESE Duas substâncias ( simples ou compostas) forma uma substância composta de estrutura mais complexa
  12. 13. REAÇÕES DE SÍNTESE Fe + S -> Fe S 2H 2 + O 2 -> 2 H 2 O A H 2 + Cl 2 -> 2 HCl 2 Hg + O 2 -> 2HgO A B AB +
  13. 14. DECOMPOSIÇÃO OU ANÁLISE Este tipo de reação é o inverso da anterior (composição), ou seja, ocorrem quando apartir de um único composto são obtidos outros compostos Uma substância composta, submetida à ação de um agente externo (calor, eletricidade, luz, ...), se decompõe em outras substâncias de estrutura mais simples que ela.
  14. 15. REAÇÕES DE DECOMPOSIÇÃO A e B podem ser substâncias simples ou compostas AB A B + 2H 2 O 2 ----> 2H 2 O + O 2
  15. 16. REACÕES DE DUPLA TROCA <ul><li>AB + CD-  AC+ BD </li></ul><ul><li>NaOH + HCl ---  NaCl +H2O </li></ul>
  16. 17. REAÇÕES DE SIMPLES TROCA 2NaBr + Br 2 2NaCl + Br 2 +  AB C AC B +
  17. 18. EXERCICIO <ul><li>1.A reação abaixo pode ser classificada como: </li></ul><ul><li>P 4 + 5 O 2 ==> 2 P 2 O 5 </li></ul><ul><li>a) Síntese. b) Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul><ul><li>2.A reação abaixo pode ser classificada como: </li></ul><ul><li>8 H 2 S + 8 Cl 2 ==> S 8 + 16 HCl </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul><ul><li>3.A reação abaixo pode ser classificada como: </li></ul><ul><li>6 H 3 BO 3 ==> H 4 B 6 O 11 + 7 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul>
  18. 19. EXERCÍCIO <ul><li>3 Ca + 2 AlCl 3 ==> 3 CaCl 2 + 2 Al </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul><ul><li>2 N 2 + O 2 ==> 2 N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul><ul><li>2 Au 2 O 3 ==> 4 Au + 3 O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul><ul><li>3 Ca + 2 AlCl 3 ==> 3 CaCl 2 + 2 Al </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul><ul><li>3 BaCl 2 + Al2(SO 4 ) 3 ==> 3 BaSO 4 + 2 AlCl 3 </li></ul><ul><li>a)Síntese. b)Decomposição. c)Simples troca. d)Dupla troca </li></ul>

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