The most outstanding British Painters of the XVIII – XIX centuries


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The most outstanding British Painters of the XVIII – XIX centuries

  1. 1. The most outstanding British Painters of the XVIII – XIX centuries
  2. 2. <ul><li>The history of British painting is </li></ul><ul><li>intimately linked with the broader </li></ul><ul><li>traditions of European painting. German, </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch, and Flemish artists. </li></ul><ul><li>British painters found inspiration and </li></ul><ul><li>guidance from their journeys abroad, </li></ul><ul><li>in Italy especially. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Anthony Van Dyck is generally considered </li></ul><ul><li>to be the father of the English portrait school </li></ul><ul><li>who sat before it an aristocratic ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Holbein, Rubens, Van Dyck and other eminent </li></ul><ul><li>foreign portraitists imparted an aura of perfection </li></ul><ul><li>even to the most insipid of their sitters. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Beginning with the early eighteenth century, English artists began to develop their own styles in portraiture and allegorical painting. </li></ul><ul><li>For rather more than a century England was to see a brilliant succession of geniuses: William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, William Turner. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>William Hogarth </li></ul><ul><li>(1697 – 1764) </li></ul><ul><li>one of the greatest English artists of the XVIIIth century and a man of remarkably individual character and thought </li></ul><ul><li>as a boy was apprenticed to a silver plate </li></ul><ul><li>engraver, which had a considerable bearing </li></ul><ul><li>on his development </li></ul><ul><li>Hogarth excelled in portraiture, </li></ul><ul><li>conversation pieces, moralistic and dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>occasionally tried his hand at </li></ul><ul><li>mythological and historical painting </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>William Hogarth gave a comprehensive view of social life (both high and low) within the framework of moralistic and dramatic narrative </li></ul><ul><li>was a keen and critical observer of life </li></ul><ul><li>adapted the formality of the ceremonial portrait to a democratic level </li></ul><ul><li>found inspiration not in the art of the old masters but in life and nature and the London streets </li></ul>
  6. 6. Typical traits of creative work <ul><li>earth-bound scenes that teem with life </li></ul><ul><li>harmony of form and content </li></ul><ul><li>an element of satire </li></ul><ul><li>and caricature </li></ul><ul><li>exceptional capacity for </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic composition </li></ul><ul><li>harmony of form and content </li></ul><ul><li>freshness and vitality </li></ul><ul><li>swift brush work, broad and open </li></ul><ul><li>neglect of symmetry and </li></ul><ul><li>belief in intricacy of form (S-line) </li></ul><ul><li>brownish and reddish colour scheme with prevailing golden and greenish tones </li></ul>
  7. 7. Most famous canvases ‘ Marriage-a-la-Mode’(series) ‘The Portrait of Captain Coram’ ‘ A Harlot’s Progress’ ‘The Painter and his Pug (Self-Portrait)’ ‘ The Rake’s Progress’ Shrimp Girl’ ‘ Marriage-a-la-Mode 1743-45
  8. 8. <ul><li>Joshua Reynolds </li></ul><ul><li>(1723-1792) </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most outstanding British portraitists and an important influence on his contemporaries </li></ul><ul><li>painted portraits, group pictures </li></ul><ul><li>and historical themes </li></ul><ul><li>at 17 apprenticed to a portrait </li></ul><ul><li>painter </li></ul><ul><li>by 20 set himself up as a portraitist </li></ul><ul><li>among the local gentry </li></ul><ul><li>in 1768 became the first president </li></ul><ul><li>of the Royal Academy of Art and </li></ul><ul><li>was knighted </li></ul><ul><li>Reynolds ’s wide acclaim is the </li></ul><ul><li>product of his exceptionally strong </li></ul><ul><li>will and determination to succeed </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Joshua Reynolds departed from the traditional forms of ceremonial portraiture </li></ul><ul><li>conceived his portraits in terms of history-painting </li></ul><ul><li>his sitters are no longer static but caught between this movement and the next </li></ul><ul><li>pictorial inventions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Typical traits of creative work <ul><li>Reynolds learnt from the Old Masters but didn’t pastiche them, at the same time abandoned himself to inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>revealed a personal creative power </li></ul><ul><li>his sitters were socially prominent people </li></ul><ul><li>catching a convincing likeness was not his forte </li></ul><ul><li>expression of the characters is related to the type of the sitter </li></ul><ul><li>the portraits are composed in a decorative pattern and well organized in light and space arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>the usage of low-keyed tones (prevailing colours: brownish and reddish) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Most famous canvases ‘ Mrs Siddons as the Tragic Muse’ The Portrait of Admiral Keppel ’ ‘ The Portrait of Nelly O’Brien’ ‘Three Ladies Adorning the Term of Hymen’
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Thomas Gainsborough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1727-1788) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the most accomplished and the most influential English painter of the 18 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excelled in two distinct branches of art, portraiture and landscape, established unequaled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>success in combining the two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revealed his pencilling skills at the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age of 13 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trained under an engraver, later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>became associated with William </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hogarth and his school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1769 was invited to become one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the founding members of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Academy </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>combined the two genres of art: landscape painting and portraiture </li></ul><ul><li>achieved phenomenon of optics and spectroscopy </li></ul><ul><li>avoided artificiality, captured a transient impression of the sitters </li></ul>
  14. 14. Typical traits of creative work <ul><li>the sitters and the background merge into a single entity </li></ul><ul><li>an insight into womanhood – the woman’s painter </li></ul><ul><li>light feathery brush strokes and broken touches of pure colour </li></ul><ul><li>vibration of colours </li></ul><ul><li>flowing, curved and broken lines </li></ul><ul><li>linear rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>contrasts of light and shade </li></ul><ul><li>animation and mobility </li></ul><ul><li>cold colour scheme (prevailing colours: light blues and yellows) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Most famous canvases ‘ The Portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Andrews’ ‘ Mrs. Siddons’ ‘ Blue Boy’ ‘Harvest Waggon’ ‘ The Morning Walk’ ‘Two Daughters’
  16. 16. <ul><li>John Constable </li></ul><ul><li>(1776-1837) </li></ul><ul><li>one of the foremost landscapists in history </li></ul><ul><li>a son of a prosperous mill-owner </li></ul><ul><li>the countryside setting of his early </li></ul><ul><li>years had a far reaching effect on </li></ul><ul><li>Constable’s art </li></ul><ul><li>developed his own style in art but </li></ul><ul><li>fame was slow to come for there was </li></ul><ul><li>little market for landscapes at his time </li></ul><ul><li>elected to full membership of the </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Academy in 1829 </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>the first English artist who asked no lessons from the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>making preparatory sketches directly from nature for large canvases </li></ul><ul><li>rendering of the true and full impression of nature </li></ul><ul><li>perception of clouds, sunshine, trees and fields as vehicles for human emotions </li></ul>
  18. 18. Typical traits of creative work <ul><li>quick sketches setting down his first spontaneous and emotional impression </li></ul><ul><li>a realistic and truthful representation of nature </li></ul><ul><li>naturalistic approach to painting </li></ul><ul><li>broken touches of colour </li></ul><ul><li>undivided spots of paint </li></ul><ul><li>deliberate roughness of texture </li></ul><ul><li>usage of palette knife (Constable’s “snow”) </li></ul><ul><li>Usafe of pure and brilliant colours and including dark tones </li></ul><ul><li>colour scheme: warm reddish monochrome (background) and fresh blues and greens </li></ul>
  19. 19. Most famous canvases ‘ The Hay Wain’ 1825
  20. 20. ‘ The Leaping Horse’ 1825
  21. 21. <ul><li>William Turner </li></ul><ul><li>(1775-1851) </li></ul><ul><li>an English Romantic landscape and seascape painter, watercolourist and printmaker </li></ul><ul><li>Spent his childhood in a small town on </li></ul><ul><li>the banks of the River Thames </li></ul><ul><li>at the age of 10 became interested in </li></ul><ul><li>painting </li></ul><ul><li>Turner’s love of the sea was </li></ul><ul><li>fundamental in his creative work </li></ul><ul><li>William Turner entered the Royal </li></ul><ul><li>Academy of Art schools in 1789 and </li></ul><ul><li>was accepted into it a year later </li></ul><ul><li>was buried in St Paul's Cathedral next </li></ul><ul><li>to Sir Joshua Reynolds </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anticipated the Impressionists due to his investigations of light colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiments with interplay between dark and light, cold and warm </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Typical traits of creative work <ul><li>found inspiration in the subjects of shipwrecks, fires, natural catastrophes, and natural phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>treated ships as leaving beings </li></ul><ul><li>is vindicated as a draughtsman of human beings (portrayed the mood of the sea as it affected the experiences of man) . </li></ul><ul><li>painted slovenly (confused mass of daubs and streaks) </li></ul><ul><li>colour and light become the characters of his canvases </li></ul><ul><li>glorious combination of colours </li></ul><ul><li>interplay between cold and warm colours (greenish and reddish etc). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Most famous canvases ‘ The Fighting Temeraire’ ‘Rain, Steam and Speed’ ‘ Burning of the Houses of Parliament’ The Snow Storm’ The Fighting Temeraire 1839
  25. 25. Burning of the Houses of Parliament 1834
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>The two main glories of English art of the described period were portrait and landscape and in both directions it rose to supreme heights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most outstanding figures of this epoch of art development: William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough , John Constable and William Turner - have won universal acclaim and their masterpieces rank among the world’s finest creations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of them made a substantial contribution into British and world’ art and the works of every artist are marked by originality, unsurpassed artistic merits and peculiar traits of individual style. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>As for my personal preferences, the painter whose canvases captivated me at first sight and produced a long and lasting impression was John Constable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gorgeous ‘Hay Wain’ is my favourite British painting and I personally think that in this particular piece of art Constable’s mastery of producing a true and full impression of nature and faithful rendering of the ever-changing sky is shown to advantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The picture is brilliant in composition and has a spontaneous lyric charm, it delights the eye by its warm colour scheme, delicacy of tones and the atmosphere of serenity. </li></ul></ul>